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Topic: Imperial states in West Africa and Ethiopia 

World History

 Standard 22.  Understands the growth of states, towns, and trade in Sub-Saharan Africa between the 11th and 15th centuries
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands influences on the economic development of Sub-Saharan empires (e.g., the importance of agriculture, gold production, and the trans-Saharan caravan trade to the growth of the Mali and Songhay Empires; the importance of trade within the major city-states and populations of Sub-Saharan Africa)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the importance of agriculture to the growth of the Mali and Songhay Empires
     2.Understands the importance of gold production to the growth of the Mali and Songhay Empires
     3.Understands the importance of the trans-Saharan caravan trade to the growth of the Mali and Songhay Empires
     4.Understands the importance of trade within the major city states and populations of Sub-Saharan Africa
   Benchmark 2.Understands social and religious features of West Africa (e.g., what art reveals about the societies and rulers of Benin and Ile-Ife, the story of Solomon and Sheba and the role of Sheba in African history)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands social features of West Africa
     2.Understands religious features of West Africa
     3.Understands what art reveals about the societies and rulers of Benin and Ile-Ife
     4.Knows the story of Solomon and Sheba and the role of Sheba in African history
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the development of the empires of Mali and Songhay (e.g., the importance of Islamic expansion in the political and cultural life of Mali and Songhay; the economic, social, and religious characteristics of the two empires; the observations of Ibn Battua and Leo Africanus in Mali and Songhay; the importance of the Monarch Mansa Musa in Mali)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the development of the empire of Mali
     2.Understands the development of the empire of Songhay
     3.Understands the importance of Islamic expansion in the political and cultural life of Mali and Songhay
     4.Understands the economic characteristics of Mali
     5.Understands the religious characteristics of Mali
     6.Understands the social characteristics of Mali
     7.Understands the economic characteristics of Songhay
     8.Understands the religious characteristics of Mali
     9.Understands the social characteristics of Mali
     10.Knows the observations of Ibn Battua and Leo Africanus in Mali and Songhay
     11.Understands the importance of the Monarch Mansa Musa in Mali
   Benchmark 2.Understands religious aspects of Ethiopian society (e.g., the expansion of the Christian Ethiopian kingdom and its search for wider connections in the Christian world, the major achievements of the Zagwe Dynasty in Ethiopia and how this dynasty affected both Coptic Christians and Muslims)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the expansion of the Christian Ethiopian kingdom and its search for wider connections in the Christian world
     2.Knows the major achievements of the Zagwe Dynasty in Ethiopia
     3.Understands how the Zagwe Dynasty affected both Coptic Christians and Muslims
   Benchmark 4.Understands how architecture (e.g., the churches of Lalaibela and of Kalash in Ellora, India) reveals the influence of foreign states and the end of African isolation
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how architecture (e.g., the churches of Lalaibela and of Kalash in Ellora, India) reveals the influence of foreign states
     2.Understands how architecture (e.g., the churches of Lalaibela and of Kalash in Ellora, India) reveals the end of African isolation
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how art and architecture reveal elements of Ile-Ife, Benin, and other African societies (e.g., the role of the ruler, political power, gender differences, foreign contact, technology)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how art and architecture reveal elements of Ile-Ife
     2.Understands how art and architecture reveal elements of Benin
     3.Understands how art and architecture reveal elements of various African societies
     4.Understands how art and architecture reveal the role of the ruler in different African societies
     5.Understands how art and architecture reveal aspects of political power in different African societies
     6.Understands how art and architecture reveal gender differences in different African societies
     7.Understands how art and architecture reveal aspects of foreign contact among different African societies
     8.Understands how art and architecture reveal elements of technologies of different African societies
   Benchmark 2.Understands the political, social, economic, and religious development of the West African Sudan and the East African coast between the 8th and 13th centuries (e.g., how these areas were affected by outside influences, the role of commerce in their development)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the political development of the West African Sudan and the East African coast between the 8th and 13th centuries
     2.Understands the social development of the West African Sudan and the East African coast between the 8th and 13th centuries
     3.Understands the religious development of the West African Sudan and the East African coast between the 8th and 13th centuries
     4.Understands how the West African Sudan and the East African coast were affected by outside influences between the 8th and 13th centuries
     5.Understands the role of commerce in the development of the West African Sudan and the East African coast between the 8th and 13th centuries
   Benchmark 3.Understands the influence of religion on African culture (e.g., Islamic and Christian expansion in Africa and why Islam was successful there; the differences between Coptic and Latin Christianity and how Coptics adapted African traditions to Christianity; the Zagwe Dynasty's achievements through patronage of Christian art and architecture, and characteristics of Ethiopian art and rock churches)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands aspects of Islamic and Christian expansion in Africa and why Islam was successful there
     2.Knows the differences between Coptic and Latin Christianity
     3.Understands how Coptics adapted African traditions to Christianity
     4.Understands the Zagwe Dynasty’s achievements through patronage of Christian art and architecture
     5.Knows the characteristics of Ethiopian art and rock churches