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Topic: Cooperation and conflict 

World History

 Standard 6.  Understands major trends in Eurasia and Africa from 4000 to 1000 BCE
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the role of pastoral peoples in Eurasia and Africa up to 1000 BCE, and understands the relationship of conflict and mutual dependence between herding and agrarian societies
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the role of pastoral peoples in Eurasia up to 1000 BCE
     2.Understands the role of pastoral peoples in Africa up to 1000 BCE
     3.Understands the relationship of conflict and mutual dependence between herding and agrarian societies
 Standard 7.  Understands technological and cultural innovation and change from 1000 to 600 BCE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands cultural elements of Kush society and their interaction with Egyptian civilization (e.g., the linguistic, architectural, and artistic achievements of Kush in the Meroitic period; how Assyrian and Kushite invasions affected Egyptian society; the social and political consequences of economic contacts between Kush and Egypt)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands cultural elements of Kush society
     2.Understands the interaction of Kush society with Egyptian civilization
     3.Knows the linguistic achievements of Kush in the Meroitic period
     4.Knows the architectural achievements of Kush in the Meroitic period
     5.Knows the artistic achievements of Kush in the Meroitic period
     6.Understands how Assyrian and Kushite invasions affected Egyptian society
     7.Understands the social consequences of economic contacts between Kush and Egypt
     8.Understands the political consequences of economic contacts between Kush and Egypt
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the interaction between pastoral nomadic societies, warrior states, and agrarian states in Central Asia (e.g., how the Scythian and Xiongnu warrior states arose among the pastoral nomadic peoples on the Central Asian steppes, the circumstances and trade that led to interdependence and conflict between pastoral nomadic and agrarian societies such as Xiongnu and China)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the Scythian and Xiongnu warrior states arose among the pastoral nomadic peoples on the Central Asian steppes
     2.Understands the circumstances and trade that led to interdependence and conflict between pastoral nomadic and agrarian societies such as Xiongnu and China
 Standard 9.  Understand how major religious and large-scale empires arose in the Mediterranean Basin, China, and India from 500 BCE to 300 CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands influences on the economic and political framework of Roman society (e.g., how Roman unity contributed to the growth of trade among lands of the Mediterranean basin; the importance of Roman commercial connections with Sub-Saharan Africa, India, and East Asia; the history of the Punic Wars and the consequences of the wars for Rome; the major phases of Roman expansion, including the Roman occupation of Britain)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands influences on the economic framework of Roman society
     2.Understands influences on the political framework of Roman society
     3.Understands how Roman unity contributed to the growth of trade among lands of the Mediterranean basin
     4.Understands the importance of Roman commercial connections with Sub Saharan Africa, India, and East Asia
     5.Knows the history of the Punic Wars and the consequences of the wars for Rome
     6.Knows the major phases of Roman expansion, including the Roman occupation of Britain
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the growth of the Mauryan Empire in the context of rivalries among Indian states
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands rivalries that existed among Indian states
 Standard 20.  Understands the redefinition of European society and culture from 1000 to 1300 CE
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 9.Understands the influence of religious beliefs on various regions (e.g., the presence and motivation behind anti-Semitism in Western Europe during the Crusades; the correlations between commercial and naval domination by Latin Christian states over Muslim states in the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins and an increase in Christian political strength between the 11th and 13th centuries)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the presence and motivation behind anti Semitism in Western Europe during the Crusades
     2.Understands the correlations between commercial and naval domination by Latin Christian states over Muslim states in the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins and an increase in Christian political strength between the 11th and 13th centuries
 Standard 21.  Understands the rise of the Mongol Empire and its consequences for Eurasian peoples from 1200 to 1350
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands Mongol interaction with different cultures (e.g., how Mongol rule affected economy, society, and culture in China and Korea; how Southeast Asians and Japanese resisted incorporation into the Mongol empire; how citizens responded to Mongol rule)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how Mongol rule affected the economy, society, and culture of China
     2.Understands how Mongol rule affected the economy, society, and culture of Korea
     3.Knows how Southeast Asians resisted incorporation into the Mongol empire
     4.Knows how the Japanese resisted incorporation into the Mongol empire
     5.Understands how citizens responded to Mongol rule
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands political, social, and cultural features of the Mongol Empire (e.g., the chronology and consequences of the Mongol conquests of 1206 to 1279 on China, Southeast Asia, Russia, and Southwest Asia; the relative strengths and weaknesses of the nomadic Mongol lifestyle with regard to social, political, and economic organization, and why the Mongols prevailed; what legend and fact reveal about Mongol conquest and Mongol warriors)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands political features of the Mongol Empire
     2.Understands social cultural features of the Mongol Empire
     3.Understands cultural features of the Mongol Empire
     4.Understands the chronology of the Mongol conquests of 1206 to 1279 on China, Southeast Asia, Russia, and Southwest Asia
     5.Understands the consequences of the Mongol conquests of 1206 to 1279 on China, Southeast Asia, Russia, and Southwest Asia
     6.Understands the relative strengths and weaknesses of the nomadic Mongol lifestyle with regard to social, political, and economic organization
     7.Understands why the Mongols prevailed in their conquests
     8.Knows what legend and fact reveal about Mongol conquest and Mongol warriors
 Standard 23.  Understands patterns of crisis and recovery in Afro-Eurasia between 1300 and 1450
