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Topic: Empires and imperialism 

World History

 Standard 7.  Understands technological and cultural innovation and change from 1000 to 600 BCE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands characteristics of the Assyrian and Babylonian Empires (e.g., the geographic extent of the Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and sources of their power and wealth, the significance of geographic features to the success of these empires, what Assyrian art indicates about Assyrian culture and society)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands characteristics of the Assyrian Empire
     2.Understands characteristics of the Babylonian Empire
     3.Knows the geographic extent of the Assyrian Empire
     4.Knows the geographic extent of the Babylonian Empire
     5.Knows the sources of the power and wealth of the Assyrian Empire
     6.Knows the sources of the power and wealth of the Babylonian Empire
     7.Understands the significance of geographic features to the success of the Assyrian Empire
     8.Understands the significance of geographic features to the success of the Babylonian Empire
     9.Understands what Assyrian art indicates about Assyrian culture and society
   Benchmark 3.Knows the locations of significant Greek city-states and colonies in the Black Sea, Northern Africa, and the Western Mediterranean basin and reasons for their establishment
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the locations of significant Greek city states and colonies in the Black Sea
     2.Knows the locations of significant Greek city states and colonies in Northern Africa
     3.Knows the locations of significant Greek city states and colonies in the Western Mediterranean basin
     4.Understands the reasons for the establishment of significant Greek city states and colonies
 Standard 8.  Understands how Aegean civilization emerged and how interrelations developed among peoples of the Eastern Mediterranean and Southwest Asia from 600 to 200 BCE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands significant military developments of the Persian Empire (e.g., major events of the wars between Persia and the Greek city-states; reasons for Persia's failure to conquer the Aegean region; the growth of and geographic influences on the Persian Empire, from the reign of Cyrus I through the wars with Greece; sources of the conflict between the Greeks and the Persians; the four major battles of the Persian wars)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows major events of the wars between Persia and the Greek city states
     2.Knows reasons for Persia’s failure to conquer the Aegean region
     3.Understands the growth of and geographic influences on the Persian Empire, from the reign of Cyrus I through the wars with Greece
     4.Knows sources of the conflict between the Greeks and the Persians
     5.Knows the four major battles of the Persian wars
   Benchmark 4.Understands Alexander's achievements as a military and political leader (e.g., reasons for the disintegration of the empire into smaller areas after his rule; the campaigns, battles, and cities founded in Alexander's imperial conquests)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands Alexander’s achievements as a military leader
     2.Understands Alexander’s achievements as a political leader
     3.Knows reasons for the disintegration of the empire into smaller areas after Alexander’s rule
     4.Knows the campaigns, battles, and cities founded in Alexander’s imperial conquests
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the characteristics of Persian founding, expansion, and political organization (e.g., the political structure of Persia under Darius the Great, and how the Persian Empire ruled diverse ethnic populations; the leadership organization of Darius I, and why his "chain of command" was so effective; the effects of the Persian Wars upon the daily lives of the people of Persia and Greece)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the characteristics of the founding of Persia
     2.Understands the characteristics of Persian expansion
     3.Understands the characteristics of Persian political organization
     4.Understands the political structure of Persia under Darius the Great
     5.Understands how the Persian Empire ruled diverse ethnic populations
     6.Understands the leadership organization of Darius I and why his "chain of command" was so effective
     7.Understands the effects of the Persian Wars upon the daily lives of the people of Persia and Greece
   Benchmark 4.Understands elements of Alexander of Macedon's legacy (e.g., the scope and success of his imperial conquests; his rise to power, methods used to unite the empire)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the scope and success of Alexander’s imperial conquests
     2.Understands Alexander of Macedon’s rise to power
     3.Knows methods Alexander used to unite the empire
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the major events and the significance of the Persian Wars (e.g., the long-term effects of the Persian Wars upon Greece, how the internal political and military structure of the two antagonists in the Persian Wars dictated their strategies, how the Greek city-states were able to defeat the "monolithic" Persian armies and navies, Herodotus' version of the key events of the Persian Wars and how reliable this account might be)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the major events of the Persian Wars
     2.Understands the significance of the Persian Wars
     3.Understands the long term effects of the Persian Wars upon Greece
     4.Understands how the internal political and military structure of the two antagonists in the Persian Wars dictated their strategies
     5.Understands how the Greek city states were able to defeat the "monolithic" Persian armies and navies
     6.Knows Herodotus’ version of the key events of the Persian Wars and how reliable this account might be
   Benchmark 4.Understands Persian religious beliefs (e.g., the basic teachings of Zoroastrianism; the relationship between religion and politics in Persian society and the place of Zoroastrianism within the various levels of Persian society)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the basic teachings of Zoroastrianism
     2.Understands the relationship between religion and politics in Persian society
     3.Understands the place of Zoroastrianism within the various levels of Persian society
   Benchmark 5.Understands how conquest influenced cultural life during the Hellenistic era (e.g., the cultural diffusion of Greek, Egyptian, Persian, and Indian art and architecture through assimilation, conquest, migration, and trade; the benefits and costs of Alexander's conquests on numerous cultures, and the extent to which these conquests brought about cultural mixing and exchange)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the cultural diffusion of Greek, Egyptian, Persian, and Indian art and architecture through assimilation, conquest, migration, and trade
     2.Understands the benefits and costs of Alexander’s conquests on numerous cultures
     3.Understands the extent to which Alexander’s conquests brought about cultural mixing and exchange
 Standard 9.  Understand how major religious and large-scale empires arose in the Mediterranean Basin, China, and India from 500 BCE to 300 CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands fundamental social, political, and cultural characteristics of Chinese society under early imperial dynasties (e.g., the importance of the "Mandate of Heaven" to the success of the Zhou Dynasty and its development of imperial rule; the literary and artistic achievements of early imperial dynasties; the development and consequences of iron technology and the family division of labor system; comparisons between the Shang, Zhou, Quin, and Han Empires in areas they controlled and methods of government; the composition and stratification of Chinese society, and factors that gave individuals status; imperial attitudes and actions toward nomadic peoples along the borders of the kingdom)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands fundamental social characteristics of Chinese society under early imperial dynasties
     2.Understands fundamental political characteristics of Chinese society under early imperial dynasties
     3.Understands fundamental cultural characteristics of Chinese society under early imperial dynasties
     4.Understands the importance of the "Mandate of Heaven" to the success of the Zhou Dynasty and its development of imperial rule
     5.Knows the literary and artistic achievements of early imperial dynasties of China
     6.Understands the development and consequences of iron technology
     7.Understands the development and consequences of the family division of labor system in China
     8.Understands comparisons between the Shang, Zhou, Quin, and Han Empires in areas they controlled and methods of government
     9.Understands the composition and stratification of Chinese society, including factors that gave individuals status
