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Topic: Convergence and divergence of cultures 

World History

 Standard 4.  Understands how agrarian societies spread and new states emerged in the third and second millennia BCE
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands interaction between urban centers of Southwest Asia, Egypt, and the Aegean Basin, and the Eastern Mediterranean coast (e.g., the important urban centers of Southwest Asia, Egypt, and the Aegean Basin; the role of cities along the Mediterranean coast as commercial bridges between the trading networks of Southwest Asia, Egypt, and the Mediterranean)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the important urban centers of Southwest Asia
     2.Knows the important urban centers of early Egypt
     3.Knows the important urban centers of the Aegean Basin
     4.Understands the role of cities along the Mediterranean coast as commercial bridges between the trading networks of Southwest Asia, Egypt, and the Mediterranean
 Standard 11.  Understands major global trends from 1000 BCE to 300 CE
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands patterns of social and cultural continuity in various societies (e.g., ways in which peoples maintained traditions and resisted external challenges in the context of increasing interregional contacts)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands patterns of social continuity in various societies
     2.Understands patterns of cultural continuity in various societies
     3.Knows ways in which peoples maintained traditions in the context of increasing interregional contacts
     4.Knows ways in which peoples resisted external challenges in the context of increasing interregional contacts
 Standard 20.  Understands the redefinition of European society and culture from 1000 to 1300 CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the influence of Christianity in Medieval Europe (e.g., how successful the Christian states were in overthrowing Muslim powers in Central and Southern Iberia, the reasons for and consequences of the European Crusades against Syria and Palestine)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how successful the Christian states were in overthrowing Muslim powers in Central and Southern Iberia
     2.Understands the reasons for the European Crusades against Syria and Palestine
     3.Understands the consequences of the European Crusades against Syria and Palestine
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 7.Understands the roles and motivations of squires, saints, and soldiers in Christian Europe (e.g., aspects of training, rights, and responsibilities required of young men from noble families wishing to become squires; the role played by saints in the spread of Christianity; why Muslim and Christian soldiers may have joined the Crusades)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the roles and motivations of squires in Christian Europe
     2.Understands the roles and motivations of saints in Christian Europe
     3.Understands the roles and motivations of soldiers in Christian Europe
     4.Understands aspects of training, rights, and responsibilities required of young men from noble families wishing to become squires
     5.Understands the role played by saints in the spread of Christianity
     6.Understands why Muslim and Christian soldiers may have joined the Crusades
 Standard 29.  Understands the economic, political, and cultural interrelations among peoples of Africa, Europe, and the Americas between 1500 and 1750
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the consequences of European interaction with indigenous populations of the Americas (e.g., the moral, political, and cultural role of Catholic and Protestant Christianity in the European colonies in America; the Seven Years War and its consequences for Britain, France, Spain, and the indigenous peoples of the American colonial territories; the political relationships between American Indian nations and Holland, France, and England)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the moral role of Catholic and Protestant Christianity in the European colonies in America
     2.Understands the political role of Catholic and Protestant Christianity in the European colonies in America
     3.Understands the cultural role of Catholic and Protestant Christianity in the European colonies in America
     4.Understands aspects of the Seven Years War
     5.Understands the consequences of the Seven Years War for Britain, France, Spain, and the indigenous peoples of the American colonial territories
     6.Understands the political relationships between American Indian nations and Holland, France, and England
 Standard 30.  Understands transformations in Asian societies in the era of European expansion
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands features in the development of Korean and Japanese culture (e.g., why Korea was called the "Hermit Kingdom" before 1800, the role and status of women in Tokugawa Japan, the roots and development of 17th-century Japanese art forms)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands features in the development of Korean culture
     2.Understands features in the development of Japanese culture
     3.Understands why Korea was called the "Hermit Kingdom" before 1800
     4.Understands the role and status of women in Tokugawa Japan
     5.Understands the roots and development of 17th century Japanese art forms
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 7.Understands Mughal responses to the expansion of European commercial and maritime power in Asia (e.g., Mughal efforts to control the expansion and influence of European trading centers in India, and how these compared to similar efforts by the Chinese and Japanese to regulate foreign trade and influence within their borders; the catalysts behind the military buildup of Emperor Aurazngzeb in 1700 and how he responded to growing maritime strength of the British and French)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands Mughal efforts to control the expansion and influence of European trading centers in India
     2.Understands how Mughal efforts to control European trading centers in India compared to similar efforts by the Chinese and Japanese to regulate foreign trade and influence within their borders
     3.Knows the catalysts behind the military buildup of Emperor Aurazngzeb in 1700 and how he responded to growing maritime strength of the British and French
