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Topic: Water in the Earth system 

Science

 Standard 1.  Understands atmospheric processes and the water cycle
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 2.Knows that water can be a liquid or a solid and can be made to change from one form to the other, but the amount of water stays the same
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that water can exist in a liquid form
     2.Knows that water can exist in a solid form
     3.Knows that water can change from a solid to a liquid, but the amount of water stays the same
     4.Knows that water can change from a liquid to a solid, but the amount of water stays same
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 1.Knows that water exists in the air in different forms (e.g., in clouds and fog as tiny droplets; in rain, snow, and hail) and changes from one form to another through various processes (e.g., freezing, condensation, precipitation, evaporation)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that water changes from one state to another through various processes
     2.Knows that water changes from a gas to either a liquid or a solid through precipitation
     3.Knows that water changes from a liquid to a solid through freezing
     4.Knows that water changes from a gas to a liquid through condensation
     5.Knows that water changes from a liquid to a gas through evaporation
     6.Knows that water exists in the air in different forms
     7.Knows that fog is made up of tiny droplets of water
     8.Knows that clouds are made up of droplets of water
     9.Knows that water can exist in the air as snow
     10.Knows that water can exist in the air as rain
     11.Knows that water can exist in the air as hail
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 2.Knows the processes involved in the water cycle (e.g., evaporation, condensation, precipitation, surface run-off, percolation) and their effects on climatic patterns
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the processes involved in the water cycle
     2.Knows the process of evaporation is part of the water cycle
     3.Knows the process of condensation is part of the water cycle
     4.Knows the process of precipitation is part of the water cycle
     5.Knows the process of surface run-off is part of the water cycle
     6.Knows the process of percolation is part of the water cycle
     7.Knows the effects of the water cycle on climatic patterns
     8.Knows the effects of condensation on climatic patterns
     9.Knows the effects of evaporation on climatic patterns
     10.Knows the effects of precipitation on climatic patterns
     11.Knows the effects of surface run-off on climatic patterns
     12.Knows the effects of percolation on climatic patterns
   Benchmark 7.Knows that most of Earth’s surface is covered by water, that most of that water is salt water in oceans, and that fresh water is found in rivers, lakes, underground sources, and glaciers
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that fresh water is found in glaciers
     2.Knows that most of the Earth’s surface is water
     3.Knows that most of the Earth’s water is salt water in oceans
     4.Knows that fresh water is found in rivers
     5.Knows that fresh water is found in lakes
     6.Knows that fresh water is found in underground sources
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Knows how winds and ocean currents are produced on the Earth’s surface (e.g., effects of unequal heating of the Earth’s land masses, oceans, and air by the Sun; effects of gravitational forces acting on layers of different temperatures and densities in the oceans and air; effects of the rotation of the Earth)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how winds are produced on the Earth’s surface
     2.Knows how ocean currents are produced on the Earth’s surface
     3.Knows how the unequal heating of the Earth’s land masses by the Sun affects the winds and ocean currents
     4.Knows how the unequal heating of the Earth’s oceans by the Sun affects the winds and ocean currents
     5.Knows how the unequal heating of the Earth’s air by the Sun affects the winds and ocean currents
     6.Knows how gravitational forces acting on layers of different temperatures in the oceans affect the winds and ocean currents
     7.Knows how gravitational forces acting on layers of different temperatures in the air affect the winds and ocean currents
     8.Knows how gravitational forces acting on layers of different densities in the oceans affect the winds and ocean currents
     9.Knows how gravitational forces acting on layers of different densities in the air affect the winds and ocean currents
     10.Knows how the rotation of the Earth affects the winds and ocean currents
   Benchmark 5.Knows the properties that make water an essential component of the Earth system (e.g., its ability to act as a solvent, its ability to remain a liquid at most Earth temperatures)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that water remains liquid at most Earth temperatures
     2.Knows that water has the ability to act as a solvent