     10.Knows imperial attitudes and actions toward nomadic peoples along the borders of the kingdom
   Benchmark 4.Understands the major religious beliefs and social framework in India during the Gangetic states and the Mauryan Empire (e.g., the major beliefs and practices of Brahmanism in India; how Buddhism spread in India, Ceylon, and Central Asia; aspects of social structure of India during the Mauryan Empire; what advice the animal stories of the Panchantantra offer to people with little power, how this advice was used by Chandragupta; how the teachings of Shvetaketu from the Chandogya Upanishad compare to the Buddhist idea of nirvana)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the major religious beliefs in India during the Gangetic states and the Mauryan Empire
     2.Understands the social framework in India during the Gangetic states and the Mauryan Empire
     3.Knows the major beliefs and practices of Brahmanism in India
     4.Understands how Buddhism spread in India, Ceylon, and Central Asia
     5.Knows aspects of social structure of India during the Mauryan Empire
     6.Knows what advice the animal stories of the Panchantantra offer to people with little power and how this advice was used by Chandragupta
     7.Understands how the teachings of Shvetaketu from the Chandogya Upanishad compare to the Buddhist idea of nirvana
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands shifts in the political framework of Roman society (e.g., major phases in the empire's expansion through the 1st century CE; how imperial rule over a vast area transformed Roman society, economy, and culture; the causes and consequences of the transition from Republic to Empire under Augustus in Rome; how Rome governed its provinces from the late Republic to the Empire; how innovations in ancient military technology affected patterns of warfare and empire building)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows major phases in the Roman Empire’s expansion through the 1st century CE
     2.Understands how imperial rule over a vast area transformed Roman society
     3.Understands how imperial rule over a vast area transformed the Roman economy
     4.Understands how imperial rule over a vast area transformed Roman culture
     5.Understands the causes and consequences of the transition from Republic to Empire under Augustus in Rome
     6.Understands how Rome governed its provinces from the late Republic to the Empire
     7.Understands how innovations in ancient military technology affected patterns of warfare
     8.Understands how innovations in ancient military technology affected empire building
   Benchmark 3.Understands the political and cultural characteristics of the Han Dynasty (e.g., the political and ideological contributions of the Han to the development of the imperial bureaucratic state and imperial expansion, how contemporaneous art reflects the history and philosophy of China through the end of the Han Dynasty)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the political characteristics of the Han Dynasty
     2.Understands the cultural characteristics of the Han Dynasty
     3.Understands the political contributions of the Han to the development of the imperial bureaucratic state and imperial expansion
     4.Understands the ideological contributions of the Han to the development of the imperial bureaucratic state and imperial expansion
     5.Understands how contemporaneous art reflects the history and philosophy of China through the end of the Han Dynasty
 Standard 11.  Understands major global trends from 1000 BCE to 300 CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Knows the different forms of slavery or coerced labor in various empires (e.g., the Han empire, the Maurya empire, the Greek city-states, the Roman empire)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the forms of slavery or coerced labor used in the Han empire
     2.Knows the forms of slavery or coerced labor used in the Maurya empire
     3.Knows the forms of slavery or coerced labor used in the Greek city-states
     4.Knows the forms of slavery or coerced labor used in the Roman empire
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the development of large regional empires (e.g., the significance of military power, state bureaucracy, legal codes, belief systems, written languages, and communications and trade networks; how trade networks, merchant communities, state power, tributary systems of production, and other factors contributed to the economic integration of large regions of Afro-Eurasia)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the significance of military power in the development of large regional empires
     2.Understands the significance of state bureaucracy in the development of large regional empires
     3.Understands the significance of legal codes in the development of large regional empires
     4.Understands the significance of belief systems in the development of large regional empires
     5.Understands the significance of written languages in the development of large regional empires
     6.Understands the significance of communications and trade networks in the development of large regional empires
     7.Understands how trade networks contributed to the economic integration of large regions of Afro Eurasia
     8.Understands how merchant communities contributed to the economic integration of large regions of Afro Eurasia
     9.Understands how state power contributed to the economic integration of large regions of Afro Eurasia
     10.Understands how tributary systems of production contributed to the economic integration of large regions of Afro Eurasia
     11.Understand how other factors contributed to the economic integration of large regions of Afro Eurasia
 Standard 12.  Understands the Imperial crises and their aftermath in various regions from 300 to 700 CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands possible reasons for the decline of the Roman and Han Empires (e.g., possible factors that motivated nomadic peoples to move into the Roman Empire and China, common patterns of decline and fall in the Roman and Han Empires, the chronological order of significant historical events for Rome from the late Empire through the reign of Justinian, how differences in architecture can illustrate unity and alienation between the Eastern and Western halves of the Roman Empire)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands possible reasons for the decline of the Roman Empire
     2.Understands possible reasons for the decline of the Han Empire
     3.Knows possible factors that motivated nomadic peoples to move into the Roman Empire and China
     4.Knows common patterns of decline and fall in the Roman and Han Empires
     5.Knows the chronological order of significant historical events for Rome from the late Empire through the reign of Justinian
     6.Understands how differences in architecture can illustrate unity and alienation between the Eastern and Western halves of the Roman Empire
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands political events that may have contributed to the decline of the Roman and Han Empires (e.g., the consequences of nomadic military movements in China and the western part of the Roman Empire; the nomadic invasions of the Roman Empire as described in the accounts of Orosius, Ammianus Marcellinus, Priscus, and secondary sources; significant battles, internal divisions, political changes, and invasions between the 3rd and 7th centuries CE that led to the fall of the Roman and Han Empires; the relative strengths and weaknesses of the Roman, Byzantine, and Han Empires)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands political events that may have contributed to the decline of the Roman Empire
     2.Understands political events that may have contributed to the decline of the Han Empire
     3.Understands the consequences of nomadic military movements in China and the western part of the Roman Empire
     4.Understands the nomadic invasions of the Roman Empire as described in the accounts of Orosius, Ammianus Marcellinus, Priscus, and secondary sources
     5.Knows significant battles, internal divisions, political changes, and invasions between the 3rd and 7th centuries CE that led to the fall of the Roman Empire
     6.Knows significant battles, internal divisions, political changes, and invasions between the 3rd and 7th centuries CE that led to the fall of the Han Empire
     7.Understands the relative strengths and weaknesses of the Roman, Byzantine, and Han Empires
   Benchmark 3.Understands political events that shaped the Gupta Empire (e.g., factors that contributed to the Gupta Empire's stability and economic prosperity, how Hinduism prevailed as the dominant faith in India, possible reasons for the alliance of the Gupta Empire with Brahmanism and the fall of the Mauryan-Buddhist power, how and why Guptan kings promoted Hinduism while simultaneously fostering Buddhist culture and integrating marginal groups into the political system)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows factors that contributed to the Gupta Empire’s stability and economic prosperity
