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Topic: Hunter-gatherer, agrarian, and pastoral communities 

World History

 Standard 1.  Understands the biological and cultural processes that shaped the earliest human communities
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the social and cultural characteristics of hunter-gatherer communities in various continental regions (e.g., similarities and differences between hunter-gatherer communities in Africa, Eurasia, and the Americas and their responses to local environments; characteristics of Cro-Magnon communities of western Eurasia; location and composition of archaeological discoveries and what understanding these bring to Neanderthal culture and community life)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the social characteristics of hunter-gatherer communities in various continental regions
     2.Understands the cultural characteristics of hunter-gatherer communities in various continental regions
     3.Understands the social and cultural similarities and differences between hunter-gatherer communities in Africa, Eurasia, and the Americas and their responses to local environments
     4.Knows the social and cultural characteristics of Cro Magnon communities of western Eurasia
     5.Knows the location and composition of archaeological discoveries and what understanding these bring to Neanderthal culture and community life
 Standard 2.  Understands the processes that contributed to the emergence of agricultural societies around the world
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the role of agriculture in early settled communities (e.g., how archaeological evidence explains the technology, social organization, and cultural life of settled farming communities in Southwest Asia; differences between wild and domestic plants and animals; how patterns of settlement were influenced by agricultural practices)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how archaeological evidence explains the technology of settled farming communities in Southwest Asia
     2.Understands how archaeological evidence explains the social organization of settled farming communities in Southwest Asia
     3.Understands how archaeological evidence explains the cultural life of settled farming communities in Southwest Asia
     4.Understands the differences between wild and domestic plants and animals
     5.Understands how patterns of settlement were influenced by agricultural practices
   Benchmark 2.Understands the development of early agricultural communities in different regions of the world (e.g., differences between hunter-gatherer, fishing, and agrarian communities; social, cultural, and economic characteristics of large agricultural settlements and their unique problems; the development of tropical agriculture in Southeast Asia)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands differences between hunter gatherer, fishing, and agrarian communities
     2.Understands social characteristics of large early agricultural settlements
     3.Understands cultural characteristics of large early agricultural settlements
     4.Understands economic characteristics of large early agricultural settlements
     5.Understands the unique problems of early agricultural settlements
     6.Understands the development of tropical agriculture in Southeast Asia
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands immediate and long-term impacts and influences of early agricultural communities (e.g., areas in Southwest Asia and the Nile valley where early farming communities first appeared, the effect of new tools and other objects on early farming settlements, whether fishing was considered a nomadic or agricultural way of life)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows areas in Southwest Asia and the Nile valley where early farming communities first appeared
     2.Knows the effect of new tools and other objects on early farming settlements
     3.Understands whether fishing was considered a nomadic or agricultural way of life
   Benchmark 2.Understands influences on the spread of agricultural communities (e.g., how local needs and conditions affected food plant domestication and world-wide patterns of settlement)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how local needs and conditions affected food plant domestication
     2.Understands how local needs and conditions affected world wide patterns of settlement
   Benchmark 4.Understands inherent disadvantages and advantages of hunter-gatherer and early farming styles
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows different advantages of the hunter-gatherer lifestyle
     2.Knows different disadvantages of the hunter-gatherer lifestyle
     3.Knows different advantages of early farming styles
     4.Knows different disadvantages of early farming styles
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands what archaeological evidence has revealed about the cultural beliefs of early agricultural societies (e.g., the emergence of complete belief systems, including female deity worship)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows types of archaeological evidence that reveal information about cultural beliefs of early agricultural societies
     2.Understands the emergence of complete belief systems in early agricultural societies
     3.Understands the role of female deity worship in early agricultural societies
   Benchmark 3.Understands social and cultural factors that define agricultural communities (e.g., archaeological evidence that distinguishes hunter-gatherer from agricultural sites, the relationship between agricultural production and cultural change)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands social factors that define agricultural communities
     2.Understands cultural factors that define agricultural communities
     3.Knows archaeological evidence that distinguishes hunter gatherer from agricultural sites
     4.Understands the relationship between agricultural production and cultural change