   Benchmark 8.Understands foreign influences on Japanese and Chinese economies (e.g., the impact of American silver upon the Japanese and Chinese economies between the 16th and 18th centuries, the role the Portuguese and Dutch played in Japanese trade, and why Japan limited trade to the West but not to Asia)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands foreign influences on the Japanese economy
     2.Understands foreign influences on the Chinese economy
     3.Understands the impact of American silver upon the Japanese economy between the 16th and 18th centuries
     4.Understands the impact of American silver upon the Chinese economy between the 16th and 18th centuries
     5.Knows the role the Portuguese and Dutch played in Japanese trade
     6.Understands why Japan limited trade to the West but not to Asia
 Standard 31.  Understands major global trends from 1450 to 1770
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Knows ways in which expanding capitalistic enterprise and commercialization affected relations among states and contributed to changing class and race relations
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows ways in which expanding capitalistic enterprise and commercialization affected relations among states
     2.Knows ways in which expanding capitalistic enterprise and commercialization contributed to changing class and race relations
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands how the Ming and Qing rulers viewed the European merchants, Christian missionaries, and military personnel who sought trading privileges in China
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the Ming and Qing rulers viewed the European merchant who sought trading privileges in China
     2.Understands how the Ming and Qing rulers viewed the Christian missionaries who sought trading privileges in China
     3.Understands how the Ming and Qing rulers viewed the military personnel who sought trading privileges in China
 Standard 36.  Understands patterns of global change in the era of Western military and economic dominance from 1800 to 1914
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 5.Understands events that shaped African relations with other countries (e.g., the rise of the Zulu empire and its effects on African societies and European colonial settlements; how the discovery of gold and diamonds in South Africa affected British investors and race relations among Africans, Afrikaners, and British colonial authorities; the relationship between European and African merchants and the types of products traded between the two in the period after slavery ended)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the rise of the Zulu empire
     2.Understands the effects of the Zulu Empire on African societies and European colonial settlements
     3.Understands how the discovery of gold and diamonds in South Africa affected British investors
     4.Understands how the discovery of gold and diamonds in South Africa affected race relations among Africans, Afrikaners, and British colonial authorities
     5.Understands the relationship between European and African merchants
     6.Knows the types of products traded between European and African merchants in the period after slavery ended
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 6.Understands political and social elements of Chinese society in the late 19th and early 20th centuries (e.g., Chinese efforts to reform government and society after 1895, as well as related causes for revolution in 1911; how the Chinese reacted to the presence and activities of foreigners in their country in the late 1890s)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands political elements of Chinese society in the late 19th and early 20th centuries
     2.Understands social elements of Chinese society in the late 19th and early 20th centuries
     3.Understands Chinese efforts to reform government and society after 1895, as well as related causes for revolution in 1911
     4.Understands how the Chinese reacted to the presence and activities of foreigners in their country in the late 1890s
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 8.Understands the debate on the westward movement in North America in the 19th century: whether this movement was unique, or simply part of a larger pattern of European overseas settlement, and what consequences the expansion had for indigenous peoples
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the debate on whether the westward movement in North America in the 19th century was unique
     2.Understands the debate on whether westward movement in North American in the 19th century was simply part of a larger pattern of European overseas settlement
     3.Understands the debate on what consequences westward expansion had for indigenous peoples
 Standard 37.  Understand major global trends from 1750 to 1914
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands patterns of social and cultural continuity in various societies, and how people maintained and resisted external changes in an era of expanding Western hegemony and rapid industrial and urban change (e.g., the efforts of people such as Jamal al-Din, al-Afghani, Rashid Rida, and Muhammad Abdul)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands patterns of social continuity in various societies
     2.Understands patterns of cultural continuity in various societies
     3.Understands how people maintained and resisted external changes in an era of expanding Western hegemony and rapid industrial and urban change
     4.Understands the efforts of people such as Jamal al Din, al Afghani, Rashid Rida, and Muhammad Abdul to resist external change
 Standard 39.  Understands the causes and global consequences of World War I
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the origins and significant features of World War I (e.g., the precipitating causes of the war; the factors that led to military stalemate in some areas; which countries joined each of the two alliances - the Allied Powers and the Central Powers - and the advantages and disadvantages for the formation of alliances; major areas of combat in Europe and Southwest Asia)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the origins of World War I
     2.Understands the significant features of World War I
     3.Understands the precipitating causes of World War I
     4.Understands the factors that led to military stalemate in some areas
     5.Understands which countries joined the Allied Powers
     6.Understands which countries joined the Central Powers
     7.Understands the advantages of forming alliances
     8.Understands the disadvantages of forming alliances
     9.Knows the major areas of combat in Europe
