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Topic: Scientific collaboration and communication  

Science

 Standard 11.  Understands the nature of scientific knowledge
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 3.Knows that scientists make the results of their investigations public; they describe the investigations in ways that enable others to repeat the investigations
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that scientists make the results of their investigations public
     2.Knows that scientists describe investigations in ways that enable others to repeat the investigations
   Benchmark 4.Knows that scientists review and ask questions about the results of other scientists’ work
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that scientists review the results of other scientists’ work
     2.Knows that scientists ask questions about the results of other scientists’ work
 Standard 12.  Understands the nature of scientific inquiry
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands that questioning, response to criticism, and open communication are integral to the process of science (e.g., scientists often differ with one another about the interpretation of evidence or theory in areas where there is not a great deal of understanding; scientists acknowledge conflicting interpretations and work towards finding evidence that will resolve the disagreement)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that questioning is integral to the process of science
     2.Understands that an appropriate response to criticism is integral to the process of science
     3.Understands that open communication is integral to the process of science
     4.Understands that scientists often differ with one another about the interpretation of evidence in unclear areas
     5.Understands that scientists often differ with one another about the interpretation of theories in unclear areas
     6.Knows that scientists acknowledge conflicting interpretations
     7.Knows that scientists work toward finding evidence that resolves the disagreement
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 7.Knows that investigations and public communication among scientists must meet certain criteria in order to result in new knowledge and methods (e.g., arguments must be logical and demonstrate connections between natural phenomena, investigations, and the historical body of scientific knowledge; the methods and procedures used to obtain evidence must be clearly reported to enhance opportunities for further investigation)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that investigations among scientists must meet certain criteria in order to result in new knowledge
     2.Knows that investigations among scientists must meet certain criteria in order to result in new methods
     3.Knows that public communication among scientists must meet certain criteria to result in new knowledge
     4.Knows that public communication among scientists must meet certain criteria to result in new methods
     5.Knows that arguments must be logical to result in new knowledge and methods
     6.Knows that arguments must connect natural phenomena, investigations, and historical bodies of scientific knowledge to result in new knowledge and methods
     7.Knows that methods used to obtain evidence must be clearly reported for future investigations to result in new knowledge and methods
     8.Knows that procedures used to obtain evidence must be clearly reported for future investigations to result in new knowledge and methods
 Standard 13.  Understands the scientific enterprise
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   Benchmark 1.Knows that students can do science
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 1.Knows that in science it is helpful to work with a team and share findings with others
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that in science it is helpful to work with a team
     2.Knows that in science it is helpful to share findings with others
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 3.Knows that scientists and engineers often work in teams to accomplish a task
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that scientists work in teams to accomplish a task
     2.Knows that engineers work in teams to accomplish a task
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 1.Knows that people of all backgrounds and with diverse interests, talents, qualities, and motivations engage in fields of science and engineering; some of these people work in teams and others work alone, but all communicate extensively with others
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that people of all backgrounds engage in fields of science
     2.Knows that people of all backgrounds engage in fields of engineering
     3.Knows that people with diverse interests engage in fields of science
     4.Knows that people with diverse interests engage in fields of engineering
     5.Knows that people with diverse talents engage in fields of science
     6.Knows that people with diverse talents engage in fields of engineering
     7.Knows that people with diverse qualities engage in fields of science
     8.Knows that people with diverse qualities engage in fields of engineering
     9.Knows that people with diverse motivations engage in fields of science
     10.Knows that people with diverse motivations engage in fields of engineering
     11.Knows that people work in teams
     12.Knows that people work alone
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands that individuals and teams contribute to science and engineering at different levels of complexity (e.g., an individual may conduct basic field studies; hundreds of people may work together on a major scientific question or technological problem)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that individuals contribute to science at different levels of complexity
     2.Understands that teams contribute to science at different levels of complexity
     3.Understands that individuals contribute to engineering at different levels of complexity
     4.Understands that teams contribute to engineering at different levels of complexity
     5.Understands that individuals conduct basic field studies
     6.Understands that hundreds of people may work together on a major scientific question
     7.Understands that hundreds of people may work together on a technological problem