     2.Understands how Hinduism prevailed as the dominant faith in India
     3.Knows possible reasons for the alliance of the Gupta Empire with Brahmanism and the fall of the Mauryan Buddhist power
     4.Understands how and why Guptan kings promoted Hinduism while simultaneously fostering Buddhist culture and integrating marginal groups into the political system
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands political and social elements during the decline of the Roman and Han Empires and the rise of the Byzantine Empire (e.g., the strengths and weaknesses of the Eastern and Western Roman Empires and the factors that enabled the Byzantine Empire to continue as Rome fell; how Constantine selectively supported aspects of Western rule with Eastern institutions to create a new, independent, Byzantine state in the 4th century CE; the links between military, social, and economic causes for the decline in the Han and Roman Empires; the impact of barbarian movements on the regions of Europe, China, and India by the end of the 7th century CE; the life of Germanic peoples and society including the status and role of women)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands political elements during the decline of the Roman and Han Empires and the rise of the Byzantine Empire
     2.Understands social elements during the decline of the Roman and Han Empires and the rise of the Byzantine Empire
     3.Understands the strengths and weaknesses of the Eastern and Western Roman Empires
     4.Knows the factors that enabled the Byzantine Empire to continue as Rome fell
     5.Understands how Constantine selectively supported aspects of Western rule with Eastern institutions to create a new, independent, Byzantine state in the 4th century CE
     6.Understands the links between military, social, and economic causes for the decline in the Han and Roman Empires
     7.Understands the impact of barbarian movements on the regions of Europe, China, and India by the end of the 7th century CE
     8.Understands the life of Germanic peoples and society including the status and role of women
 Standard 13.  Understands the causes and consequences of the development of Islamic civilization between the 7th and 10th centuries
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands how the Byzantine Empire defended itself against various invaders (e.g., variations in maritime technology and ship design in the 9th century and the role of the navy in Byzantine defense against Arab Muslim attacks; weapons, fortification, and military preparedness of the Byzantine Empire and explanations for its successful defense against Bulgar and Arab invaders)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows variations in maritime technology and ship design in the 9th century and the role of the navy in Byzantine defense against Arab Muslim attacks
     2.Knows the weapons, fortification, and military preparedness of the Byzantine Empire
     3.Knows explanations for the Byzantine Empire’s successful defense against Bulgar and Arab invaders
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the political, social, and religious problems confronting the Byzantine and Sassanid Persian Empires in the 7th century and the commercial role of Arabia in the Southwest Asian economy
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the political problems confronting the Byzantine empire in the 7th century
     2.Understands the religious problems confronting the Byzantine empire in the 7th century
     3.Understands the social problems confronting the Byzantine empire in the 7th century
     4.Understands the political problems confronting the Sassanid Persian empire in the 7th century
     5.Understands the religious problems confronting the Byzantine empire in the 7th century
     6.Understands the social problems confronting the Sassanid Persian empire in the 7th century
     7.Understands the commercial role of Arabia in the Southwest Asian economy
   Benchmark 3.Understands the strengths and weaknesses of the Abbasid, Byzantine, and Sassanid Persian governments and military institutions
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the strengths of the Abbasid government institutions
     2.Understands the weaknesses of the Abbasid military institutions
     3.Understands the strengths of the Abbasid military institutions
     4.Understands the weaknesses of the Abbasid military institutions
     5.Understands the strengths of the Byzantine government institutions
     6.Understands the weaknesses of the Byzantine government institutions
     7.Understands the strengths of the Byzantine military institutions
     8.Understands the weaknesses of the Byzantine military institutions
     9.Understands the strengths of the Sassanid Persian government institutions
     10.Understands the weaknesses of the Sassanid Persian government institutions
     11.Understands the strengths of the Sassanid Persian military institutions
     12.Understands the weaknesses of the Sassanid Persian military institutions
 Standard 14.  Understands major developments in East Asia and Southeast Asia in the era of the Tang Dynasty from 600 to 900 CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the culture and technological achievements of Tang China (e.g., the ideals and values of everyday life expressed in the poetry, landscape, painting, and pottery of the Tang Dynasty; the system of roads and canals in Tang China; the extent of the Tang Empire, the trade routes used by the empire, and the products exchanged; major technologies developed under the Tang Dynasty, how these technologies influenced Tang society and spread to other regions)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the cultural achievements of Tang China
     2.Understands the technological achievements of Tang China
     3.Knows the ideals and values of everyday life expressed in the poetry, landscape, painting, and pottery of the Tang Dynasty
     4.Understands the system of roads and canals in Tang China as a technological achievement
     5.Knows the extent of the Tang Empire
     6.Knows the trade routes used by the Tang empire
     7.Knows the products exchanged along trade routes in the Tang empire
     8.Knows major technologies developed under the Tang Dynasty
     9.Understands how technologies developed under the Tang Dynasty influenced Tang society
     10.Understands how technologies developed under the Tang Dynasty spread to other regions
 Standard 15.  Understands the political, social, and cultural redefinitions in Europe from 500 to 1000 CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the influence of the Carolingian Empire on the development of European civilization (e.g., how Charlemagne's royal court, monasteries, and convents preserved Greco-Roman and early Christian learning and contributed to the emergence of European civilization; changing political relations between the papacy and the secular rulers of Europe; extent and causes of the Carolingian influence in Europe and reasons for its decline; how the Rules of St. Benedict shaped Medieval Europe; how secular leaders such as Charlemagne influenced political order within Europe)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how Charlemagne’s royal court, monasteries, and convents preserved Greco Roman and early Christian learning
     2.Understands how Charlemagne’s royal court, monasteries, and convents contributed to the emergence of European civilization
     3.Understands changing political relations between the papacy and the secular rulers of Europe
     4.Understands extent and causes of the Carolingian influence in Europe
     5.Understands reasons for the decline of the Carolingian state
     6.Understands how the Rules of St. Benedict shaped Medieval Europe
     7.Understands how secular leaders such as Charlemagne influenced political order within Europe
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the significance of different empires in Europe (e.g., the size, wealth, and political organization of Charlemagne's empire compared to Byzantium, the Abbasid empire, and the Islamic caliphate of Iberia; the extent of the Frankish Empire under Clovis, the eventual division of imperial territory among his four sons, and the consequences of this division)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the size, wealth, and political organization of Charlemagne’s empire compared to Byzantium
     3.Understands the size, wealth, and political organization of Charlemagne’s empire compared to the Islamic caliphate of Iberia
     4.Understands the extent of the Frankish Empire under Clovis
     5.Understands the eventual division of imperial territory among Clovis’ four sons and the consequences of this division
   Benchmark 4.Understands central and peripheral reasons for the failure of the Carolingian Empire to endure after the death of Charlemagne (e.g., the independent power of nobles; the advantage of the Magyar cavalry and Viking longboat)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands central reasons for the failure of the Carolingian Empire to endure after the death of Charlemagne