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the significance of Timur the Lame (Tamerlane) (e.g., the impact of conquests in Southwest Asia, India, and Central Asia; how Timur's rule encouraged a flourishing of cultural life in Samarkand and the role his government played in the support of arts and sciences)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the impact of Timur’s conquests in Southwest Asia, India, and Central Asia
     2.Understands how Timur’s rule encouraged a flourishing of cultural life in Samarkand
     3.Knows the role Timur’s government played in the support of arts and sciences
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 8.Understands how economic conditions influenced the political and social climate in post 14th- century Europe (e.g., the impact of climatic change on the European agricultural system and the social and political consequences; how decreasing revenues led to competition between nobles for other sources of income, which increased the occurrence of civil wars)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how economic conditions influenced the political climate in post 14th century Europe
     2.Understands how economic conditions influenced the social climate in post 14th century Europe
     3.Understands the impact of climatic change on the European agricultural system and the social consequences
     4.Understands the impact of climatic change on the European agricultural system and the political consequences
     5.Understands how decreasing revenues led to competition between nobles for other sources of income, which increased the occurrence of civil wars
 Standard 25.  Understands major global trends from 1000 to 1500 CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how major migratory and military movements of pastoral peoples of Asia and Africa affected agrarian states and societies of Eurasia and Africa
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how major migratory movements of pastoral peoples of Asia and Africa affected agrarian states and societies of Eurasia and Africa
     2.Understands how major military movements of pastoral peoples of Asia and Africa affected agrarian states and societies of Eurasia and Africa
   Benchmark 3.Understands the impact of interaction between Christians and Muslims in the Mediterranean region (e.g., how their encounters, both hostile and peaceful, affected political, economic, and cultural life in Europe, North Africa, and Southwest Asia)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how encounters, both hostile and peaceful, between Christians and Muslims affected political life in Europe
     2.Understands how encounters, both hostile and peaceful, between Christians and Muslims affected political life in North Africa
     3.Understands how encounters, both hostile and peaceful, between Christians and Muslims affected political life in Southwest Asia
     4.Understands how encounters, both hostile and peaceful, between Christians and Muslims affected economic life in Europe
     5.Understands how encounters, both hostile and peaceful, between Christians and Muslims affected economic life in North Africa
     6.Understands how encounters, both hostile and peaceful, between Christians and Muslims affected economic life in Southwest Asia
     7.Understands how encounters, both hostile and peaceful, between Christians and Muslims affected cultural life in Europe
     8.Understands how encounters, both hostile and peaceful, between Christians and Muslims affected cultural life in North Africa
     9.Understands how encounters, both hostile and peaceful, between Christians and Muslims affected cultural life in Southwest Asia
 Standard 26.  Understands how the transoceanic interlinking of all major regions of the world between 1450 and 1600 led to global transformations
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands how the Ottoman, Indian, Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese, and Siamese powers restricted European commercial, military, and political penetration in the 16th century
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the Ottoman powers restricted European commercial, military, and political penetration in the 16th century
     2.Understands how the Indian powers restricted European commercial, military, and political penetration in the 16th century
     3.Understands how the Chinese powers restricted European commercial, military, and political penetration in the 16th century
     4.Understands how the Japanese powers restricted European commercial, military, and political penetration in the 16th century
     5.Understands how the Vietnamese powers restricted European commercial, military, and political penetration in the 16th century
     6.Understands how the Siamese powers restricted European commercial, military, and political penetration in the 16th century
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 8.Understands how various cultures responded to European presence in the 15th and 16th centuries (e.g., how practitioners of free trade along the northern rim of the Indian Ocean responded to European penetration; relations between the church and native populations; Asian responses to European naval encroachments)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how practitioners of free trade along the northern rim of the Indian Ocean responded to European penetration
     2.Understands relations between the church and native populations
     3.Understands Asian responses to European naval encroachments
 Standard 27.  Understands how European society experienced political, economic, and cultural transformations in an age of global intercommunication between 1450 and 1750
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands causes and the major political, social, and economic consequences of the religious wars in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries, and the legacy of these wars in modern Europe
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands causes of the religious wars in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries
     2.Understands the major political consequences of the religious wars in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries
     3.Understands the major social consequences of the religious wars in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries
     4.Understands the major economic consequences of the religious wars in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries
     5.Understands the legacy in modern Europe of the religious wars in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries
   Benchmark 8.Understands sources of military buildup of the 17th and 18th centuries (e.g., how they compare with the advice of Machiavelli on the use of mercenaries)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how sources of military buildup in the 17th and 18th centuries compare with the advice of Machiavelli on the use of mercenaries
 Standard 28.  Understands how large territorial empires dominated much of Eurasia between the 16th and 18th centuries
