Standards Database Logo
Home | Browse | Search | Purpose | History | Process | Acknowledgment| Reference

 


 


Topic: Scientific explanations 

Science

 Standard 11.  Understands the nature of scientific knowledge
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 2.Knows that good scientific explanations are based on evidence (observations) and scientific knowledge
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that good scientific explanations are based on evidence
     2.Knows that good scientific explanations are based on observations
     3.Knows that good scientific explanations are based on scientific knowledge
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the nature of scientific explanations (e.g., use of logically consistent arguments; emphasis on evidence; use of scientific principles, models, and theories; acceptance or displacement of explanations based on new scientific evidence)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the displacement of explanations based on new scientific evidence
     2.Understands the use of logically consistent arguments
     3.Understands the emphasis on evidence
     4.Understands the use of scientific principles
     5.Understands the use of scientific theories
     6.Understands the use of scientific models
     7.Understands the acceptance of explanations based on new scientific evidence
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Knows that scientific explanations must meet certain criteria to be considered valid (e.g., they must be consistent with experimental and observational evidence about nature, make accurate predictions about systems being studied, be logical, respect the rules of evidence, be open to criticism, report methods and procedures, make a commitment to making knowledge public, include an adequate sample size)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that scientific explanations must report methods and procedures
     2.Knows that scientific explanations must be consistent with experimental evidence about nature
     3.Knows that scientific explanations must be consistent with observational evidence about nature
     4.Knows that scientific explanations must make accurate predictions about systems being studied
     5.Knows that scientific explanations must be logical
     6.Knows that scientific explanations must respect the rules of evidence
     7.Knows that scientific explanations must be open to criticism
   Benchmark 5.Understands different types of scientific explanations (e.g., theories, laws, hypotheses) and their usefulness and limitations (e.g., a new theory might fit the observations just as well or better than the old theory, or might fit a wider range of observations than the old theory)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands theories as a type of scientific explanation
     2.Understands laws as a type of scientific explanation
     3.Understands hypotheses as a type of scientific explanation
     4.Understands the usefulness and limitations of theories
     5.Understands the usefulness and limitations of laws
     6.Understands the usefulness and limitations of hypotheses
     7.Knows that a new theory might fit the observations just as well or better than the old theory
     8.Knows that a new theory might fit a wider range of observations than the old theory
   Benchmark 7.Knows that science is based on assumptions about the universe (e.g., nature is the same everywhere, the objects and events in the universe occur in a predictable pattern that is comprehensible through careful, systematic study)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that science is based on assumptions about the universe
     2.Knows that science is based on the assumption that nature is the same everywhere
     3.Knows that science is based on the assumption that the objects and events in the universe occur in a predictable pattern
     4.Knows that science is based on the assumption that the predictable pattern of objects and events is comprehensible through careful, systematic study
 Standard 12.  Understands the nature of scientific inquiry
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   Benchmark 6.Develops predictions and explanations based on previous experience
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Develops predictions based on previous experience
     2.Develops explanations based on previous experience
   Benchmark 7.Understands simple cause-and-effect relationships based on previous experience