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Topic: Seasons, weather, and climate 

Science

 Standard 1.  Understands atmospheric processes and the water cycle
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   Benchmark 1.Knows vocabulary (e.g., rainy, windy, sunny) for different types of weather
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that "rainy" describes a type of weather
     2.Knows that "windy" describes a type of weather
     3.Knows that "sunny" describes a type of weather
   Benchmark 2.Knows that weather conditions change over time
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that weather conditions describe how sunny, cloudy, warm, cool, wet, or dry it is outside
   Benchmark 3.Knows how the environment changes over the seasons
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that summer, winter, spring, and fall(autumn) are seasons of the year
     2.Knows the summer environment (e.g., trees have leaves, temperatures in most places are warmer)
     3.Knows the winter environment (e.g., some trees do not have leaves, temperatures in most places are cooler)
     4.Knows the spring environment (e.g., some trees are growing new leaves, temperatures in most places are warmer than in winter)
     5.Knows the fall(autumn) environment (e.g., the leaves of some trees turn colors and fall off, the temperatures in most places are cooler than in summer)
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 1.Knows that short-term weather conditions (e.g., temperature, rain, snow) can change daily, and weather patterns change over the seasons
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that short-term weather conditions can change daily
     2.Knows that temperature can change daily
     3.Knows that rain conditions can change daily
     4.Knows that snow conditions can change daily
     5.Knows that weather patterns change over the seasons
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 1.Knows that water exists in the air in different forms (e.g., in clouds and fog as tiny droplets; in rain, snow, and hail) and changes from one form to another through various processes (e.g., freezing, condensation, precipitation, evaporation)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that water changes from one state to another through various processes
     2.Knows that water changes from a gas to either a liquid or a solid through precipitation
     3.Knows that water changes from a liquid to a solid through freezing
     4.Knows that water changes from a gas to a liquid through condensation
     5.Knows that water changes from a liquid to a gas through evaporation
     6.Knows that water exists in the air in different forms
     7.Knows that fog is made up of tiny droplets of water
     8.Knows that clouds are made up of droplets of water
     9.Knows that water can exist in the air as snow
     10.Knows that water can exist in the air as rain
     11.Knows that water can exist in the air as hail
   Benchmark 2.Knows that the Sun provides the light and heat necessary to maintain the temperature of the Earth
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that the Sun provides the light necessary to maintain the Earth’s temperature
     2.Knows that the Sun provides the heat necessary to maintain the Earth’s temperature
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 2.Knows the processes involved in the water cycle (e.g., evaporation, condensation, precipitation, surface run-off, percolation) and their effects on climatic patterns
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the processes involved in the water cycle
     2.Knows the process of evaporation is part of the water cycle
     3.Knows the process of condensation is part of the water cycle
     4.Knows the process of precipitation is part of the water cycle
     5.Knows the process of surface run-off is part of the water cycle
     6.Knows the process of percolation is part of the water cycle
     7.Knows the effects of the water cycle on climatic patterns
     8.Knows the effects of condensation on climatic patterns
     9.Knows the effects of evaporation on climatic patterns
     10.Knows the effects of precipitation on climatic patterns
     11.Knows the effects of surface run-off on climatic patterns
     12.Knows the effects of percolation on climatic patterns
   Benchmark 4.Knows factors that can impact the Earth’s climate (e.g., changes in the composition of the atmosphere; changes in ocean temperature; geological shifts such as meteor impacts, the advance or retreat of glaciers, or a series of volcanic eruptions)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that volcanic eruptions can have an impact on the Earth’s climate
     2.Knows that changes in atmospheric composition can have an impact on the Earth’s climate
     3.Knows that changes in ocean temperatures can have an impact on the Earth’s climate
     4.Knows that geological shifts can have an impact on the Earth’s climate
     5.Knows that meteors can have an impact on the Earth’s climate
     6.Knows that the advance of glaciers can have an impact on the Earth’s climate
     7.Knows that the retreat of glaciers can have an impact on the Earth’s climate
   Benchmark 5.Knows how the tilt of the Earth’s axis and the Earth’s revolution around the Sun affect seasons and weather patterns (i.e., heat falls more intensely on one part or another of the Earth’s surface during its revolution around the Sun)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how the tilt of the Earth’s axis affects the seasons
     2.Knows how the tilt of the Earth’s axis affects weather patterns
     3.Knows how the Earth’s revolution around the Sun affects the seasons
     4.Knows how the Earth’s revolution around the Sun affects weather patterns
     5.Knows that heat falls more intensely on a specific part of the Earth’s surface during its revolution around the Sun
   Benchmark 6.Knows ways in which clouds affect weather and climate (e.g., precipitation, reflection of light from the Sun, retention of heat energy emitted from the Earth’s surface)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that clouds affect weather
     2.Knows that clouds affect climate
     3.Knows that clouds affect weather by reflecting light from the Sun
     4.Knows that clouds affect weather through precipitation
     5.Knows that clouds affect weather through the retention of heat energy emitted from the Earth’s surface
     6.Knows that clouds affect climate through precipitation
     7.Knows that clouds affect the climate by reflecting light from the Sun
     8.Knows that clouds affect climate through the retention of heat energy emitted from the Earth’s surface
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands heat and energy transfer in and out of the atmosphere and its involvement in weather and climate (e.g., radiation, conduction, convection/advection)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that weather involves the transfer of energy in and out of the atmosphere
     2.Understands that climate involves the transfer of energy in and out of the atmosphere
     3.Understands that weather involves the transfer of heat in and out of the atmosphere
     4.Understands that climate involves the transfer of heat in and out of the atmosphere
     5.Understands radiation’s involvement in weather
     6.Understands radiation’s involvement in climate
     7.Understands conduction’s involvement in weather
     8.Understands conduction’s involvement in climate
     9.Understands convection’s involvement in weather
     10.Understands convection’s involvement in climate
     11.Understands advection’s involvement in weather
     12.Understands advection’s involvement in climate