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Understands major political events in the rise and decline of the Ottoman Empire (e.g., the emergence of the Ottomans as a regional and world power between 1450 and 1650, the Ottoman Empire in the context of the Byzantine and Roman Empires, Austrian and Russian responses to Ottoman aggression, significant events in the expansion and recession of the Ottoman Empire from the 15th to the 17th centuries)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands major political events in the rise of the Ottoman Empire
     2.Understands major political events in the decline of the Ottoman Empire
     3.Understands the emergence of the Ottomans as a regional and world power between 1450 and 1650
     4.Understands the Ottoman Empire in the context of the Byzantine and Roman Empires
     5.Understands Austrian and Russian responses to Ottoman aggression
     6.Knows significant events in the expansion of the Ottoman Empire from the 15th to the 17th centuries
     7.Knows significant events in the recession of the Ottoman Empire from the 15th to the 17th centuries
 Standard 34.  Understands how Eurasian societies were transformed in an era of global trade and the emergence of European power from 1750 to 1870
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the advance of British power in India up to 1850, its social and economic impact, and the efforts of Indians to resist European conquest and achieve cultural renewal
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the advance of British power in India up to 1850
     2.Understands the social impact of British power in India
     3.Understands the economic impact of British power in India
     4.Understands the efforts of Indians to resist European conquest and achieve cultural renewal
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 7.Knows the individual motivations and relative military strength of the English, French, and Ottomans in the Crimean War, as well as the significance of the outcome of the war for each of these participants
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the individual motivations of the English in the Crimean War
     2.Knows the individual motivations of the French in the Crimean War
     3.Knows the individual motivations of the Ottomans in the Crimean War
     4.Understands the relative military strength of the English, French, and Ottomans in the Crimean War
     5.Understands the significance of the outcome of the Crimean War for the English
     6.Understands the significance of the outcome of the Crimean War for the French
     7.Understands the significance of the outcome of the Crimean War for the Ottomans
 Standard 36.  Understands patterns of global change in the era of Western military and economic dominance from 1800 to 1914
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the effects of the Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War, and the colonization of Korea on Japan's status as a world power, and how Japan justified its imperial expansion
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the effects of the Sino Japanese War on Japan’s status as a world power
     2.Understands the effects of the Russo Japanese War on Japan’s status as a world power
     3.Understands the effects of the colonization of Korea on Japan’s status as a world power
     4.Understands how Japan justified its imperial expansion
 Standard 38.  Understands reform, revolution, and social change in the world economy of the early 20th century
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands elements of the South African (Anglo-Boer) War (e.g., the causes, course, and consequences of the war for Boers, British, and African populations; the degree to which it was an example of "total war;" the attitude of the British toward non-British people and colonial troops at the time of the Boer War)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the causes of the Anglo-Boer War
     2.Knows events in the course of the Anglo-Boer War
     3.Knows the consequences of the Anglo-Boer War for Boers
     4.Knows the consequences of the Anglo-Boer War for the British
     5.Knows the consequences of the Anglo-Boer War for African populations
     6.Understands the degree to which the Anglo-Boer War was an example of "total war"
     7.Understands the attitude of the British toward non British people and colonial troops at the time of the Boer War
 Standard 39.  Understands the causes and global consequences of World War I
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the immediate and long-term consequences of World War I (e.g., the principal theaters of conflict in World War I in Europe, Southeast Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, East Asia, and the South Pacific; major turning points in the war; the short-term demographic, social, economic, and environmental consequences of the war's violence and destruction; the hardships of trench warfare)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the immediate consequences of World War I
     2.Understands the long-term consequences of World War I
     3.Understands the principal theaters of conflict in World War I in Europe
     4.Understands the principal theaters of conflict in World War I in Southeast Asia
     5.Understands the principal theaters of conflict in World War I in Sub-Saharan Africa
     6.Understands the principal theaters of conflict in World War I in East Africa
     7.Understands the principal theaters of conflict in World War I in the South Pacific
     8.Knows the major turning points in World War I
     9.Understands the short-term demographic consequences of the World War I’s violence and destruction
     10.Understands the short-term social consequences of the World War I’s violence and destruction
     11.Understands the short-term economic consequences of the World War I’s violence and destruction
     12.Understands the short-term environmental consequences of the World War I’s violence and destruction
     13.Understands the hardships of trench warfare
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands how different countries were aligned during World War I (e.g., the systems of alliances through which Europe organized itself into World War I, the role militarism played in these alliances, and the reasons for the war's expansion beyond European boundaries to become a world war; immediate causes for the entry of different nations into World War I)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the systems of alliances through which Europe organized itself into World War I
     2.Understands the role militarism played in the alliances
     3.Understands the reasons for the war’s expansion beyond European boundaries to become a world war
     4.Understands the immediate causes for the entry of different nations into World War I
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the extent to which different sources supported the war effort (e.g., how nationalism and propaganda helped mobilize civilian populations to support "total war;" ways in which colonial peoples contributed to the war effort of the Allies and the Central Powers by providing military forces and supplies, and what this effort might have meant to colonial subjects; the effectiveness of propaganda to gain support from neutral nations; how and why original support and enthusiasm to support the war deteriorated)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how nationalism helped mobilize civilian populations to support "total war"
