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Topic: Position and motion 

Science

 Standard 10.  Understands forces and motion
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   Benchmark 2.Knows that objects can be moved in space in a number of ways (e.g., pushing, pulling, sinking)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that objects can be moved in space
     2.Knows that objects can be moved by pushing them
     3.Knows that objects can be moved by pulling them
     4.Knows that objects can be moved by sinking them
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 3.Knows that the position of an object can be described by locating it relative to another object or the background
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that the position of an object can be described by locating it relative to another object
     2.Knows that the position of an object can be described by locating it relative to the background
   Benchmark 4.Knows that the position and motion of an object can be changed by pushing or pulling
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that the position of an object can be changed by pushing
     2.Knows that the motion of an object can be changed by pushing
     3.Knows that the position of an object can be changed by pulling
     4.Knows that the motion of an object can be changed by pulling
   Benchmark 5.Knows that things move in many different ways (e.g., straight line, zigzag, vibration, circular motion)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that things can move in a circular motion
     2.Knows that things can move in a straight line
     3.Knows that things can move in a zigzag motion
     4.Knows that things can vibrate
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 4.Knows that an object’s motion can be described by tracing and measuring its position over time
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that an object’s motion can be partly described by tracing its position over time
     2.Knows that an object’s motion can be partly described by measuring its position over time
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 3.Knows that an object’s motion can be described and represented graphically according to its position, direction of motion, and speed
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that an object’s motion can be partly described by its change in position over time
     2.Knows that an object’s motion can be partly described by its direction of motion
     3.Knows that an object’s motion can be partly described by its speed
     4.Knows that an object’s change in position over time can be represented graphically
     5.Knows that an object’s direction of motion can be represented graphically
     6.Knows that an object’s speed can be represented graphically
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 9.Knows that apparent changes in wavelength can provide information about changes in motion because the observed wavelength of a wave depends upon the relative motion of the source and the observer; if either the source or observer is moving toward the other, the observed wavelength is shorter; if either is moving away, the wavelength is longer
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that apparent changes in wavelength can provide information about changes in motion
     2.Knows that the observed wavelength of a wave depends upon the relative motion of the source
     3.Knows that the observed wavelength of a wave depends upon the relative motion of the observer
     4.Knows that if either the source or the observer is moving toward the other, the observed wavelength is shorter
     5.Knows that if either the source or the observer is moving away from the other, the observed wavelength is longer
   Benchmark 10.Understands general concepts related to the theory of special relativity (e.g., in contrast to other moving things, the speed of light is the same for all observers, no matter how they or the light source happen to be moving; the laws of physics are the same in any inertial frame of reference)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that the laws of physics are the same in any inertial frame of reference
     2.Understands that in contrast to other moving things, the speed of light is the same for all observers
     3.Understands that the speed of light is same for all observers no matter how the observer is moving
     4.Understands that the speed of light is same for all observers no matter how the light source is moving