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Topic: Properties of substances  

Science

 Standard 8.  Understands the structure and properties of matter
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   Benchmark 1.Knows vocabulary used to describe some observable properties (e.g., color, shape, size) of objects
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows words used to describe colors of objects
     2.Knows words used to describe shapes of objects
     3.Knows words used to describe sizes of objects
   Benchmark 2.Sorts objects based on observable properties
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that objects have properties that are the same
     2.Knows that objects have properties that are different
   Benchmark 3.Knows that the physical properties of things can change
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 1.Knows that different objects are made up of many different types of materials (e.g., cloth, paper, wood, metal) and have many different observable properties (e.g., color, size, shape, weight)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that different objects are made from different materials
     2.Knows that objects can be made up of paper
     3.Knows that objects can be made up of metal
     4.Knows that objects can be made up of cloth
     5.Knows that objects can be made up of wood
     6.Knows that objects have different observable properties
     7.Knows that color is an observable property of objects
     8.Knows that size is an observable property of objects
     9.Knows that shape is an observable property of objects
     10.Knows that weight is an observable property of objects
   Benchmark 2.Knows that things can be done to materials to change some of their properties (e.g., heating, freezing, mixing, cutting, dissolving, bending), but not all materials respond the same way to what is done to them
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the properties of materials can be changed
     2.Knows the properties of materials can be changed by heating
     3.Knows the properties of materials can be changed by freezing
     4.Knows the properties of materials can be changed by mixing
     5.Knows the properties of materials can be changed by cutting
     6.Knows the properties of materials can be changed by dissolving
     7.Knows the properties of materials can be changed by bending
     8.Knows that not all materials respond the same way to what is done to them
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 1.Knows that matter has different states (i.e., solid, liquid, gas) and that each state has distinct physical properties; some common materials such as water can be changed from one state to another by heating or cooling
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that matter has different states
     2.Knows that matter can be solid
     3.Knows that matter can be liquid
     4.Knows that matter can be gas
     5.Knows that each state of matter has distinct properties
     6.Knows that some common materials can be changed from one state to another
     7.Knows that water can change from one state to another by heating
     8.Knows that water can change from one state to another by cooling
   Benchmark 3.Knows that substances can be classified by their physical and chemical properties (e.g., magnetism, conductivity, density, solubility, boiling and melting points)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that substances can be classified by physical properties
     2.Knows that substances can be classified by chemical properties
     3.Knows that substances can be classified by magnetism
     4.Knows that substances can be classified by conductivity
     5.Knows that substances can be classified by density
     6.Knows that substances can be classified by solubility
     7.Knows that substances can be classified by boiling point
     8.Knows that substances can be classified by melting point
   Benchmark 4.Knows that materials may be composed of parts that are too small to be seen without magnification
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that magnification tools, such as microscopes, can be used to see more than the eye allows
     2.Knows that materials are composed of parts that are extremely small
     3.Knows that the eye itself has a natural limit on the size of material that it can see
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 4.Knows that substances containing only one kind of atom are elements and do not break down by normal laboratory reactions (e.g., heating, exposure to electric current, reaction with acids); over 100 different elements exist
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that substances containing only one kind of atom are elements
     2.Knows that elements do not break down by normal laboratory reactions
     3.Knows that elements cannot be broken down by heating
     4.Knows that elements cannot be broken down by exposure to electric current
     5.Knows that elements cannot be broken down by reactions with acids
     6.Knows that over 100 different elements exist
   Benchmark 5.Knows that many elements can be grouped according to similar properties (e.g., highly reactive metals, less-reactive metals, highly reactive nonmetals, almost completely nonreactive gases)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that almost completely nonreactive gases can be grouped together
     2.Knows that highly reactive metals can be grouped together
     3.Knows that less-reactive metals can be grouped together
     4.Knows that highly reactive nonmetals can be grouped together
   Benchmark 7.Knows methods used to separate mixtures into their component parts (boiling, filtering, chromatography, screening)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that screening is a method used to separate mixtures into component parts
     2.Knows that boiling is a method used to separate mixtures into component parts
     3.Knows that filtering is a method used to separate mixtures into component parts
     4.Knows that chromatography is a method used to separate mixtures into component parts
     5.Knows mixtures are made of parts
   Benchmark 8.Knows that substances react chemically in characteristic ways with other substances to form new substances (compounds) with different characteristic properties
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that chemical reactions may result in the formation of new substances
     2.Knows that compounds are made from two of more different substances
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands how elements are arranged in the periodic table, and how this arrangement shows repeating patterns among elements with similar properties (e.g., numbers of protons, neutrons, and electrons; relation between atomic number and atomic mass)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the arrangement of elements in the periodic table
     2.Understands how the arrangement of elements in the periodic table shows repeating patterns among elements with similar properties
     3.Understands the periodic table shows patterns in the numbers of protons
     4.Understands that the periodic table shows patterns in the numbers of neutrons
     5.Understands that the periodic table shows patterns in the numbers of electrons
     6.Understands how the periodic table shows the relation between atomic number and atomic mass
   Benchmark 3.Knows how the electron configuration of atoms governs the chemical properties of an element as atoms interact with one another by transferring or sharing the outermost electrons
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how the electron configuration of an atom governs the chemical properties of that element
     2.Knows that atoms interact by transferring or sharing their outermost electrons
   Benchmark 5.Knows that the physical properties of a compound are determined by its molecular structure (e.g., constituent atoms, distances and angles between them) and the interactions among these molecules
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that molecular structure determines the physical properties of a compound
     2.Knows that the molecular structure of a compound includes constituent atoms
     3.Knows that the molecular structure of a compound includes the distance between constituent atoms
     4.Knows that the molecular structure of a compound includes the angles between constituent atoms
     5.Knows that the interactions among molecules determines the physical properties of a compound
   Benchmark 17.Understands the properties of solutions and mixtures (e.g., saturation, concentration, solubility)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the properties of solutions
     2.Understands the properties of mixtures
     3.Knows that saturation is a property of a solution
     4.Knows that concentration is a property of a solution
     5.Understands solubility
 Standard 9.  Understands the sources and properties of energy
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Knows how the energy associated with individual atoms and molecules can be used to identify the substances they comprise; each kind of atom or molecule can gain or lose energy only in particular discrete amounts, and thus can absorb and emit light only at wavelengths corresponding to these amounts
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how the energy of individual atoms can be used to identify the substances they comprise
     2.Knows how the energy of individual molecules can be used to identify the substances they comprise
     3.Knows that each kind of atom can gain energy only in particular discrete amounts
     4.Knows that each kind of atom can lose energy only in particular discrete amounts
     5.Knows that each kind of atom can absorb light at wavelengths corresponding to the amount of energy gained or lost
     6.Knows that each kind of atom can emit light at wavelengths corresponding to the amount of energy gained or lost
     7.Knows that each kind of molecule can gain energy only in particular discrete amounts
     8.Knows that each kind of molecule can lose energy only in particular discrete amounts
     9.Knows that each kind of molecule can absorb light at wavelengths corresponding to the amount of energy gained or lost
     10.Knows that each kind of molecule can emit light at wavelengths corresponding to the amount of energy gained or lost