     2.Understands how propaganda helped mobilize civilian populations to support "total war"
     3.Understands ways in which colonial peoples contributed to the war effort of the Allies by providing military forces and supplies
     4.Understands ways in which colonial peoples contributed to the war effort of the Central Powers by providing military forces and supplies
     5.Understands what the war effort might have meant to colonial subjects
     6.Understands the effectiveness of propaganda to gain support from neutral nations
     7.Understands how original support and enthusiasm to support the war deteriorated
     8.Understands why original support and enthusiasm to support the war deteriorated
 Standard 41.  Understands the causes and global consequences of World War II
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the rise of fascism and Nazism in Europe and Japan (e.g., the ideologies of fascism and Nazism, and how fascist regimes seized power and gained mass support in Germany, Italy, Spain, and Japan; German, Italian, and Japanese military conquests and drives for empires in the 1930's; how Hitler, Franco, and Mussolini rose to power; the causes of the Spanish Civil War and how this war coincided with the rise of fascism in Europe; what Nazi oppression in Germany was like)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the rise of fascism in Europe
     2.Understands the rise of Nazism in Europe
     3.Understands the rise of fascism in Japan
     4.Knows the ideology of fascism
     5.Knows the ideology of Nazism
     6.Understands how fascist regimes seized power and gained mass support in Germany
     7.Understands how fascist regimes seized power and gained mass support in Italy
     8.Understands how fascist regimes seized power and gained mass support in Spain
     9.Understands how fascist regimes seized power and gained mass support in Japan
     10.Understands German military conquests and drives for empires in the 1930’s
     11.Understands Italian military conquests and drives for empires in the 1930’s
     12.Understands Japanese military conquests and drives for empires in the 1930’s
     13.Understands how Hitler rose to power
     14.Understands how Franco rose to power
     15.Understands how Mussolini rose to power
     16.Knows the causes of the Spanish Civil War and how this war coincided with the rise of fascism in Europe
     17.Knows what Nazi oppression in Germany was like
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the exceptional violence of the Spanish Civil War (e.g., as described in works by George Orwell and Ernest Hemingway) and understands how foreign intervention affected the outcome of this war
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the exceptional violence of the Spanish Civil War as described in works by George Orwell
     2.Understands the exceptional violence of the Spanish Civil War as described in works by Ernest Hemingway
     3.Understands how foreign intervention affected the outcome of the Spanish Civil War
 Standard 43.  Understands how post-World War II reconstruction occurred, new international power relations took shape, and colonial empires broke up
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the development of the Cold War (e.g., how political, economic, and military conditions in the mid-1940's led to the Cold War; the significance of international Cold War crises such as the Berlin blockade, the Korean War, the Polish worker's protest, the Hungarian revolt, the Suez crisis, the Cuban missile crisis, the Indonesian civil war, and the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia; how the United States and the Soviet Union competed for power and influence in Europe)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how political conditions in the mid 1940’s led to the Cold War
     2.Understands how economic conditions in the mid 1940’s led to the Cold War
     3.Understands how military conditions in the mid 1940’s led to the Cold War
     4.Understands the significance of the international Cold War crises of the Berlin blockade
     5.Understands the significance of the international Cold War crises of the Korean War
     6.Understands the significance of the international Cold War crises of the Polish worker’s protest
     7.Understands the significance of the international Cold War crises of the Hungarian revolt
     8.Understands the significance of the international Cold War crises of the Suez crisis
     9.Understands the significance of the international Cold War crises of the Cuban missile crisis
     10.Understands the significance of the international Cold War crises of the Indonesian civil war
     11.Understands the significance of the international Cold War crises of the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia
     12.Understands how the United States and the Soviet Union competed for power and influence in Europe during the Cold War
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands post-war relations between the Soviet Union, Europe, and the United States (e.g., differences in the political ideologies and values of the Western democracies and the Soviet bloc; the impact of Soviet domination in Eastern Europe; interconnections between superpower rivalries and the development of new military, nuclear, and space technology)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands differences in the political ideologies and values of the Western democracies and the Soviet bloc
     2.Understands the impact of Soviet domination in Eastern Europe on post-war relations between the Soviet Union, the United States, and Europe
     3.Understands interconnections between superpower rivalries and the development of new military, nuclear, and space technology
   Benchmark 6.Understands important events in the struggle between Israelis and Palestinians since 1948 and the argument on each side for rights to the disputed land
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands important events in the struggle between Israelis and Palestinians since 1948
     2.Understands the argument on the side of the Israelis and the Palestinians for rights to the disputed land
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the impact of relations between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War (e.g., the effects of United States and Soviet competition for influence or dominance upon such countries as Egypt, Iran, the Congo, Vietnam, Chile, and Guatemala; the impact of the Cold War on art, literature, and popular culture around the world)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the effects of United States and Soviet competition for influence or dominance upon Egypt
     2.Understands the effects of United States and Soviet competition for influence or dominance upon Iran
