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Topic: Archaeological methods and practices 

World History

 Standard 1.  Understands the biological and cultural processes that shaped the earliest human communities
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands scientific evidence regarding early hominid evolution in Africa (e.g., daily life of individuals and communities in early hunter-gatherer populations; major anthropological discoveries, their locations, and their discoverers)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the daily life of individuals and communities in early hunter-gatherer populations
     2.Understands major anthropological discoveries in Africa
     3.Knows the locations of major anthropological discoveries in Africa
     4.Knows the individuals who have made major anthropological discoveries in Africa
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands early hominid development and scientific methods used to determine the dates and evolution of different human communities (e.g., methods employed by archaeologists, geologists, and anthropologists to study hominid evolution; the approximate chronology, sequence, and territorial range of early hominid evolution in Africa from the Australopithecines to Homo erectus)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows a variety of scientific methods used by archaeologists, geologists, and anthropologists to determine the dates of early human communities
     2.Knows a variety of scientific methods used by archaeologists, geologists, and anthropologists to study the evolution of early human communities
     3.Knows the approximate chronology and sequence of early hominid evolution in Africa from the Australopithecines to Homo erectus
     4.Knows the territorial range of early hominid evolution in Africa from the Australopithecines to Homo erectus
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands methods by which early human communities are studied and what these studies reveal (e.g., the way in which newly discovered sites and investigative techniques used to examine them affect the study and understanding of human evolution, how common refuse can be studied to make inferences about earlier communities)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the way in which newly discovered sites and investigative techniques used to examine them affect the study and understanding of human evolution
     2.Knows how common refuse can be studied to make inferences about earlier communities
   Benchmark 2.Understands how different kinds of evidence are used to determine the cultural characteristics of early human communities (e.g., how archaeological evidence demonstrates the influences of climate, geographic location, and economic specialization on everyday life; how nonverbal evidence such as burials, carvings, and paintings can indicate the presence of religion)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how archaeological evidence demonstrates the influence of climate on everyday life in early human communities
     2.Understands how archaeological evidence demonstrates the influence of geographic location on everyday life in early human communities
     3.Understands how archaeological evidence demonstrates the influence of economic specialization on everyday life in early human communities
     4.Understands how nonverbal evidence such as burials, carvings, and paintings can indicate the presence of religion
 Standard 2.  Understands the processes that contributed to the emergence of agricultural societies around the world
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the role of agriculture in early settled communities (e.g., how archaeological evidence explains the technology, social organization, and cultural life of settled farming communities in Southwest Asia; differences between wild and domestic plants and animals; how patterns of settlement were influenced by agricultural practices)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how archaeological evidence explains the technology of settled farming communities in Southwest Asia
     2.Understands how archaeological evidence explains the social organization of settled farming communities in Southwest Asia
     3.Understands how archaeological evidence explains the cultural life of settled farming communities in Southwest Asia
     4.Understands the differences between wild and domestic plants and animals
     5.Understands how patterns of settlement were influenced by agricultural practices
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands what archaeological evidence reveals about the social and cultural conditions of agricultural societies (e.g., the emergence of social class divisions, occupational specialization, differences in gender roles; long distance trade routes in Southwest Asia; the importance of obsidian to this trade)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands what archaeological evidence reveals about the social conditions of agricultural societies
     2.Understands what archaeological evidence reveals about the cultural conditions of agricultural societies
     3.Understands the emergence of social class divisions in early agricultural societies
     4.Understands the emergence of occupational specialization in early agricultural societies
     5.Understands the differences in gender roles in early agricultural societies
     6.Knows long distance trade routes in Southwest Asia
     7.Understands the importance of obsidian to long distance trade in Southwest Asia
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands what archaeological evidence has revealed about the cultural beliefs of early agricultural societies (e.g., the emergence of complete belief systems, including female deity worship)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows types of archaeological evidence that reveal information about cultural beliefs of early agricultural societies
     2.Understands the emergence of complete belief systems in early agricultural societies