     2.Understands peripheral reasons for the failure of the Carolingian Empire to endure after the death of Charlemagne
     3.Understands the role of the independent power of nobles in the failure of the Carolingian Empire to endure after the death of Charlemagne
     4.Understands the advantage of the Magyar cavalry and Viking longboat and their role in the failure of the Carolingian Empire to endure after the death of Charlemagne
 Standard 16.  Understands the development of agricultural societies and new states in tropical Africa and Oceania
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands influences on state-building in West Africa (e.g., how the natural environments of West Africa defined agricultural production, and the importance of the Niger River in promoting agriculture, commerce, and state-building; the growth of the Ghana empire; how Islam, labor specialization, regional commerce and the trans-Saharan camel trade promoted urbanization in West Africa; the governing system of the royal court in Ghana, and how the effectiveness of imperial efforts was aided by a belief in the king's divinity)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the natural environments of West Africa defined agricultural production
     2.Understands the importance of the Niger River in promoting agriculture, commerce, and state building
     3.Understands the growth of the Ghana empire
     4.Understands how Islam promoted urbanization in West Africa
     5.Understands how labor specialization promoted urbanization in West Africa
     6.Understands how regional commerce promoted urbanization in West Africa
     7.Understands how the trans Saharan camel trade promoted urbanization in West Africa
     8.Understands the governing system of the royal court in Ghana
     9.Understands how the effectiveness of imperial efforts in Ghana was aided by a belief in the king’s divinity
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands economic, social, and religious influences on Ghana society (e.g., what archaeological evidence indicates about the development of Jenne-jeno and Kumbi-Saleh into important early commercial cities; the agriculture, trade, standard of living, expansionary tendencies and role of religious ideas in Ghana)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands economic influences on Ghana society
     2.Understands social influences on Ghana society
     3.Understands religious influences on Ghana society
     4.Knows what archaeological evidence indicates about the development of Jenn jeno and Kumbi Saleh into important early commercial cities
     5.Understands the features of agriculture in Ghana
     6.Understands features of trade in Ghana
     7.Understands the standard of living in Ghana
     8.Understands the expansionary tendencies of Ghana society
     9.Understands the role of religious ideas in Ghana
 Standard 18.  Understands major global trends from 300 to 1000 CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the factors that contributed to the weakening of empires in world history from 300 to 1000 CE (e.g., the migratory and military movements of pastoral nomadic peoples from Central Asia and the Arabian Peninsula and the consequences of these movements for empires and agrarian civilizations of Eurasia and Africa)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the migratory and military movements of pastoral nomadic peoples from Central Asia and the Arabian Peninsula
     2.Understands the consequences of the movements of pastoral nomadic peoples from Central Asia and the Arabian Peninsula for empires of Eurasia and Africa
     3.Understands the consequences of the movements of pastoral nomadic peoples from Central Asia and the Arabian Peninsula for agrarian civilizations of Eurasia and Africa
 Standard 19.  Understands the maturation of an interregional system of communication, trade, and cultural exchange during a period of Chinese economic power and Islamic expansion
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 10.Understands cultural and political aspects of the Turkic Empires (e.g., the way of life of Turkic peoples such as the Seljuks, the origins and growth of the militaristic Seljuk and Ghazanavid Empires)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands cultural aspects of the Turkic Empires
     2.Understands political aspects of the Turkic Empires
     3.Understands the way of life of Turkic peoples such as the Seljuks
     4.Knows the origins of the militaristic Seljuk and Ghazanavid Empires
     5.Understands the growth of the militaristic Seljuk and Ghazanavid Empires
 Standard 21.  Understands the rise of the Mongol Empire and its consequences for Eurasian peoples from 1200 to 1350
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the significance of Chinggis Khan (e.g., the major achievements of Chinggis Khan, the geographical extent of Chinggis Khan's conquests, the role military technology may have played in the success of Mongol military campaigns)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the major achievements of Chinggis Khan
     2.Knows the geographical extent of Chinggis Khan’s conquests
     3.Knows the role military technology may have played in the success of Mongol military campaigns
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands political, social, and cultural features of the Mongol Empire (e.g., the chronology and consequences of the Mongol conquests of 1206 to 1279 on China, Southeast Asia, Russia, and Southwest Asia; the relative strengths and weaknesses of the nomadic Mongol lifestyle with regard to social, political, and economic organization, and why the Mongols prevailed; what legend and fact reveal about Mongol conquest and Mongol warriors)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands political features of the Mongol Empire
     2.Understands social cultural features of the Mongol Empire
     3.Understands cultural features of the Mongol Empire
     4.Understands the chronology of the Mongol conquests of 1206 to 1279 on China, Southeast Asia, Russia, and Southwest Asia
     5.Understands the consequences of the Mongol conquests of 1206 to 1279 on China, Southeast Asia, Russia, and Southwest Asia
     6.Understands the relative strengths and weaknesses of the nomadic Mongol lifestyle with regard to social, political, and economic organization
     7.Understands why the Mongols prevailed in their conquests
     8.Knows what legend and fact reveal about Mongol conquest and Mongol warriors
   Benchmark 2.Understands the influence of the "Golden Horde" in various regions (e.g., the impact of the "Golden Horde" rule on the peoples of Eastern Europe and Russia, the major accomplishments of Batu)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the impact of the "Golden Horde" rule on the peoples of Eastern Europe and Russia
     2.Knows the major accomplishments of Batu
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the political features of the Mongol Empire and its influence on other regions (e.g., the political character of Mongol rule in China, Central Asia, southwest Asia, and Russia; the significance of the "Pax Mongolica" and how long-distance communication and trade led to cultural and technological diffusion across Eurasia; how Mongol military organization and techniques led to victory in their conquests between 1206 and 1279)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the political features of the Mongol Empire
     2.Understands the influence of the Mongol empire on other regions
     3.Understands the political character of Mongol rule in China, Central Asia, southwest Asia, and Russia
     4.Knows the significance of the "Pax Mongolica"
     5.Knows how long distance communication and trade led to cultural and technological diffusion across Eurasia
     6.Understands how Mongol military organization and techniques led to victory in their conquests between 1206 and 1279
   Benchmark 2.Understands factors that contributed to the division and eventual decline of the Mongol Empire after the death of Chinggis Kahn (e.g., disputes over succession, the absence of a bureaucracy, conflicts between nomadic traditions and the ideas of conquered urban cultures)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands factors that contributed to the division of the Mongol Empire after the death of Chinggis Kahn
     2.Understands factors that contributed to the eventual decline of the Mongol Empire after the death of Chinggis Kahn
     3.Understands disputes over succession to Chinggis Kahn in the Mongol empire
     4.Understands the role of the absence of a bureaucracy in the eventual decline of the Mongol empire
     5.Understands conflicts between nomadic traditions and the ideas of conquered urban cultures and the role of these conflicts in the decline of the Mongol empire