     3.Understands the effects of United States and Soviet competition for influence or dominance upon the Congo
     4.Understands the effects of United States and Soviet competition for influence or dominance upon Vietnam
     5.Understands the effects of United States and Soviet competition for influence or dominance upon Chile
     6.Understands the effects of United States and Soviet competition for influence or dominance upon Guatemala
     7.Understands the impact of the Cold War on art, literature, and popular culture around the world
 Standard 44.  Understands the search for community, stability, and peace in an interdependent world
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands events that led to an easing of Cold War tensions from the 1970s to the early 1990s (e.g., why the Cold War eased in the 1970s and how the Helsinki Accords, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and Reagan-Gorbachev "summit diplomacy" affected progress toward detente; the collapse of the government of the Soviet Union and other communist governments around the world in the late 1980s and 1990s; the internal and external forces that led to changes within the USSR and in its relations with Eastern European countries)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands why the Cold War eased in the 1970s
     2.Understands how the Helsinki Accords affected progress toward detente
     3.Understands how the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan affected progress toward detente
     4.Understands how Reagan and Gorbachev "summit diplomacy" affected progress toward detente
     5.Understands the collapse of the government of the Soviet Union and other communist governments around the world in the late 1980s and 1990s
     6.Understands the internal and external forces that led to changes within the USSR and in its relations with Eastern European countries
   Benchmark 4.Understands instances of political conflict and terrorism in modern society (e.g., the changes continuing urban protest and reformist economic policies have caused in post-Mao China under authoritarian rule; the causes, consequences, and moral implications of mass killings or famine in different parts of the world; possible factors in modern society that facilitate politically motivated terrorism and random forms of violence; world events that gave rise to the 1989 movement in China and led to the Tiannamen Square protest, the government response to this movement, and the international reaction)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands instances of political conflict in modern society
     2.Understands instances of terrorism in modern society
     3.Understands the changes continuing urban protest and reformist economic policies have caused in post Mao China under authoritarian rule
     4.Understands the causes, consequences, and moral implications of mass killings in different parts of the world
     5.Understands the causes, consequences, and moral implications of famine in different parts of the world
     6.Understands possible factors in modern society that facilitate politically motivated terrorism and random forms of violence
     7.Knows world events that gave rise to the 1989 movement in China and led to the Tiannamen Square protest
     8.Understands the Chinese government’s response to the 1989 movement in China that led to the Tiannamen Square protest
     9.Understands international reactions to the Tiannamen Square protest
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the role of political ideology, religion, and ethnicity in shaping modern governments (e.g., the strengths of democratic institutions and civic culture in different countries and challenges to civil society in democratic states; how successful democratic reform movements have been in challenging authoritarian governments in Africa, Asia, and Latin America; the implications of ethnic, religious, and border conflicts on state-building in the newly independent republics of Africa; significant differences among nationalist movements in Eastern Europe that have developed in the 20th century, how resulting conflicts have been resolved, and the outcomes of these conflicts)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the role of political ideology in shaping modern governments
     2.Understands the role of religion in shaping modern governments
     3.Understands the role of ethnicity in shaping modern governments
     4.Understands the strengths of democratic institutions and civic culture in different countries and challenges to civil society in democratic states
     5.Understands how successful democratic reform movements have been in challenging authoritarian governments in Africa,
     6.Understands how successful democratic reform movements have been in challenging authoritarian governments in Asia
     7.Understands how successful democratic reform movements have been in challenging authoritarian governments in Latin America
     8.Understands the implications of ethnic, religious, and border conflicts on state building in the newly independent republics of Africa
     9.Knows significant differences among nationalist movements in Eastern Europe that have developed in the 20th century, how resulting conflicts have been resolved, and the outcomes of these conflicts
   Benchmark 6.Understands the role of ethnicity, cultural identity, and religious beliefs in shaping economic and political conflicts across the globe (e.g., why terrorist movements have proliferated and the extent of their impact on politics and society in various countries; the tensions and contradictions between globalizing trends of the world economy and assertions of traditional cultural identity and distinctiveness, including the challenges to the role of religion in contemporary society; the meaning of jihad and other Islamic beliefs that are relevant to military activity, how these compare to the Geneva Accords, and how such laws and principles apply to terrorist acts)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the role of ethnicity in shaping economic and political conflicts across the globe
     2.Understands the role of cultural identity in shaping economic and political conflicts across the globe
     3.Understands the role of religious beliefs in shaping economic and political conflicts across the globe
     4.Knows why terrorist movements have proliferated and the extent of their impact on politics and society in various countries
     5.Understands the tensions and contradictions between globalizing trends of the world economy and assertions of traditional cultural identity and distinctiveness
     6.Knows the challenges to the role of religion in contemporary society

Behavioral Studies

 Standard 4.  Understands conflict, cooperation, and interdependence among individuals, groups, and institutions
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 1.Knows that disagreements are common, even between family members or friends
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that disagreements are common
     2.Knows that disagreements occur between family members
