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Topic: Development of ancient cultures and civilizations 

World History

 Standard 6.  Understands major trends in Eurasia and Africa from 4000 to 1000 BCE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the emergence of civilizations in Southwest Asia, the Nile valley, India, China, and the Eastern Mediterranean and how they represented a decisive transformation in human history
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the emergence of civilizations in Southwest Asia
     2.Understands the emergence of civilizations in the Nile valley
     3.Understands the emergence of civilizations in India
     4.Understands the emergence of civilizations in China
     5.Understands the emergence of civilizations in the Eastern Mediterranean
     6.Understands how the emergence of civilizations represented a decisive transformation in human history
   Benchmark 5.Understands the concept of "civilization" (e.g., the various criteria used to define "civilization;" fundamental differences between civilizations and other forms of social organization, such as hunter-gatherer bands, Neolithic agricultural societies, and pastoral nomadic societies; how Mohenjo-Daro meets criteria for defining civilization)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the various criteria used to define "civilization"
     2.Understands fundamental differences between civilizations and other forms of social organization, such as hunter gatherer bands, Neolithic agricultural societies, and pastoral nomadic societies
     3.Knows how Mohenjo Daro meets criteria for defining civilization
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands connections between the cultural achievements of early civilizations and the development of political and economic institutions (e.g., state authority, aristocratic power, taxation systems, and institutions of coerced labor, including slavery)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands connections between the cultural achievements of early civilizations and the development of political institutions
     2.Understands connections between the cultural achievements of early civilizations and the development of economic institutions
     3.Understands connections between the cultural achievements of early civilizations and the development of the political institution of state authority
     4.Understands connections between the cultural achievements of early civilizations and the development of the political institution of aristocratic power
     5.Understands connections between the cultural achievements of early civilizations and the development of the economic institution of taxation systems
     6.Understands connections between the cultural achievements of early civilizations and the development of the economic institution of coerced labor, including slavery