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Topic: European overseas expansion in the 15th and 16th centuries 

World History

 Standard 26.  Understands how the transoceanic interlinking of all major regions of the world between 1450 and 1600 led to global transformations
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the interregional trading system that linked peoples of Africa, Asia, and Europe on the eve of the European overseas voyages
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how an interregional trading system links people across continents
     2.Knows the character of the interregional trading system on the eve of the European overseas voyages
   Benchmark 2.Understands what contributed to increasing oceanic travel in the 15th and 16th centuries (e.g., major Spanish and Portuguese technological innovations in shipbuilding, navigation, and naval warfare; navigational inventions such as the compass, astrolabe, and quadrant; trade routes of prominent Asian and European explorers and how prevailing wind currents influenced these routes; the features of Chinese and Arab sailing vessels that made long-distance travel easier)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows major Spanish and Portuguese technological innovations in shipbuilding, navigation, and naval warfare that led to increased oceanic travel in the 15th and 16th centuries
     2.Knows navigational inventions such as the compass, astrolabe, and quadrant that led to increased oceanic travel in the 15th and 16th centuries
     3.Knows trade routes of prominent Asian and European explorers
     4.Knows how prevailing wind currents influenced trade routes of prominent Asian and European explorers
     5.Knows the features of Chinese and Arab sailing vessels that made long distance travel easier and led to increased oceanic travel in the 15th and 16th centuries
   Benchmark 3.Understands the character and impact of Portuguese maritime expansion to Africa, India, and Southeast Asia upon local populations (e.g., relations between King Affonso II of the Kongo and Portuguese, why Bartholomew de las Casas was considered the "defender of the Indians")
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the character and impact on local populations of Portuguese maritime expansion to Africa
     2.Understands the character and impact on local populations of Portuguese maritime expansion to India
     3.Understands the character and impact on local populations of Portuguese maritime expansion to Southeast Asia
     4.Understands relations between King Affonso II of the Kongo and the Portuguese
     5.Understands why Bartholomew de las Casas was considered the "defender of the Indians"
   Benchmark 4.Understands features of Spanish exploration and conquest (e.g., why the Spanish wanted to invade the Incan and Aztec Empires, and why these empires collapsed after the conflict with the Spanish; interaction between the Spanish and indigenous populations such as the Inca and the Aztec; different perspectives on Cort‚s journey into Mexico)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands features of Spanish exploration
     2.Understands features of Spanish conquest
     3.Knows why the Spanish wanted to invade the Incan and Aztec Empires
     4.Understands why the Aztec and Incan empires collapsed after the conflict with the Spanish
     5.Understands interaction between the Spanish and indigenous populations such as the Inca and the Aztec
     6.Knows different perspectives on Cortés’ journey into Mexico
   Benchmark 6.Knows the major accomplishments of Columbus (e.g., his voyages off the coast of Africa and to North America)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows features of Christopher Columbus’ voyages off the coast of Africa
     2.Knows features of Christopher Columbus’ voyages to North America
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the impact of the exploratory and commercial expeditions in the 15th and 16th centuries (e.g., the motives and short-term significance of the Portuguese and Spanish military and commercial expeditions to Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and the Americas; technologies that advanced international, seaborne trade in the latter part of the century; the connotations of the words "conquest," "exchange," and "discovery" used to describe Columbus' travels to North America and his encounters with indigenous populations)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the motives of the Portuguese military and commercial expeditions to Sub Saharan Africa, Asia, and the Americas
     2.Understands the motives of the Spanish military and commercial expeditions to Sub Saharan Africa, Asia, and the Americas
     3.Understands the short term significance of the Portuguese military and commercial expeditions to Sub Saharan Africa, Asia, and the Americas
     4.Understands the short term significance of the Spanish military and commercial expeditions to Sub Saharan Africa, Asia, and the Americas
     5.Knows technologies that advanced international, seaborne trade in the latter part of the century
     6.Understands the connotations of the words "conquest," "exchange," and "discovery" used to describe Columbus’ travels to North America and his encounters with indigenous populations
   Benchmark 2.Understands how the Ottoman, Indian, Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese, and Siamese powers restricted European commercial, military, and political penetration in the 16th century