     3.Knows that disagreements occur between friends
   Benchmark 2.Understands that some ways of dealing with disagreements work better than others, and that people who are not involved in an argument may be helpful in solving it
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that some ways of dealing with disagreements work better than others
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 1.Knows that communicating different points of view in a dispute can often help people to find a satisfactory compromise
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that people involved in a dispute often have different points of view
     2.Knows that communication in a dispute often helps people reach a compromise
   Benchmark 2.Understands that resolving a conflict by force rather than compromise can lead to more problems
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that conflicts may be resolved by force
     2.Understands that conflicts may be resolved by compromise
     3.Understands that solving conflicts by force may lead to problems
   Benchmark 4.Understands that if a conflict cannot be settled by compromise, it may be decided by a vote if everyone agrees to accept the results
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Knows that sometimes voting can be used to settle a conflict
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands that being a member of a group can increase an individual's social power and also can increase hostile actions toward or from other groups or individuals
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands that being a member of a group can increase hostile actions toward other groups and individuals
     3.Understands that being a member of a group can increase hostile actions from other groups and individuals
   Benchmark 2.Understands that most groups have formal or informal procedures for arbitrating disputes among their members
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that most groups have formal procedures for arbitrating disputes among their members
     2.Understands that most groups have informal procedures for arbitrating disputes among their members
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands that conflict between people or groups may arise from competition over ideas, resources, power, and/or status
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that conflict between people or groups may arise from competition over ideas
     2.Understands that conflict between people or groups may arise from competition over resources
     3.Understands that conflict between people or groups may arise from competition over power
     4.Understands that conflict between people or groups may arise from competition over status
   Benchmark 3.Understands that conflicts are especially difficult to resolve in situations in which there are few choices and little room for compromise
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that some conflicts are more difficult to resolve than others
     2.Knows that conflicts in which there are few choices are difficult to resolve
     3.Knows that conflicts in which there is little room to compromise are difficult to resolve
   Benchmark 4.Understands that some informal ways of responding to conflict (e.g., pamphlets, demonstrations, cartoons) may reduce tensions and lead to compromise but may be inflammatory and make agreement more difficult to reach
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that pamphlets are an informal response to conflict
     2.Knows that demonstrations are an informal response to conflict
     3.Knows that cartoons are an informal response to conflict
     4.Knows that informal responses to conflicts may reduce tensions
     5.Knows that informal responses to conflicts may lead to compromise
     6.Knows that informal responses to conflicts may be inflammatory
     7.Knows that informal responses to conflicts may make agreement more difficult to reach
   Benchmark 5.Understands that conflict within a group may be reduced by conflict between it and other groups
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that conflicts within groups can be affected by outside events
   Benchmark 6.Understands that intergroup conflict does not necessarily end when one segment of society gets a decision in its favor because the "losers" then may work even harder to reverse, modify, or circumvent the change
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that intergroup conflict does not necessarily end when one segment of society gets a decision in its favor
     2.Understands that when one segment of society gets a decision in its favor the "losers" then may work even harder to reverse the change
     3.Understands that when one segment of society gets a decision in its favor the "losers" then may work even harder to modify the change
     4.Understands that when one segment of society gets a decision in its favor the "losers" then may work even harder to circumvent the change

Business Education

 Standard 6.  Understands how the legal system affects business
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the advantages and disadvantages of various methods for resolving disputes, such as litigation, arbitration, mediation, and conciliation
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the advantages of various methods for resolving disputes
     2.Understands the disadvantages of various methods for resolving disputes
     3.Understands the advantages of litigation for resolving disputes
     4.Understands the advantages of arbitration for resolving disputes
     5.Understands the advantages of mediation for resolving disputes
     6.Understands the advantages of conciliation for resolving disputes
     7.Understands the disadvantages of mediation for resolving disputes
     8.Understands the disadvantages of arbitration for resolving disputes
     9.Understands the disadvantages of mediation for resolving disputes
     10.Understands the disadvantages of conciliation for resolving disputes

Geography

 Standard 10.  Understands the nature and complexity of Earth's cultural mosaics
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Knows the role culture plays in incidents of cooperation and conflict in the present-day world (e.g., conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa in the 1960s, Central Europe in the 1980s and 1990s, states within the former Soviet Union in the 1990s; cooperation such as the religious and linguistic ties between Spain and parts of Latin America; ethnic ties among the Kurds living in Iran, Iraq, and Turkey)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the role culture plays in incidents of cooperation in the present-day world
     2.Knows the role culture plays in incidents of conflict in the present-day world
     3.Understands the role of culture in the conflicts of sub-Saharan Africa in the 1960s
     4.Understands the role of culture in the conflicts of Central Europe in the 1980s and 1990s
     5.Understands the role of culture in the conflicts between states within the former Soviet Union in the 1990s