   Benchmark 3.Understands the interaction between the Mongols and cultures of Mongol domination (e.g., the Islamization of the Golden Horde and the Khanate of Persian-Iraq; why the Mongols did not conquer the Mamluks in Northern Africa; comparisons between Mongol and Muslim society and culture; the extent of Mongol control of Southwest Asia; relations between Chinese artists and the Mongol court during the Yuan Dynasty; the advantages of living under Mongol rule for the Chinese, Russians, and Southwest Asians)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the Islamization of the Golden Horde and the Khanate of Persian Iraq
     2.Knows why the Mongols did not conquer the Mamluks in Northern Africa
     3.Understands comparisons between Mongol and Muslim society and culture
     4.Knows the extent of Mongol control of Southwest Asia
     5.Understands relations between Chinese artists and the Mongol court during the Yuan Dynasty
     6.Knows the advantages of living under Mongol rule for the Chinese
     7.Knows the advantages of living under Mongol rule for the Russians
     8.Knows the advantages of living under Mongol rule for the Southwest Asians
   Benchmark 6.Knows the consequences of the death of the Great Khan Ogodei for the Mongol enterprise in Eastern Europe and that of the Great Khan Mongke for the Mongol plans to invade Egypt
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the consequences of the death of the Great Khan Ogodei for the Mongol enterprise in Eastern Europe
     2.Knows the consequences of the death of the Great Khan Mongke for the Mongol plans to invade Egypt
 Standard 22.  Understands the growth of states, towns, and trade in Sub-Saharan Africa between the 11th and 15th centuries
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands influences on the economic development of Sub-Saharan empires (e.g., the importance of agriculture, gold production, and the trans-Saharan caravan trade to the growth of the Mali and Songhay Empires; the importance of trade within the major city-states and populations of Sub-Saharan Africa)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the importance of agriculture to the growth of the Mali and Songhay Empires
     2.Understands the importance of gold production to the growth of the Mali and Songhay Empires
     3.Understands the importance of the trans-Saharan caravan trade to the growth of the Mali and Songhay Empires
     4.Understands the importance of trade within the major city states and populations of Sub-Saharan Africa
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the development of the empires of Mali and Songhay (e.g., the importance of Islamic expansion in the political and cultural life of Mali and Songhay; the economic, social, and religious characteristics of the two empires; the observations of Ibn Battua and Leo Africanus in Mali and Songhay; the importance of the Monarch Mansa Musa in Mali)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the development of the empire of Mali
     2.Understands the development of the empire of Songhay
     3.Understands the importance of Islamic expansion in the political and cultural life of Mali and Songhay
     4.Understands the economic characteristics of Mali
     5.Understands the religious characteristics of Mali
     6.Understands the social characteristics of Mali
     7.Understands the economic characteristics of Songhay
     8.Understands the religious characteristics of Mali
     9.Understands the social characteristics of Mali
     10.Knows the observations of Ibn Battua and Leo Africanus in Mali and Songhay
     11.Understands the importance of the Monarch Mansa Musa in Mali
 Standard 23.  Understands patterns of crisis and recovery in Afro-Eurasia between 1300 and 1450
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the origins and early expansion of the Ottoman Empire up to the capture of Constantinople in 1453
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the origins of the Ottoman Empire
     2.Understands early expansion of the Ottoman Empire up to the capture of Constantinople in 1453
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands shifts in the leadership and political climate in China (e.g., the events that led to the collapse of Mongol rule in China; the reconstitution of the Mongol Empire under the Chinese Ming Dynasty; economic and political reforms and other achievements of the Hongwu emperor in China, and how these reforms restored for the Ming Dynasty continuity with pre-Yuan Empires)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands shifts in the leadership in China
     2.Understands shifts in the political climate in China
     3.Knows the events that led to the collapse of Mongol rule in China
     4.Understands the reconstitution of the Mongol Empire under the Chinese Ming Dynasty
     5.Knows economic and political reforms and other achievements of the Hongwu emperor in China
     6.Knows how the reforms of the Hongwu emperor restored for the Ming Dynasty continuity with pre Yuan Empires
   Benchmark 11.Understands what accounts for the success of the Ottoman empire
 Standard 24.  Understands the expansion of states and civilizations in the Americas between 1000 and 1500
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how the Aztec Empire arose in the 14th century (e.g., major aspects of Aztec government, society, religion and culture; the construction of Tenochtitl n, the "Foundation of Heaven")
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands major aspects of Aztec government
     2.Understands major aspects of Aztec society
     3.Understands major aspects of Aztec religion
     4.Understands major aspects of Aztec culture
     5.Understands the construction of Tenochtitlán, the "Foundation of Heaven"
   Benchmark 2.Understands social and political elements of Incan society (e.g., Incan methods for expansion and unification of their empire, daily life for different people in Incan society, the food plants that formed the basis of Incan as compared with Aztec agriculture)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands social elements of Incan society
     2.Understands political elements of Incan society
     3.Knows Incan methods for expansion and unification of their empire
     4.Understands daily life for different people in Incan society
     5.Knows the food plants that formed the basis of Incan as compared with Aztec agriculture
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the similarities and differences between Incan and Aztec society (e.g., the essential differences between Aztec and Incan government, economy, religion, and social organization; how Incan and Aztec art and architecture reveal cultural achievements in their societies)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the similarities between Incan and Aztec society
     2.Understands the differences between Incan and Aztec society
     3.Understands the essential differences between Aztec and Incan government
     4.Understands the essential differences between Aztec and Incan economy
     5.Understands the essential differences between Aztec and Incan religion
     6.Understands the essential differences between Aztec and Incan social organization
     7.Understands how Incan and Aztec art and architecture reveal cultural achievements in their societies
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands political, social, and economic features of Aztec society (e.g., the locations and geographic limits of different phases of the Aztec Empire, the role and status of women in Aztec society and how this compares to the Incan and Mayan societies, the complex structure and features of the Aztec city of Tenochtitl n)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands political features of Aztec society
     2.Understands social features of Aztec society
     3.Understands economic features of Aztec society
     4.Knows the locations and geographic limits of different phases of the Aztec Empire
     5.Understands the role and status of women in Aztec society and how this compares to the Incan and Mayan societies
     6.Understands the complex structure and features of the Aztec city of Tenochtitlán
 Standard 25.  Understands major global trends from 1000 to 1500 CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands differences and similarities between the Inca and Aztec empires and empires of Afro-Eurasia (e.g., political institutions, warfare, social organizations, cultural achievements)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands differences and similarities between political institutions in the Inca and Aztec empires and empires of Afro Eurasia
     2.Understands differences and similarities between warfare in the Inca and Aztec empires and empires of Afro Eurasia
     3.Understands differences and similarities between social organizations in the Inca and Aztec empires and empires of Afro Eurasia
     4.Understands differences and similarities between cultural achievements in the Inca and Aztec empires and empires of Afro Eurasia
 Standard 26.  Understands how the transoceanic interlinking of all major regions of the world between 1450 and 1600 led to global transformations
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 4.Understands features of Spanish exploration and conquest (e.g., why the Spanish wanted to invade the Incan and Aztec Empires, and why these empires collapsed after the conflict with the Spanish; interaction between the Spanish and indigenous populations such as the Inca and the Aztec; different perspectives on Cort‚s journey into Mexico)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands features of Spanish exploration