     10.Knows the major areas of combat in Southwest Asia
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands events that contributed to the outbreak of World War I (e.g., diverse long-range causes of World War I, such as political and economic rivalries, ethnic and ideological conflicts, militarism, imperialism, and nationalism; how nationalism threatened the balance of power among the Great Powers in Europe, and why it was considered one of the causes of World War I)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the long-range causes of World War I
     2.Understands the political rivalries that caused World War I
     3.Understands the economic rivalries that caused World War I
     4.Understands the ethnic conflicts that caused World War I
     5.Understands the ideological conflicts that caused World War I
     6.Understands how militarism caused World War I
     7.Understands how imperialism caused World War I
     8.Understands why nationalism is considered one of the causes of World War I
     9.Understands how nationalism threatened the balance of power among the Great Powers in Europe
 Standard 41.  Understands the causes and global consequences of World War II
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands events that led to the outbreak of World War II (e.g., the importance of the legacy of World War I, the depression, ethnic and ideological conflicts, imperialism, and traditional political or economic rivalries as underlying causes of World War II; the precipitating causes of the war and the reasons for early German and Japanese victories between 1939 and 1942; how Hitler capitalized on the despair of the German people to rise to power)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the importance of the legacy of World War I as an underlying cause of World War II
     2.Understands the importance of the depression as an underlying cause of World War II
     3.Understands the importance of ethnic and ideological conflicts as an underlying cause of World War II
     4.Understands the importance of imperialism as an underlying cause of World War II
     5.Understands the importance of traditional political or economic rivalries as an underlying cause of World War II
     6.Knows the precipitating causes of World War II
     7.Knows the reasons for early German and Japanese victories between 1939 and 1942
     8.Understands how Hitler capitalized on the despair of the German people to rise to power
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 7.Understands Japan's "greater East Asia co-prosperity" sphere and the support of this idea in European colonies in East Asia
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands Japan’s "greater East Asia co prosperity" sphere
     2.Understands the support in European colonies in East Asia for Japan’s idea of the "greater East Asia co prosperity" sphere
 Standard 42.  Understands major global trends from 1900 to the end of World War II
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands patterns of social and cultural continuity in various societies (e.g., ways in which peoples maintained traditions, sustained basic loyalties, and resisted external challenges in an era of recurrent world crises)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands patterns of social continuity in various societies
     2.Understands patterns of cultural continuity in various societies
     3.Understands ways in which peoples maintained traditions, sustained basic loyalties, and resisted external challenges in an era of recurrent world crises
 Standard 44.  Understands the search for community, stability, and peace in an interdependent world
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 11.Understands common arguments of opposition groups in various countries around the world, common solutions they offer, and the position of these ideas with regard to Western economic and strategic interests
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands common arguments of opposition groups in various countries around the world
     2.Knows common solutions offered by opposition groups in various countries around the world

Behavioral Studies

 Standard 4.  Understands conflict, cooperation, and interdependence among individuals, groups, and institutions
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 11.Understands that mass media, migrations, and conquest affect social change by exposing one culture to another, and that extensive borrowing among cultures has led to the virtual disappearance of some cultures but only modest change in others
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that mass media affects social change by exposing one culture to another
     2.Understands that migration affects social change by exposing one culture to another
     3.Understands that conquest affects social change by exposing one culture to another
     4.Understands that extensive borrowing among cultures has led to the virtual disappearance of some cultures but only modest changes in others

Geography

 Standard 10.  Understands the nature and complexity of Earth's cultural mosaics
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 1.Knows the similarities and differences in characteristics of culture in different regions (e.g., in terms of environment and resources, technology, food, shelter, social organization, beliefs and customs, schooling, what girls and boys are allowed to do)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how cultures in different regions are the same
     2.Knows how cultures in different regions are different
     3.Knows similarities in the environment of different regions
     4.Knows similarities in the resources of different regions
     5.Knows similarities in the technology of different regions
     6.Knows similarities in the shelters of different regions
     7.Knows similarities in the social organization of different regions
     8.Knows similarities in the beliefs and customs of different regions
     9.Knows similarities in schooling in different regions
     10.Knows similarities in what boys and girls are allowed to do in different regions
     11.Knows differences in the environment of different regions
     12.Knows differences in the resources of different regions
     13.Knows differences in the technology of different regions
     14.Knows differences in the shelters of different regions
     15.Knows differences in the social organization of different regions
     16.Knows differences in the beliefs and customs of different regions
     17.Knows differences in schooling in different regions
     18.Knows differences in what boys and girls are allowed to do in different regions