     6.Understands the role of culture in the cooperation between Spain and parts of Latin America
     7.Understands the religious ties between Spain and parts of Latin America
     8.Understands the linguistic ties between Spain and parts of Latin America
     9.Understands the ethnic ties among the Kurds living in Iran, Iraq, and Turkey
 Standard 13.  Understands the forces of cooperation and conflict that shape the divisions of Earth's surface
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 1.Knows ways that people solve common problems by cooperating (e.g., working in groups to pick up trash along a road, participating in a neighborhood crime-watch group, participating in community house-building projects)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that people solve common problems by working in groups to pick up trash along a road
     2.Knows that people solve common problems by participating in a neighborhood crime-watch group
     3.Knows that people solve common problems by participating in community house-building projects
   Benchmark 2.Knows examples of world conflict or cooperation (e.g., countries in trade pacts, areas of the world with refugee problems)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows examples of world conflict
     2.Knows examples of world cooperation
     3.Knows countries in trade pacts
     4.Knows areas of the world with refugee problems
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 2.Knows how and why people divide Earth's surface into political and/or economic units (e.g., states in the United States and Mexico; provinces in Canada; countries in North and South America; countries linked in cooperative relationships, such as the European Union)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     10.Understands how countries are linked in cooperative relationships, such as the European Union
   Benchmark 3.Knows how and why people compete for control of Earth's surface (e.g., ethnic or national differences, desire for political control, economic inequalities)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how people compete for control of Earth’s surface
     2.Knows why people compete for control of Earth’s surface
     3.Knows that people compete for control of the Earth’s surface because of ethnic differences
     4.Knows that people compete for control of the Earth’s surface because of national differences
     5.Knows that people compete for control of the Earth’s surface because of the desire for political control
     6.Knows that people compete for control of the Earth’s surface because of economic inequalities
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands factors that contribute to cooperation (e.g., similarities in religion, language, political beliefs) or conflict (e.g., economic competition for scarce resources, boundary disputes, cultural differences, control of strategic locations) within and between regions and countries
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands factors that contribute to cooperation within and between regions
     2.Understands factors that contribute to cooperation within and between countries
     3.Understands factors that contribute to conflict within and between regions
     4.Understands factors that contribute to conflict within and between countries
     5.Knows that similarities in religion contribute to cooperation within and between countries
     6.Knows that similarities in religion contribute to cooperation within and between regions
     7.Knows that similarities in language contribute to cooperation within and between countries
     8.Knows that similarities in language contribute to cooperation within and between regions
     9.Knows that similarities in political beliefs contribute to cooperation within and between countries
     10.Knows that similarities in political beliefs contribute to cooperation within and between regions
     11.Knows that economic competition for scarce resources contributes to conflict within and between countries
     12.Knows that economic competition for scarce resources contributes to conflict within and between regions
     13.Knows that boundary disputes contribute to conflict within and between countries
     14.Knows that boundary disputes contribute to conflict within and between regions
     15.Knows that cultural differences contribute to conflict within and between countries
     16.Knows that cultural differences contribute to conflict within and between regions
     17.Knows that control of strategic locations contributes to conflict within and between countries
     18.Knows that control of strategic locations contributes to conflict within and between regions
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how cooperation and/or conflict can lead to the allocation of control of Earth's surface (e.g., formation and delineation of regional planning districts, regional school districts, countries, free-trade zones)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how cooperation can lead to the allocation of control of Earth’s surface
     2.Understands how conflict can lead to the allocation of control of Earth’s surface
     3.Understands regional planning districts represent an allocation of control of the Earth’s surface
     4.Understands regional school districts represent an allocation of control of the Earth’s surface
     5.Understands the formation and delineation of countries as an allocation of control of the Earth’s surface
     6.Understands free-trade zones represent an allocation of control of the Earth’s surface
   Benchmark 2.Knows the causes of boundary conflicts and internal disputes between culture groups (e.g., the conflict between North Korea and South Korea, friction between the Spanish majority and Basque minority in Spain, the civil war between the Hutus and the Tutsis in Rwanda)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the causes of boundary conflicts between culture groups
     2.Knows the causes of internal disputes between culture groups
     3.Knows the causes of conflict between North Korea and South Korea
     4.Knows the causes of friction between the Spanish majority and Basque minority in Spain
     5.Knows the causes of the civil war between the Hutus and the Tutsis in Rwanda
   Benchmark 5.Understands why some countries are land-locked (e.g., wars between rival countries, isolation due to the size of landmasses and due to racial and cultural divisions)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that some countries are land-locked because of wars between rival countries
 Standard 17.  Understands how geography is used to interpret the past
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 2.Knows historic and current conflicts and competition regarding the use and allocation of resources (e.g., the conflicts between Native Americans and colonists; conflicts between the Inuit and migrants to Alaska since 1950)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows historic conflicts regarding the use of resources
     2.Knows historic conflicts regarding the allocation of resources
     3.Knows contemporary conflicts regarding the allocation of resources