     2.Understands features of Spanish conquest
     3.Knows why the Spanish wanted to invade the Incan and Aztec Empires
     4.Understands why the Aztec and Incan empires collapsed after the conflict with the Spanish
     5.Understands interaction between the Spanish and indigenous populations such as the Inca and the Aztec
     6.Knows different perspectives on Cortés’ journey into Mexico
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the consequences of Portuguese military conflicts and interaction with other cultures (e.g., the origins and consequences of Ottoman-Portuguese military conflicts in the Red Sea, Arabian Sea, and Ethiopia in the early 16th century; the political and economic impact of Portuguese presence on the peoples of West and East Africa in the late 15th and 16th centuries)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the consequences of Portuguese military conflicts with other cultures
     2.Understands the consequences of Portuguese interaction with other cultures
     3.Knows the origins and consequences of Ottoman Portuguese military conflicts in the Red Sea in the early 16th century
     4.Knows the origins and consequences of Ottoman Portuguese military conflicts in the Arabian Sea in the early 16th century
     5.Knows the origins and consequences of Ottoman Portuguese military conflicts in Ethiopia in the early 16th century
     6.Understands the political impact of Portuguese presence on the peoples of West and East Africa in the late 15th and 16th centuries
     7.Understands the economic impact of Portuguese presence on the peoples of West and East Africa in the late 15th and 16th centuries
 Standard 28.  Understands how large territorial empires dominated much of Eurasia between the 16th and 18th centuries
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the power and limit of imperial absolutism under the Ming Dynasty (e.g., variations in control over society and the bureaucracy)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the power of imperial absolutism under the Ming Dynasty
     2.Understands the limit of imperial absolutism under the Ming Dynasty
     3.Understands variations in control over society and the bureaucracy under the Ming Dynasty
   Benchmark 2.Understands how China viewed its role in the world during the Ming Dynasty (e.g., why China's attitude toward external political and commercial relations changed after the Zheng He voyages from 1405 to 1433, the Chinese belief that other countries had a tributary relationship to the celestial empire)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands why China’s attitude toward external political and commercial relations changed after the Zheng He voyages from 1405 to 1433
     2.Understands the Chinese belief that other countries had a tributary relationship to the celestial empire
   Benchmark 3.Understands political and cultural achievements of the Ottoman Empire (e.g., the significance of the capture of Constantinople for Christians and Ottomans; how the Ottoman military succeeded against various enemies; artistic, architectural, and literary achievements of the Ottoman Empire in the 15th and 16th centuries; achievements of Sulieman the Magnificent; the extent of the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires in the 14th and 15th centuries)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands political achievements of the Ottoman Empire
     2.Understands cultural achievements of the Ottoman Empire
     3.Understands the significance of the capture of Constantinople for Christians
     4.Understands the significance of the capture of Constantinople for Ottomans
     5.Understands how the Ottoman military succeeded against various enemies
     6.Knows artistic achievements of the Ottoman Empire in the 15th and 16th centuries
     7.Knows architectural achievements of the Ottoman Empire in the 15th and 16th centuries
     8.Knows literary achievements of the Ottoman Empire in the 15th and 16th centuries
     9.Knows the achievements of Sulieman the Magnificent
     10.Knows the extent of the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires in the 14th and 15th centuries
   Benchmark 4.Understands political achievements of the Safavid and Mughal Empires (e.g., how Persia was unified by the Turkic Safavids, the political and cultural achievements of the Safavid Golden Age under Shah Abbas I, the Mughal conquest of India and how the Turkic warrior class united diverse peoples of the Indian continent)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands political achievements of the Safavid Empire
     2.Understands political achievements of the Mughal Empire
     3.Understands how Persia was unified by the Turkic Safavids
     4.Understands the political achievements of the Safavid Golden Age under Shah Abbas I
     5.Understands the cultural achievements of the Safavid Golden Age under Shah Abbas I
     6.Knows features of the Mughal conquest of India
     7.Understands how the Turkic warrior class united diverse peoples of the Indian continent
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands interactions between China and other countries during the Ming Dynasty (e.g., the Chinese view of itself as the "Middle Kingdom;" political, commercial, and cultural relations with Korea, Vietnam, and other societies of East and Southeast Asia)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the Chinese view of itself as the "Middle Kingdom’
     2.Understands Chinese political relations with Korea
     3.Understands Chinese political relations with Vietnam
     4.Understands Chinese political relations with various societies of East and Southeast Asia
     5.Understands Chinese commercial relations with Korea
     6.Understands Chinese commercial relations with Vietnam
     7.Understands Chinese commercial relations with various societies of East and Southeast Asia
     8.Understands Chinese cultural relations with Korea
     9.Understands Chinese cultural relations with Vietnam
     10.Understands Chinese cultural relations with various societies of East and Southeast Asia
   Benchmark 3.Understands cultural, political, and economic factors that influenced the development of the Ottoman Empire (e.g., the development of the Ottoman Empire among diverse religious and ethnic groups, the Christian European view of the Ottoman seizure of Constantinople in 1453, trade routes within the Ottoman Empire and how trade was affected by the development of a sea route around Africa)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands cultural factors that influenced the development of the Ottoman Empire
     2.Understands political factors that influenced the development of the Ottoman Empire
     3.Understands economic factors that influenced the development of the Ottoman Empire
     4.Understands the development of the Ottoman Empire among diverse religious and ethnic groups
     5.Knows the Christian European view of the Ottoman seizure of Constantinople in 1453
     6.Knows trade routes within the Ottoman Empire
     7.Knows how trade in the Ottoman Empire was affected by the development of a sea route around Africa
   Benchmark 4.Understands political and religious influences on the development of the Mughal Empire (e.g., relations between Muslims and Hindus in the empire, the effectiveness of Akbar's governing methods and religious ideas in comparison to other Mughal emperors)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands political influences on the development of the Mughal Empire
     2.Understands religious influences on the development of the Mughal Empire
     3.Understands relations between Muslims and Hindus in the empire
     4.Understands the effectiveness of Akbar’s governing methods and religious ideas in comparison to other Mughal emperors
   Benchmark 6.Understands factors that influenced the development and expansion of the Safavid Empire (e.g., key urban areas of the empire, and factors that contributed to the success of Safavid rule; how the city of Isfahan developed under the reign of Shah Abbas I)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows key urban areas of the Safavid empire
     2.Knows factors that contributed to the success of Safavid rule
     3.Understands how the city of Isfahan developed under the reign of Shah Abbas I
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the social, economic, and cultural features of the Ottoman Empire (e.g., how Muslim, Orthodox, Catholic, and Jewish peoples interacted in southeastern Europe under Ottoman rule, the role and legal status of women within the Ottoman Empire, sources of revenue and patterns in state spending in the Ottoman Empire)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the social features of the Ottoman Empire
     2.Understands the economic features of the Ottoman Empire
     3.Understands the cultural features of the Ottoman Empire
