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Topic: The universe 

Science

 Standard 3.  Understands the composition and structure of the universe and the Earth's place in it
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 3.Knows that the patterns of stars in the sky stay the same, although they appear to slowly move from east to west across the sky nightly and different stars can be seen in different seasons
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that the patterns of the stars stay the same
     2.Knows that stars appear to move from east to west across the sky nightly
     3.Knows that different stars can be seen in different seasons
   Benchmark 5.Knows that astronomical objects in space are massive in size and are separated from one another by vast distances (e.g., many stars are more massive than our Sun but so distant they look like points of light)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that astronomical objects in space are massive in size
     2.Knows that astronomical objects are separated from one another by vast distances
     3.Knows that many stars are more massive than our Sun
     4.Knows that many stars are so distant they look like points of light
   Benchmark 6.Knows that telescopes magnify distant objects in the sky (e.g., the Moon, planets) and dramatically increase the number of stars we can see
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that telescopes magnify distant objects in the sky
     2.Knows that telescopes increase the number of stars we can see
     3.Knows that telescopes magnify the Moon
     4.Knows that telescopes magnify the planets
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 6.Knows that the universe consists of many billions of galaxies (each containing many billions of stars) and that incomprehensible distances (measured in light years) separate these galaxies and stars from one another and from the Earth
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that the universe consists of billions of galaxies
     2.Knows that incomprehensible distances separate galaxies from one another
     3.Knows that incomprehensible distances separate galaxies from Earth
     4.Knows that galaxies contain many billions of stars
     5.Knows that distances between galaxies and stars are measured in light years
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Knows that although the origin of the universe remains one of the greatest questions in science, current scientific evidence supports the Big Bang theory, which states that between 10 and 20 billion years ago, the entire contents of the universe expanded explosively into existence from a single, hot, dense chaotic mass; our Solar System formed from a nebular cloud of dust and gas about 4.6 billion years ago
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that the origin of the universe is one of greatest questions in science
     2.Knows that scientific evidence supports the "Big Bang" theory
     3.Knows that the Big Bang theory says 10 to 20 billion years ago the universe exploded into existence from a single, hot, dense chaotic mass
     4.Knows that our Solar System formed from a nebular cloud of dust and gas about 4.6 billion years ago
   Benchmark 2.Knows that evidence suggests that our universe is expanding (e.g., the Doppler shift of light from distant galaxies reaching telescopes on Earth suggests that galaxies are moving away from the Earth and provides support for the Big Bang theory of the origin of the universe)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the relationship of the red shift to the "Big Bang" theory of the origin of the universe
     2.Knows that the Doppler shift of light suggests that galaxies are moving away from Earth
   Benchmark 3.Knows the ongoing processes involved in star formation and destruction (e.g., stars condense by gravity out of clouds of molecules of the lightest elements; nuclear fusion of light elements into heavier ones occurs in the stars’ extremely hot, dense cores, releasing great amounts of energy; some stars eventually explode, producing clouds of material from which new stars and planets condense)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the ongoing processes involved in star formation
     2.Knows the ongoing processes involved in star destruction
     3.Knows that stars condense by gravity out of clouds of molecules of the lightest elements
     4.Knows that nuclear fusion of light elements into heavier elements occurs in stars’ hot, dense cores
     5.Knows that the nuclear fusion of light elements into heavier elements releases great amounts of energy
     6.Knows that some stars explode, producing clouds of material from which new stars condense
     7.Knows that some stars explode, producing clouds of material from which new planets condense
   Benchmark 4.Knows common characteristics of stars in the universe (e.g., types of stars include red and blue giants, white dwarfs, neutron stars; stars differ in size, temperature, and age, but they all appear to be made up of the same elements and to behave according to the same principles; most stars exist in systems of two or more stars orbiting around a common point)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that most stars exist in systems of two or more stars orbiting around a single point
     2.Knows the different types of stars
     3.Knows the characteristics of red giant stars
     4.Knows the characteristics of blue giant stars
     5.Knows the characteristics of white dwarf stars
     6.Knows the characteristics of neutron stars
     7.Knows that stars differ in size
     8.Knows that stars differ in temperature
     9.Knows that stars differ in age
     10.Knows that all stars appear to be made of the same elements
     11.Knows that all stars appear to behave according to the same principles
   Benchmark 5.Knows ways in which technology has increased our understanding of the universe (e.g., visual, radio, and x-ray telescopes collect information about the universe from electromagnetic waves; space probes gather information from distant parts of the Solar System; mathematical models and computer simulations are used to study evidence from many sources in order to form a scientific account of events in the universe)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that computer simulations study evidence to form a scientific account of the universe
     2.Knows that visual telescopes collect information about the universe through electromagnetic waves
     3.Knows that radio telescopes collect information about the universe through electromagnetic waves
     4.Knows that x-ray telescopes collect information about the universe through electromagnetic waves
     5.Knows that mathematical models study evidence to form a scientific account of the universe
     6.Knows that space probes get information from distant parts of the Solar System