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Topic: Structure and function in cells 

Science

 Standard 5.  Understands the structure and function of cells and organisms
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 2.Knows that cells convert energy obtained from food to carry on the many functions needed to sustain life (e.g., cell growth and division, production of materials that the cell or organism needs)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that cells convert energy from food for the production of materials necessary for life
     2.Knows that cells convert energy from food for cell growth
     3.Knows that cells convert energy from food for cell division
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Knows the structures of different types of cell parts (e.g., cell wall; cell membrane; cytoplasm; cell organelles such as the nucleus, chloroplast, mitochondrion, Golgi apparatus, vacuole) and the functions they perform (e.g., transport of materials, storage of genetic information, photosynthesis and respiration, synthesis of new molecules, waste disposal)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the structures of different cell parts
     2.Knows the structure of the cell wall
     3.Knows the structure of the cell membrane
     4.Knows the structure of cytoplasm
     5.Knows the structure of cell organelles
     6.Knows the structure of the nucleus
     7.Knows the structure of chloroplasts
     8.Knows the structure of the mitochondrion
     9.Knows the structure of the Golgi apparatus
     10.Knows the structure of vacuoles
     11.Knows the functions of different cell parts
     12.Knows how cell parts transport materials
     13.Knows how cell parts store genetic information
     14.Knows how cell parts perform photosynthesis
     15.Knows how cell parts perform respiration
     16.Knows how cell parts perform synthesis of new molecules
     17.Knows how cell parts perform waste disposal
   Benchmark 2.Understands the chemical reactions involved in cell functions (e.g., food molecules taken into cells are broken down to provide the chemical constituents needed to synthesize other molecules; enzymes facilitate the breakdown and synthesis of molecules)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that enzymes facilitate the synthesis of molecules
     2.Understands that food molecules in cells are broken down to provide chemical constituents to synthesize other molecules
     3.Understands that enzymes facilitate the breakdown of molecules
   Benchmark 3.Understands the processes of photosynthesis and respiration in plants (e.g., chloroplasts in plant cells use energy from sunlight to combine molecules of carbon dioxide and water into complex, energy-rich organic compounds and release oxygen to the environment)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the process of photosynthesis in plants
     2.Understands the process of respiration in plants
     3.Knows that chloroplasts use sunlight energy to combine carbon dioxide and water into organic compounds
     4.Knows that chloroplasts in plant cells release oxygen
   Benchmark 4.Knows how cell functions are regulated through changes in the activity of the functions performed by proteins and through the selective expression of individual genes, and how this regulation allows cells to respond to their environment and to control and coordinate cell growth and division
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that cell functions are regulated through changes in the activity of functions performed by proteins
     2.Knows that cell functions are regulated through the selective expression of individual genes
     3.Knows how regulation of cell functions allows cells to respond to their environment
     4.Knows how regulation of cell functions allows cells to control cell growth and division
   Benchmark 6.Understands the processes of cell division and differentiation (e.g., meiosis, mitosis, embryo formation, cellular replication and differentiation into the many specialized cells, tissues, and organs that comprise the final organism; each cell retains the basic information needed to reproduce itself)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that each cell retains the information needed to reproduce itself
     2.Understands the process of cell division
     3.Understands the process of cell differentiation
     4.Understands the process of meiosis
     5.Understands the process of mitosis
     6.Understands the process of embryo formation
     7.Understands the process of cellular replication
     8.Understands the process of differentiation into specialized cells
     9.Understands the process of differentiation into tissues
     10.Understands the process of differentiation into organs
   Benchmark 7.Knows the structures of proteins (e.g., long, usually folded chain molecules made of specific sequences of amino acids coded by DNA) and the role of proteins in cell function
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the role of proteins in cell function
     2.Knows that proteins are long, folded chain molecules made of specific sequences of amino acids