   Benchmark 2.Understands how different people living in the same region maintain different ways of life (e.g., the cultural differences between Native Americans and Europeans living along the eastern seaboard in the 17th century; differences among Sikhs, Hindus, and Muslims living in India today)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the cultural differences between Native Americans and Europeans living along the eastern seaboard in the 17th century
     2.Knows the differences among Sikhs, Hindus, and Muslims living in India today
     3.Understands that people living in the same region sometimes maintain different ways of life
   Benchmark 3.Understands how cultures differ in their use of similar environments and resources (e.g., comparing how people live in Phoenix, Arizona with how people live in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how cultures differ in their use of similar environments
     2.Understands how cultures differ in their use of similar resources
     3.Knows how people live in Phoenix, Arizona compared to how people live in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Knows the role culture plays in incidents of cooperation and conflict in the present-day world (e.g., conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa in the 1960s, Central Europe in the 1980s and 1990s, states within the former Soviet Union in the 1990s; cooperation such as the religious and linguistic ties between Spain and parts of Latin America; ethnic ties among the Kurds living in Iran, Iraq, and Turkey)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the role culture plays in incidents of cooperation in the present-day world
     2.Knows the role culture plays in incidents of conflict in the present-day world
     3.Understands the role of culture in the conflicts of sub-Saharan Africa in the 1960s
     4.Understands the role of culture in the conflicts of Central Europe in the 1980s and 1990s
     5.Understands the role of culture in the conflicts between states within the former Soviet Union in the 1990s
     6.Understands the role of culture in the cooperation between Spain and parts of Latin America
     7.Understands the religious ties between Spain and parts of Latin America
     8.Understands the linguistic ties between Spain and parts of Latin America
     9.Understands the ethnic ties among the Kurds living in Iran, Iraq, and Turkey
   Benchmark 5.Understands how communication and transportation technologies contribute to cultural convergence or divergence (e.g., convergence created by electronic media, computers, and jet aircraft; divergence created by technologies used to reinforce nationalistic or ethnic elitism or cultural separateness and independence)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how communication technology contributes to cultural convergence
     2.Understands how communication technology contributes to cultural divergence
     3.Understands how transportation technology contributes to cultural convergence
     4.Understands how transportation technology contributes to cultural divergence
     5.Understands the cultural convergence created by electronic media
     6.Understands the cultural convergence created by computers
     7.Understands the cultural convergence created by jet aircraft
     8.Understands the cultural divergence created by technologies used to reinforce nationalistic elitism
     9.Understands the cultural divergence created by technologies used to reinforce ethnic elitism
     10.Understands the cultural divergence created by technologies used to reinforce cultural separateness
     11.Understands the cultural divergence created by technologies used to reinforce cultural independence
 Standard 13.  Understands the forces of cooperation and conflict that shape the divisions of Earth's surface
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the factors that affect the cohesiveness and integration of countries (e.g., language and religion in Belgium, the religious differences between Hindus and Muslims in India, the ethnic differences in some African countries that have been independent for only a few decades, the elongated shapes of Italy and Chile)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that language affects the cohesiveness and integration of Belgium
     2.Understands that religion affects the cohesiveness and integration of Belgium
     3.Understands that religious differences between Hindus and Muslims affect the cohesiveness and integration of India
     4.Understands that ethnic differences affect the cohesiveness and integration of some African countries
     5.Understands that the long shape of Italy affects the cohesiveness and integration of the country
     6.Understands that the long shape of Chile affects the cohesiveness and integration of the country
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Knows the causes of boundary conflicts and internal disputes between culture groups (e.g., the conflict between North Korea and South Korea, friction between the Spanish majority and Basque minority in Spain, the civil war between the Hutus and the Tutsis in Rwanda)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the causes of boundary conflicts between culture groups
     2.Knows the causes of internal disputes between culture groups
     3.Knows the causes of conflict between North Korea and South Korea
     4.Knows the causes of friction between the Spanish majority and Basque minority in Spain
     5.Knows the causes of the civil war between the Hutus and the Tutsis in Rwanda
   Benchmark 5.Understands why some countries are land-locked (e.g., wars between rival countries, isolation due to the size of landmasses and due to racial and cultural divisions)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands that some countries are land-locked because of racial and cultural divisions
   Benchmark 6.Understands how external forces can conflict economically and politically with internal interests in a region (e.g., how the Pampas in Argentina underwent a significant socioeconomic transformation in the 19th and early 20th centuries as a consequence of European demands for grain and beef; the consequences of the French colonization of IndoChina in the 19th century to procure tin, tungsten, and rubber; the friction between Hindus and Muslims in the Indian subcontinent in the 1940s which led to the formation of India and Pakistan)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     5.Understands the friction between Hindus and Muslims in the Indian subcontinent in the 1940s which led to the formation of India and Pakistan