   Benchmark 4.Understands what environmental and architectural evidence reveals about different types of large agricultural communities (e.g., the locations of different types of communities between 10,000 and 4,000 BCE; how patterns of layout, fortification, and standardization in large settlements helped transform human culture)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows types of environmental evidence that reveal information about early agricultural communities
     2.Knows types of architectural evidence that reveal information about early agricultural communities
     3.Knows that archaeological evidence revealed the locations of different types of communities between 10,000 and 4,000 BCE
     4.Understands that archaeological evidence revealed how patterns of layout, fortification, and standardization in large settlements helped transform human culture
   Benchmark 5.Understands why some groups developed and accepted complete sedentary agriculture and others retained earlier subsistence methods
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands why some groups developed and accepted complete sedentary agriculture
     2.Understands why some groups retained earlier subsistence methods
 Standard 4.  Understands how agrarian societies spread and new states emerged in the third and second millennia BCE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the rise of urban and complex agrarian societies in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BCE (e.g., how the Minoan civilization emerged on Crete and its significant cultural achievements; the origins and possible purpose of Stonehenge and the effort made to create it)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the rise of urban societies in the 3rd and 2nd millennium BCE
     2.Understands the rise of complex agrarian societies in the 3rd and 2nd millennium BCE
     3.Understands how the Minoan civilization emerged on Crete and its significant cultural achievements
     4.Understands the origins and possible purpose of Stonehenge and the effort made to create it
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands how different agrarian societies developed (e.g., what archaeological evidence suggests about the growth of agricultural societies in West Africa and Southeast Asia, the origins of domesticated rice in Southeast Asia and the routes of its spread throughout the rest of Asia)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands what archaeological evidence suggests about the growth of agricultural societies in West Africa and Southeast Asia
     2.Knows the role of domesticated rice in the development of agrarian societies, including its origins in Southeast Asia and the routes of its spread throughout the rest of Asia
 Standard 5.  Understands the political, social, and cultural consequences of population movements and militarization in Eurasia in the second millennium BCE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how the rise of pastoral societies was linked to the climate and geography of the Central Asian steppes, and how kinship-based pastoral society differed from the social organization of agrarian states
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the rise of pastoral societies was linked to the climate and geography of the Central Asian steppes
     2.Understands how kinship based pastoral society differed from the social organization of agrarian states
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands characteristics of pastoral and agrarian societies (e.g., economy, social relations, and political authority among pastoral peoples; women's social equality with men in pastoral societies as opposed to agrarian societies)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands characteristics of pastoral societies
     2.Understands characteristics of agrarian societies
     3.Understands the economic structure among pastoral peoples
     4.Understands social relations among pastoral peoples
     5.Understands political authority among pastoral peoples
     6.Understands women’s social equality with men in pastoral societies as opposed to agrarian societies
 Standard 6.  Understands major trends in Eurasia and Africa from 4000 to 1000 BCE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Knows areas of Eurasia and Africa where cities and dense farming populations appeared between 4000 and 1000 BCE, and understands the connection between the spread of agriculture and the acceleration of world population growth
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows areas of Eurasia where cities and dense farming populations appeared between 4000 and 1000 BCE
     2.Knows areas of Africa where cities and dense farming populations appeared between 4000 and 1000 BCE
     3.Understands the connection between the spread of agriculture and the acceleration of world population growth
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands why geographic, environmental, and economic conditions favored hunter-gatherer, pastoral, and small-scale agricultural ways of life rather than urban civilizations in many parts of the world
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows parts of the world in which geographic, environmental, and economic conditions favored hunter gatherer, pastoral, and small scale agricultural ways of life rather than urban civilizations
     2.Understands why geographic conditions favored hunter gatherer, pastoral, and small scale agricultural ways of life rather than urban civilizations in many parts of the world
     3.Understands why environmental conditions favored hunter gatherer, pastoral, and small scale agricultural ways of life rather than urban civilizations in many parts of the world
     4.Understands why economic conditions favored hunter gatherer, pastoral, and small scale agricultural ways of life rather than urban civilizations in many parts of the world