     4.Understands how Muslim, Orthodox, Catholic, and Jewish peoples interacted in southeastern Europe under Ottoman rule
     5.Understands the role and legal status of women within the Ottoman Empire
     6.Knows sources of revenue and patterns in state spending in the Ottoman Empire
   Benchmark 5.Understands major political events in the rise and decline of the Ottoman Empire (e.g., the emergence of the Ottomans as a regional and world power between 1450 and 1650, the Ottoman Empire in the context of the Byzantine and Roman Empires, Austrian and Russian responses to Ottoman aggression, significant events in the expansion and recession of the Ottoman Empire from the 15th to the 17th centuries)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands major political events in the rise of the Ottoman Empire
     2.Understands major political events in the decline of the Ottoman Empire
     3.Understands the emergence of the Ottomans as a regional and world power between 1450 and 1650
     4.Understands the Ottoman Empire in the context of the Byzantine and Roman Empires
     5.Understands Austrian and Russian responses to Ottoman aggression
     6.Knows significant events in the expansion of the Ottoman Empire from the 15th to the 17th centuries
     7.Knows significant events in the recession of the Ottoman Empire from the 15th to the 17th centuries
   Benchmark 6.Understands the origins and development of the Safavid Empire (e.g., how Ismail created the Safavid Empire with the support of Qizilbash nomadic tribesmen; the evolution of Safavid social and political system from the nomadic-warrior years of Ismail to the golden age of Shah Abbas I)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the origins of the Safavid Empire
     2.Understands events in the development of the Safavid Empire
     3.Knows how Ismail created the Safavid Empire with the support of Qizilbash nomadic tribesmen
     4.Understands the evolution of Safavid social and political system from the nomadic warrior years of Ismail to the golden age of Shah Abbas I
   Benchmark 7.Knows similarities and differences between major empires and leaders (e.g., comparisons between the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires; differences and similarities in government, military, and religious patterns of the six major Mughal emperors)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows similarities between major empires
     2.Knows differences between major empires
     3.Knows similarities between leaders of major empires
     4.Knows differences between leaders of major empires
     5.Understands comparisons between the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires
     6.Knows similarities in government, military, and religious patterns of the six major Mughal emperors
     7.Knows differences in government, military, and religious patterns of the six major Mughal emperors
 Standard 29.  Understands the economic, political, and cultural interrelations among peoples of Africa, Europe, and the Americas between 1500 and 1750
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands European influence in the Americas between the 16th and 18th centuries (e.g., European activity and control in the Americas in the form of territorial empires, trading-post empires, plantation colonies, and settler colonies; how the Netherlands, England, and France became naval, commercial, and political powers in the Atlantic basin; the locations of the British and French in the Americas, and their interest in trade there; the concept of mercantilism and its advantages and disadvantages for the colonies and the mother country)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands European territorial empires in the Americas
     2.Understands features of European trading post empires in the Americas
     3.Understands features of European plantation colonies in the Americas
     4.Understands features of European settler colonies in the Americas
     5.Understands how the Netherlands, England, and France became naval, commercial, and political powers in the Atlantic basin
     6.Knows the location of the British in the Americas
     7.Knows the location of the French in the Americas
     8.Understands British trade interests in the Americas
     9.Understands French trade interests in the Americas
     10.Understands the concept of mercantilism
     11.Knows the advantages and disadvantages of mercantilism for the colonies and the mother country
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the development of different African societies (e.g., the development, characteristics, and decline of the Songhay Empire in the 16th century, the regional and international circumstances under which large new states such as Lunda and Buganda emerged in East and Central Africa, the history of the African kingdom of Palmares in Brazil)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the development of the Songhay Empire in the 16th century
     2.Knows the characteristics of the Songhay Empire in the 16th century
     3.Understands the decline of the Songhay Empire in the 16th century
     4.Knows the regional and international circumstances under which large new states such as Lunda and Buganda emerged in East and Central Africa
     5.Knows the history of the African kingdom of Palmares in Brazil
 Standard 30.  Understands transformations in Asian societies in the era of European expansion
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the impact of European military and commercial involvement in Asia (e.g., how the Netherlands, England, and France became naval and commercial powers in the Indian Ocean basin in the 17th and 18th centuries; the impact of British and French commercial and military penetration on politics, economy, and society in India; why the Dutch wanted military and commercial influence in Indonesia and how this imperialism affected the region's economy and society; why Asian trade was so important within the British economic and political structure)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the impact of European military involvement in Asia
     2.Understands the impact of European commercial involvement in Asia
     3.Understands how the Netherlands, England, and France became naval and commercial powers in the Indian Ocean basin in the 17th and 18th centuries
     4.Understands the impact of British and French commercial and military penetration on politics, economy, and society in India
     5.Knows why the Dutch wanted military and commercial influence in Indonesia
     6.Understands how Dutch imperialism in Asia affected the region’s economy and society
     7.Understands why Asian trade was so important within the British economic and political structure
 Standard 31.  Understands major global trends from 1450 to 1770
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the influence of technological advancements on society (e.g., how innovations in military technology and tactics changed the balance of naval military power and affected empire building around the globe; countries that benefitted and suffered as a result of military innovations)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how innovations in military technology and tactics changed the balance of naval military power and affected empire building around the globe
     2.Knows countries that benefited as a result of military innovations
     3.Knows countries that suffered as a result of military innovations
 Standard 34.  Understands how Eurasian societies were transformed in an era of global trade and the emergence of European power from 1750 to 1870
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands aspects of Russian expansion and settlement in the late 18th and 19th centuries (e.g., why Russia was successful in wars of expansion against the Ottoman empire; why and how Russia expanded across Asia into Alaska, and along the California coast; what archaeological evidence reveals about daily life in the Russian settlements at Sitka and Bogeda Bay)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands aspects of Russian expansion in the late 18th and 19th centuries
     2.Understands aspects of Russian settlement in the late 18th and 19th centuries
     3.Knows why Russia was successful in wars of expansion against the Ottoman empire
     4.Knows why and how Russia expanded across Asia into Alaska, and along the California coast
     5.Knows what archaeological evidence reveals about daily life in the Russian settlements at Sitka and Bogeda Bay
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 7.Knows the individual motivations and relative military strength of the English, French, and Ottomans in the Crimean War, as well as the significance of the outcome of the war for each of these participants
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the individual motivations of the English in the Crimean War
     2.Knows the individual motivations of the French in the Crimean War
     3.Knows the individual motivations of the Ottomans in the Crimean War
     4.Understands the relative military strength of the English, French, and Ottomans in the Crimean War
     5.Understands the significance of the outcome of the Crimean War for the English