     4.Knows contemporary conflicts regarding the use of resources
     5.Knows the historic competition of resource use
     6.Knows the historic competition of resource allocation
     7.Knows the contemporary competition of resource use
     8.Knows the contemporary competition of resource allocation
     9.Understands the resource-related conflicts between Native Americans and colonists
     10.Understands the resource-related conflicts between the Inuit and migrants to Alaska since 1950

United States History

 Standard 1.  Understands the characteristics of societies in the Americas, Western Europe, and Western Africa that increasingly interacted after 1450
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 7.Understands how the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca united to form the Iroquois nation and to solve conflicts peaceably
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that the Mohawk, Oneida, Onandaga, Cayuga, and Seneca were distinct Native American societies prior to forming the Iroquois nation
     2.Understands that the Iroquois nation was formed in order to solve conflicts peaceably among different Native American societies
 Standard 3.  Understands why the Americas attracted Europeans, why they brought enslaved Africans to their colonies and how Europeans struggled for control of North America and the Caribbean
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands peaceful and conflicting interaction between English settlers and Native Americans in the New England, Mid-Atlantic, Chesapeake, and lower South colonies (e.g., how Native American and European societies influenced one another, differing European and Native American views of the land and its use)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands peaceful and conflicting interactions between English settlers and Native Americans in New England colonies
     2.Understands peaceful and conflicting interactions between English and Native Americans in Mid-Atlantic colonies
     3.Understands peaceful and conflicting interactions between English and Native Americans in the Chesapeake colonies
     4.Understands peaceful and conflicting interactions between English settlers and Native Americans in the lower South colonies
     5.Understands how Native American and European societies influenced one another
     6.Knows differences between European and Native American views of land and its use
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the cultural and environmental impacts of European settlement in North America (e.g., friendly and conflictory relations between English, French, Spanish, and Dutch settlers and Native Americans; how various Native American societies changed as a result of the expanding European settlements and how they influenced European societies; the impact of the fur trade on the environment)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows of friendly relations between English, French, Spanish, and Dutch settlers and Native Americans
     2.Knows of conflictory relations between English, French, Spanish, and Dutch settlers and Native Americans
     4.Understands how various Native American societies influenced European societies
 Standard 4.  Understands how political, religious, and social institutions emerged in the English colonies
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands influences on the development of representative government in colonial America (e.g., conflicts between legislative and executive branches in Virginia, New York, and Massachusetts; how different colonies adopted different laws and governmental frameworks; how demography influenced different forms of government in the colonies; the influence of colonial institutions; how an abundance of land, devotion to private property, and a competitive entrepreneurial spirit influenced the idea of participatory government)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the conflicts between legislative and executive branches in Virginia influenced the development of representative government in colonial America
     2.Understands how the conflicts between legislative and executive branches in New York influenced the development of representative government in colonial America
     3.Understands how the conflicts between legislative and executive branches in Massachusetts influenced the development of representative government in colonial America
   Benchmark 6.Understands the elements of ethnic, class, and race relations in conflicts between backwoodsmen and planters of colonial America (e.g., Bacon's Rebellion, Leisler's Rebellion, the Carolina Regulators and Paxton Boys revolts)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the element of ethnic relations in conflicts between backwoodsmen and planters of colonial America
     2.Understands the element of class relations in conflicts between backwoodsmen and planters of colonial America
     3.Understands the element of race relations in conflicts between backwoodsmen and planters of colonial America
     4.Knows about Bacon’s Rebellion
     5.Knows about Leisler’s Rebellion
     6.Knows about Carolina Regulators
     7.Knows about the Paxton Boys revolts
 Standard 9.  Understands the United States territorial expansion between 1801 and 1861, and how it affected relations with external powers and Native Americans
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the diplomatic and political developments that led to the resolution of conflicts with Britain and Russia in the period 1815 to 1850
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the diplomatic developments that led to the resolution of conflicts with Britain in the period 1815 to 1850
     2.Understands the political developments that led to the resolution of conflicts with Britain in the period 1815 to 1850
     3.Understands the diplomatic developments that led to the resolution of conflicts with Russia in the period 1815 to 1850
     4.Understands the political developments that led to the resolution of conflicts with Russia in the period 1815 to 1850
 Standard 11.  Understands the extension, restriction, and reorganization of political democracy after 1800
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the major events and issues that promoted sectional conflicts and strained national cohesiveness in the antebellum period (e.g., support and opposition of the Missouri Compromise of 1820, the debate over slavery from the late 1830s to the Compromise of 1850)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the major events that promoted sectional conflicts in the atembellum period
     2.Understands the major events that strained national cohesiveness in the antebellum period
     3.Understands the major issues that promoted sectional conflicts in the antebellum period
     4.Understands the major issues that strained national cohesiveness in the antebellum period
     5.Understands the support of the Missouri Compromise of 1820
     6.Understands the opposition to the Missouri Compromise of 1820
     7.Understands the debate over slavery from the late 1830s to the Compromise of 1850