   Benchmark 5.Understands the concept of "civilization" (e.g., the various criteria used to define "civilization;" fundamental differences between civilizations and other forms of social organization, such as hunter-gatherer bands, Neolithic agricultural societies, and pastoral nomadic societies; how Mohenjo-Daro meets criteria for defining civilization)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the various criteria used to define "civilization"
     2.Understands fundamental differences between civilizations and other forms of social organization, such as hunter gatherer bands, Neolithic agricultural societies, and pastoral nomadic societies
     3.Knows how Mohenjo Daro meets criteria for defining civilization
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the role of pastoral peoples in Eurasia and Africa up to 1000 BCE, and understands the relationship of conflict and mutual dependence between herding and agrarian societies
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the role of pastoral peoples in Eurasia up to 1000 BCE
     2.Understands the role of pastoral peoples in Africa up to 1000 BCE
     3.Understands the relationship of conflict and mutual dependence between herding and agrarian societies
 Standard 7.  Understands technological and cultural innovation and change from 1000 to 600 BCE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 5.Understands characteristics of pastoral nomadic societies (e.g., the importance of the horse to the development of pastoral nomadism and cavalry warfare; reasons for conflict and economic interdependence between pastoral nomadic peoples of Central Asia and major agrarian states of Eurasia, the location and range of nomadic peoples in the 1st millennium BCE and how they moved their herds and belongings)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the importance of the horse to the development of pastoral nomadism and cavalry warfare
     2.Knows reasons for conflict between pastoral nomadic peoples of Central Asia and major agrarian states of Eurasia
     3.Knows reasons for economic interdependence between pastoral nomadic peoples of Central Asia and major agrarian states of Eurasia
     4.Knows the location and range of nomadic peoples in the 1st millennium BCE
     5.Knows how nomadic peoples in the 1st millennium BCE moved their herds and belongings
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 7.Understands elements of different pastoral nomadic peoples in Central Asia (e.g., what archaeological and other evidence has revealed about Scythian and Xiongnu society and culture; the geography of arid lands of the Eastern Hemisphere, aspects of social relations between peoples of these desert and steppe lands, and how individual communities adapted to the land)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows what archaeological and other evidence has revealed about Scythian and Xiongnu society and culture
     2.Understands the geography of arid lands of the Eastern Hemisphere
     3.Understands aspects of social relations between peoples of the desert and steppe lands
     4.Understands how individual nomadic communities adapted to the land
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the interaction between pastoral nomadic societies, warrior states, and agrarian states in Central Asia (e.g., how the Scythian and Xiongnu warrior states arose among the pastoral nomadic peoples on the Central Asian steppes, the circumstances and trade that led to interdependence and conflict between pastoral nomadic and agrarian societies such as Xiongnu and China)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the Scythian and Xiongnu warrior states arose among the pastoral nomadic peoples on the Central Asian steppes
     2.Understands the circumstances and trade that led to interdependence and conflict between pastoral nomadic and agrarian societies such as Xiongnu and China
 Standard 10.  Understands how early agrarian civilizations arose in Mesoamerica
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands characteristics of Olmec agriculture (e.g., the social and environmental impacts, and the methods of Olmec agriculture; how farming in Mesoamerica differed from that of other agrarian societies in the ancient world)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the social impacts of Olmec agriculture
     2.Understands the environmental impacts of Olmec agriculture
     3.Knows the methods of Olmec agriculture
     4.Understands how farming in Mesoamerica differed from that of other agrarian societies in the ancient world
 Standard 25.  Understands major global trends from 1000 to 1500 CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how major migratory and military movements of pastoral peoples of Asia and Africa affected agrarian states and societies of Eurasia and Africa
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how major migratory movements of pastoral peoples of Asia and Africa affected agrarian states and societies of Eurasia and Africa

Grades K-4 History

 Standard 8.  Understands major discoveries in science and technology, some of their social and economic effects, and the major scientists and inventors responsible for them
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 1.Understands differences between hunters and gatherers and people who cultivated plants and raised domesticated animals for food (e.g., in family life, the amounts of land necessary for support, ability to acquire surplus food for storage and trading)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands family life in hunting and gathering societies
     2.Understands how much land was needed to support hunting and gathering societies
     3.Understands that hunting and gathering societies were not able to acquire surplus food for storage and trade
     4.Understands family life in societies that cultivate plants and raise domesticated animals for food
     5.Understands how much land was needed to support societies that cultivated plants and raised domesticated animals for food
     6.Understands that societies that cultivated plants and raised domesticated animals for food were able to acquire surplus food for storage and trade