     6.Understands the significance of the outcome of the Crimean War for the French
     7.Understands the significance of the outcome of the Crimean War for the Ottomans
   Benchmark 10.Understands how the Treaties of Nanking (1842) and Shimonoseki (1895) illustrate the advent of late 19th-century Chinese imperialism
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the Treaty of Nanking (1842) illustrates the advent of late 19th century Chinese imperialism
     2.Understands how the Treaty of Shimonoseki (1895) illustrates the advent of late 19th century Chinese imperialism
 Standard 35.  Understands patterns of nationalism, state-building, and social reform in Europe and the Americas from 1830 to 1914
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the role of nationalism in conflicts within different nations (e.g., how nationalism fostered tension and conflict in the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires, the importance of Greek nationalists' and Europeans' roles in the struggle for Greek independence from the Ottomans)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how nationalism fostered tension and conflict in the Austro Hungarian Empire
     2.Understands how nationalism fostered tension and conflict in the Ottoman Empire
     3.Understands the importance of Greek nationalists’ and Europeans’ roles in the struggle for Greek independence from the Ottomans
 Standard 36.  Understands patterns of global change in the era of Western military and economic dominance from 1800 to 1914
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 5.Understands events that shaped African relations with other countries (e.g., the rise of the Zulu empire and its effects on African societies and European colonial settlements; how the discovery of gold and diamonds in South Africa affected British investors and race relations among Africans, Afrikaners, and British colonial authorities; the relationship between European and African merchants and the types of products traded between the two in the period after slavery ended)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the rise of the Zulu empire
     2.Understands the effects of the Zulu Empire on African societies and European colonial settlements
     3.Understands how the discovery of gold and diamonds in South Africa affected British investors
     4.Understands how the discovery of gold and diamonds in South Africa affected race relations among Africans, Afrikaners, and British colonial authorities
     5.Understands the relationship between European and African merchants
     6.Knows the types of products traded between European and African merchants in the period after slavery ended
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands influences on European migration, immigration, and emigration patterns throughout the world between 1846 and 1932 (e.g., the geographical, political, economic, and epidemiological factors that contributed to the success of European colonial settlements in various regions; possible connections of the rise of the Zulu Empire in South Africa to European settlements in the Cape Region; relations between migrating European and African peoples that laid the foundation for the apartheid system in the 20th century; how technology such as the steamship and the railroad facilitated emigration)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the geographical factors that contributed to the success of European colonial settlements in various regions
     2.Understands the political factors that contributed to the success of European colonial settlements in various regions
     3.Understands the economic factors that contributed to the success of European colonial settlements in various regions
     4.Understands the epidemiological factors that contributed to the success of European colonial settlements in various regions
     5.Understands possible connections of the rise of the Zulu Empire in South Africa to European settlements in the Cape Region
     6.Understands relations between migrating European and African peoples that laid the foundation for the apartheid system in the 20th century
     7.Knows how technology such as the steamship and the railroad facilitated emigration
   Benchmark 5.Understands the extent of British rule in India, and British reaction to Indian nationalism (e.g., the economic and political impact of British rule on India in the 19th century; the social, economic, and intellectual sources of Indian nationalism; the British reaction to Indian nationalism; the causes of the Uprising of 1857)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the extent of British rule in India
     2.Understands the British reaction to Indian nationalism
     3.Understands the political impact of British rule on India in the 19th century
     4.Understands the economic impact of British rule on India in the 19th century
     5.Knows the social, economic, and intellectual sources of Indian nationalism
     6.Knows the causes of the Uprising of 1857
   Benchmark 7.Understands the role of trade in shaping political and social conditions in various regions (e.g., how West African economies changed after the end of the trans-Atlantic slave trade; how trade helped make empire-builders such as Zanzibar and Tippu Tip; the effect trade had on resistance to European imperialism; the location of the Suez Canal, how and why it was created, and what it did for world trade and political alliances)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the role of trade in shaping political conditions in various regions
     2.Understands the role of trade in shaping social conditions in various regions
     3.Understands how West African economies changed after the end of the trans Atlantic slave trade
     4.Understands how trade helped make empire builders such as Zanzibar and Tippu Tip
     5.Understands the effect trade had on resistance to European imperialism
     6.Knows the location of the Suez Canal, how and why it was created, and what it did for world trade and political alliances
 Standard 37.  Understand major global trends from 1750 to 1914
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands major changes in world political boundaries during this era (e.g., why a few European states achieved extensive military, political, and economic power in the world)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands why a few European states achieved extensive military, political, and economic power in the world between 1750 and 1914
 Standard 38.  Understands reform, revolution, and social change in the world economy of the early 20th century
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the consequences of changes inside Japan in the early 20th century (e.g., Japan's economic development, national integration, and political ideologies around the turn of the century; how Japanese territorial expansion affected the industrialization and economic development of Japan)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands aspects of Japan’s economic development around the turn of the century
     2.Understands features of Japan’s national integration around the turn of the century
     3.Understands Japan’s political ideologies around the turn of the century
     4.Understands how Japanese territorial expansion affected the industrialization and economic development of Japan
 Standard 41.  Understands the causes and global consequences of World War II
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 7.Understands Japan's "greater East Asia co-prosperity" sphere and the support of this idea in European colonies in East Asia
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands Japan’s "greater East Asia co prosperity" sphere
     2.Understands the support in European colonies in East Asia for Japan’s idea of the "greater East Asia co prosperity" sphere
 Standard 42.  Understands major global trends from 1900 to the end of World War II
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the nature and extent of Western military, political, and economic power in the world in 1945 compared with 1900
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the nature and extent of Western military power in the world in 1945 compared with 1900
     2.Understands the nature and extent of Western political power in the world in 1945 compared with 1900
     3.Understands the nature and extent of Western economic power in the world in 1945 compared with 1900
 Standard 46.  Understands long-term changes and recurring patterns in world history
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the circumstances under which European countries came to exercise temporary military and economic dominance in the world in the late 19th and 20th centuries
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the circumstances under which European countries came to exercise temporary military dominance in the world in the late 19th and 20th centuries
     2.Understands the circumstances under which European countries came to exercise temporary economic dominance in the world in the late 19th and 20th centuries