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Topic: Chronological thinking 

Historical Understanding

 Standard 1.  Understands and knows how to analyze chronological relationships and patterns
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 1.Knows how to identify the beginning, middle, and end of historical stories, myths, and narratives
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that historical stories, myths, and narratives have a beginning
     2.Knows that historical stories, myths, and narratives have a middle
     3.Knows that historical stories, myths, and narratives have an end
     4.Knows how to identify the beginning of an historical story, myth, and narrative
     5.Knows how to identify the middle of an historical story, myth, and narrative
     6.Knows how to identify the ending of an historical story, myth, and narrative
   Benchmark 2.Knows how to develop picture time lines of their own lives or their family's history
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that a time line records significant events in chronological order
     2.Knows significant events in own life
     3.Knows when significant events in own life occurred relative to other events
     4.Knows significant events in family’s history
     5.Knows when significant events in family’s history occurred relative to other events
   Benchmark 3.Distinguishes among broad categories of historical time (e.g., long, long ago; long ago; yesterday; today; tomorrow)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that there are different categories of historical time
     2.Understands that "long ago" is a category of historical time
     3.Understands that "long, long ago" is a category of historical time
     4.Understands that "yesterday" is a category of historical time
     5.Understands that "today" is a category of historical time
     6.Understands that "tomorrow" is a category of historical time
     7.Understands the relative order of broad categories of historical time
   Benchmark 4.Understands calendar time in days, weeks, and months
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that a calendar is a method of measuring time
     2.Knows that one day contains twenty-four hours
     3.Knows that one week contains seven days
     4.Knows that one month contains four weeks
   Benchmark 5.Knows how to identify change and continuity in his or her own life
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how to identify change in his or her own life
     2.Knows how to identify continuity in his or her own life
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands calendar time in years, decades, and centuries
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that a year contains twelve months
     2.Knows that a decade contains ten years
     3.Knows that a century contains one hundred years
   Benchmark 2.Knows how to construct time lines in significant historical developments that mark at evenly spaced intervals the years, decades, and centuries
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how to construct time lines in significant historical developments that mark the years at evenly spaced intervals
     2.Knows how to construct time lines in significant historical developments that mark the decades at evenly spaced intervals
     3.Knows how to construct time lines in significant historical developments that mark the centuries at evenly spaced intervals
   Benchmark 3.Knows how to interpret data presented in time lines (e.g., identify the time at which events occurred; the sequence in which events developed; what else was occurring at the time)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how to identify on a time line the time at which an event occurred
     2.Knows how to ascertain from a time line the sequence in which events developed
     3.Knows how to ascertain from a time line what else was occurring at the time of the event in question
   Benchmark 4.Knows how to identify patterns of change and continuity in the history of the community, state, and nation, and in the lives of people of various cultures from times long ago until today
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how to identify patterns of change and continuity in the community’s history
     2.Knows how to identify patterns of change and continuity in the state’s history
     3.Knows how to identify patterns of change and continuity in the nation’s history
     4.Knows how to identify patterns of change and continuity in the lives of people in diverse cultures over time
   Benchmark 5.Distinguishes between past, present, and future time
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the concept of the past
     2.Understands the concept of the present
     3.Understands the concept of the future
     4.Knows the relative order of past, present, and future time
   Benchmark 6.Understands the broadly defined eras of state and local historical events
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that an era is a specific historical period
     2.Understands the broadly defined eras in state history
     3.Understands the broadly defined eras in local history
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 1.Knows how to diagram the temporal structure of events in autobiographies, biographies, literary narratives, and historical narratives, and understands the differences between them
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how to diagram the temporal structure of events in autobiographies
     2.Knows how to diagram the temporal structure of events in biographies
     3.Knows how to diagram the temporal structure of events in literary narratives
     4.Knows how to diagram the temporal structure of events in historical narratives
     5.Understands the differences between the temporal structure of events in autobiographies, biographies, literary narratives, and historical narratives
   Benchmark 2.Knows how to construct and interpret multiple tier time lines (e.g., a time line that contains important social, economic, and political developments in colonial history; a time line that compares developments in the English, French, and Spanish colonies in North America)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how to construct a time line that contains important social, economic, and political developments in colonial history
     2.Knows how to interpret a time line that contains important social, economic, and political developments in colonial history
     3.Knows how to construct a time line that compares developments in the English, French, and Spanish colonies in North America
     4.Knows how to interpret a time line that compares developments in the English, French, and Spanish colonies in North America
   Benchmark 3.Knows how to calculate calendar time B.C. (before Christ) or B.C.E. (before the Common Era), and A.D. (Anno Domini) or C.E. (in the Common Era), determining the onset, duration, and ending dates of historical events or developments
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how to calculate calendar time B.C. or B.C.E to determine onset, duration, and ending dates of historical events or developments
     2.Knows how to calculate calendar time A.D. or C.E. to determine onset, duration, and ending dates of historical events or developments
   Benchmark 4.Understands patterns of change and continuity in the historical succession of related events
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands patterns of change in the historical succession of related events
     2.Understands patterns of continuity in the historical succession of related events
   Benchmark 5.Knows how to impose temporal structure on their historical narratives (e.g., working backward from some issue, problem, or event to explain its causes that arose from some beginning and developed through subsequent transformations over time)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how to work backwards from an issue, problem, or event to explain its causes
   Benchmark 6.Knows how to periodize events of the nation into broadly defined eras
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the concept of arranging historical events into distinct periods
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Knows how to identify the temporal structure and connections disclosed in historical narratives
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how to identify temporal structure in historical narratives
     2.Knows how to identify temporal connections in historical narratives
   Benchmark 2.Understands historical continuity and change related to a particular development or theme (e.g., the Industrial Revolution, the evolution of democracy in the U.S.)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands historical continuity and change related to the theme of the Industrial Revolution
     2.Understands historical continuity and change related to the theme of the evolution of democracy in the United States
   Benchmark 3.Understands the organizing principles of alternative models of historical periodization
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows different models of historical periodization
   Benchmark 4.Understands alternative systems of recording time (e.g., Egyptian, Indian, Mayan, Muslim, Jewish), astronomical systems on which they are based (e.g., solar, lunar, semilunar), their fixed points for measuring time, and their strengths and weaknesses
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the Egyptian system of recording time
     2.Understands the Indian system of recording time
     3.Understands the Mayan system of recording time
     4.Understands the Muslim system of recording time
     5.Understands the Jewish system of recording time
     6.Knows that there are alternative systems of recording time based on solar systems
     7.Knows that there are alternative systems of recording time based on the lunar system
     8.Knows that there are alternative systems of recording time based on semilunar systems
     9.Knows the fixed points for measuring time in alternative systems of recording time
     10.Knows the strengths of alternative systems of recording time
     11.Knows the weaknesses of alternative systems of recording time