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the Ottoman powers restricted European commercial, military, and political penetration in the 16th century
     2.Understands how the Indian powers restricted European commercial, military, and political penetration in the 16th century
     3.Understands how the Chinese powers restricted European commercial, military, and political penetration in the 16th century
     4.Understands how the Japanese powers restricted European commercial, military, and political penetration in the 16th century
     5.Understands how the Vietnamese powers restricted European commercial, military, and political penetration in the 16th century
     6.Understands how the Siamese powers restricted European commercial, military, and political penetration in the 16th century
   Benchmark 3.Understands cultural interaction between various societies in the late 15th and 16th centuries (e.g., how the Church helped administer Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the Americas; reasons for the fall of the Incan Empire to Pizarro; how the Portuguese dominated seaborne trade in the Indian Ocean basin in the 16th century; the relations between pilgrims and indigenous populations in North and South America, and the role different religious sects played in these relations; how the presence of Spanish conquerors affected the daily lives of Aztec, Maya, and Inca peoples)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the Church helped administer Spanish colonies in the Americas
     2.Understands how the Church helped administer Portuguese colonies in the Americas
     3.Knows reasons for the fall of the Incan Empire to Pizarro
     4.Understands how the Portuguese dominated seaborne trade in the Indian Ocean basin in the 16th century
     5.Understands the relations between pilgrims and indigenous populations in North and South America, and the role different religious sects played in these relations
     6.Understands how the presence of Spanish conquerors affected the daily lives of Aztec, Maya, and Inca peoples
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands features of Portuguese overseas trade and exploration (e.g., the goals of the Portuguese trading policy as established by King Jo o II, and his reasons for refusing to finance Columbus' expedition west; the impact of maritime technologies on the quality of Portuguese sailing in the 15th century)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands features of Portuguese overseas trade
     2.Understands features of Portuguese overseas exploration
     3.Knows the goals of the Portuguese trading policy as established by King João II, and his reasons for refusing to finance Columbus’ expedition west
     4.Understands the impact of maritime technologies on the quality of Portuguese sailing in the 15th century
   Benchmark 2.Understands significant social, economic, political, and cultural features of European society (particularly Spain and Portugal) that stimulated exploration and conquest overseas
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands significant social features of European society (particularly Spain and Portugal) that stimulated exploration and conquest overseas
     2.Understands significant economic features of European society (particularly Spain and Portugal) that stimulated exploration and conquest overseas
     3.Understands significant political features of European society (particularly Spain and Portugal) that stimulated exploration and conquest overseas
     4.Understands significant cultural features of European society (particularly Spain and Portugal) that stimulated exploration and conquest overseas
   Benchmark 6.Knows the extent of Chinese naval and commercial activities in the Indian Ocean in the 15th century, and understands what these activities reveal about Chinese wealth, technology, and its use of tributes as a means of trade
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the extent of Chinese naval and commercial activities in the Indian Ocean in the 15th century
     2.Understands what Chinese naval and commercial activities in the Indian Ocean reveal about Chinese wealth
     3.Understands what Chinese naval and commercial activities in the Indian Ocean reveal about Chinese technology
     4.Understands what Chinese naval and commercial activities in the Indian Ocean reveal about China’s use of tributes as a means of trade
   Benchmark 7.Understands measures that restricted Muslims and Jews in the 15th and 16th centuries (e.g., the moral and religious justifications used by the Spanish for the expulsion of Jews and Muslims from Spain, and possible consequences of the Spanish conquest of Grenada in 1492; how the organization of overseas trades in the Iberian states prohibited Mudehar Muslims, converts, and Jews from settling in the Americas)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands measures that restricted Muslims in the 15th and 16th centuries
     2.Understands measures that restricted Jews in the 15th and 16th centuries
     3.Knows the moral and religious justifications used by the Spanish for the expulsion of Jews and Muslims from Spain
     4.Knows possible consequences of the Spanish conquest of Grenada in 1492
     5.Understands how the organization of overseas trades in the Iberian states prohibited Mudehar Muslims, converts, and Jews from settling in the Americas