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Topic: Scientific knowledge  

Science

 Standard 11.  Understands the nature of scientific knowledge
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 2.Knows that all scientific ideas are tentative and subject to change and improvement in principle, but for most core ideas in science, there is much experimental and observational confirmation
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that all scientific ideas are tentative
     2.Knows that all scientific ideas are subject to change
     3.Knows that all scientific ideas are subject to improvement in principle
     4.Knows that for most core ideas in science, there is much experimental confirmation
     5.Knows that for most core ideas in science, there is much observational confirmation
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Knows ways in which science distinguishes itself from other ways of knowing and from other bodies of knowledge (e.g., use of empirical standards, logical arguments, skepticism)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows ways that science distinguishes itself from other ways of knowing
     2.Knows ways that science distinguishes itself from other bodies of knowledge
     3.Knows that the use of empirical standards distinguishes science
     4.Knows that the use of logical arguments distinguishes science
     5.Knows that the use of skepticism distinguishes science
   Benchmark 3.Understands how scientific knowledge changes and accumulates over time (e.g., all scientific knowledge is subject to change as new evidence becomes available; some scientific ideas are incomplete and opportunity exists in these areas for new advances; theories are continually tested, revised, and occasionally discarded)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how scientific knowledge changes over time
     2.Understands how scientific knowledge accumulates over time
     3.Understands that scientific knowledge is subject to change as new evidence becomes available
     4.Understands that some scientific ideas are incomplete
     5.Understands that an opportunity exists in incomplete areas for new advances
     6.Understands that theories are continually tested
     7.Understands that theories are continually revised
     8.Understands that theories are occasionally discarded
   Benchmark 4.Knows that from time to time, major shifts occur in the scientific view of how the world works, but usually the changes that take place in the body of scientific knowledge are small modifications of prior knowledge
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that sometimes major shifts occur in the scientific view of how the world works
     2.Knows that usually the changes in scientific knowledge are small modifications of prior knowledge
   Benchmark 5.Understands different types of scientific explanations (e.g., theories, laws, hypotheses) and their usefulness and limitations (e.g., a new theory might fit the observations just as well or better than the old theory, or might fit a wider range of observations than the old theory)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands theories as a type of scientific explanation
     2.Understands laws as a type of scientific explanation
     3.Understands hypotheses as a type of scientific explanation
     4.Understands the usefulness and limitations of theories
     5.Understands the usefulness and limitations of laws
     6.Understands the usefulness and limitations of hypotheses
     7.Knows that a new theory might fit the observations just as well or better than the old theory
     8.Knows that a new theory might fit a wider range of observations than the old theory
 Standard 12.  Understands the nature of scientific inquiry
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Knows that conceptual principles and knowledge guide scientific inquiries; historical and current scientific knowledge influence the design and interpretation of investigations and the evaluation of proposed explanations made by other scientists
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that conceptual principles guide scientific inquiries
     2.Knows that knowledge guides scientific inquiries
     3.Knows that historical scientific knowledge influences the design of investigations
     4.Knows that historical scientific knowledge influences the interpretation of investigation
     5.Knows that historical scientific knowledge influences the evaluation of explanations made by other scientists
     6.Knows that current scientific knowledge influences the design of investigations
     7.Knows that current scientific knowledge influences the interpretation of investigations
     8.Knows that current scientific knowledge influences the evaluation of explanations made by other scientists
 Standard 13.  Understands the scientific enterprise
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 2.Knows that although people using scientific inquiry have learned much about the objects, events, and phenomena in nature, science is an ongoing process and will never be finished
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that people using scientific inquiry have learned much about objects in nature
     2.Knows that people using scientific inquiry have learned much about events in nature
     3.Knows that people using scientific inquiry have learned much about phenomena in nature
     4.Knows that science is an ongoing process that will never finish
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 5.Knows that throughout history, many scientific innovators have had difficulty breaking through accepted ideas of their time to reach conclusions that are now considered to be common knowledge
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that scientific innovators have had difficulty breaking through accepted ideas of the time

Agricultural Education

 Standard 10.  Understands the steps involved in conducting formal scientific investigations
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands how new scientific information can reinforce, modify, or disprove existing theories
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how new scientific information can reinforce existing theories
     2.Understands how new scientific information can modify theories
     3.Understands how new scientific information can disprove existing theories