     3.Understands the role of female deity worship in early agricultural societies
   Benchmark 4.Understands what environmental and architectural evidence reveals about different types of large agricultural communities (e.g., the locations of different types of communities between 10,000 and 4,000 BCE; how patterns of layout, fortification, and standardization in large settlements helped transform human culture)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows types of environmental evidence that reveal information about early agricultural communities
     2.Knows types of architectural evidence that reveal information about early agricultural communities
     3.Knows that archaeological evidence revealed the locations of different types of communities between 10,000 and 4,000 BCE
     4.Understands that archaeological evidence revealed how patterns of layout, fortification, and standardization in large settlements helped transform human culture
 Standard 4.  Understands how agrarian societies spread and new states emerged in the third and second millennia BCE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands what archaeological evidence (e.g., oracle bone inscriptions, bronze vessels) reveals about Chinese history during the Shang Dynasty
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows types of archaeological evidence found in China related to the Shang Dynasty, such as oracle bone inscriptions or bronze vessels
 Standard 10.  Understands how early agrarian civilizations arose in Mesoamerica
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands methods used to study Olmec civilization (e.g., what archaeological evidence indicates about the development of Olmec civilization in the 2nd and 1st millennia BCE, clues about political and economic structure found in the monumental Olmec stone heads)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows what archaeological evidence indicates about the development of Olmec civilization in the 2nd and 1st millennia BCE
     2.Understands clues about political and economic structure found in the monumental Olmec stone heads
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the framework of Olmec society and the influence of Olmec civilization on other civilizations (e.g., the cultural influence of the Olmec on the development of Zapotec and Mayan civilizations; the role of trade in the diffusion of this culture; the political, economic, and social structure of Olmec society and Olmec beliefs, and how this knowledge has been acquired in spite of undeciphered written records)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the framework of Olmec society
     2.Understands the influence of Olmec civilization on other civilizations
     3.Understands the cultural influence of the Olmec on the development of Zapotec and Mayan civilizations
     4.Understands the role of trade in the diffusion of Olmec culture
     5.Understands the political structure of Olmec society
     6.Understands the economic structure of Olmec society
     7.Understands the social structure of Olmec society
     8.Understands Olmec belief systems
     9.Understands how knowledge about the Olmec civilization has been acquired in spite of undeciphered written records
 Standard 16.  Understands the development of agricultural societies and new states in tropical Africa and Oceania
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands economic, social, and religious influences on Ghana society (e.g., what archaeological evidence indicates about the development of Jenne-jeno and Kumbi-Saleh into important early commercial cities; the agriculture, trade, standard of living, expansionary tendencies and role of religious ideas in Ghana)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands economic influences on Ghana society
     2.Understands social influences on Ghana society
     3.Understands religious influences on Ghana society
     4.Knows what archaeological evidence indicates about the development of Jenn jeno and Kumbi Saleh into important early commercial cities
     5.Understands the features of agriculture in Ghana
     6.Understands features of trade in Ghana
     7.Understands the standard of living in Ghana
     8.Understands the expansionary tendencies of Ghana society
     9.Understands the role of religious ideas in Ghana
 Standard 17.  Understands the rise of centers of civilization in Mesoamerica and Andean South America in the 1st millennium CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands methods used to study Zapotec, Teotihuacan, and Moche civilizations (e.g., locations of these communities and their major archaeological remains, what archaeological evidence such as clay pottery and figures reveal about Moche civilization, what remains of planned cities reveal about the structure of Zapotec and Teotihuacan civilization)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands methods used to study the Zapotec civilization
     2.Understands methods used to study the Teotihuacan civilization
     3.Understands methods used to study the Moche civilization
     4.Knows the location of the Teotihuacan community and its major archaeological remains
     5.Knows the location of the Zapotec community and its major archaeological remains
     6.Knows the location of the Moche community and its major archaeological remains
     7.Knows what archaeological evidence such as clay pottery and figures reveal about Moche civilization
     8.Knows what remains of planned cities reveal about the structure of the Zapotec civilization
     9.Knows what remains of planned cities reveal about the structure of the Teotihuacan civilization
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands Mayan achievements in astronomy, mathematics, and the development of a calendar (e.g., the place of archaeological evidence such as the "Long Count" calendar in the interpretation of Mayan history, how achievements in astronomy affected Mayan society, the value of mathematical innovations and the calendar to farmers)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands Mayan achievements in astronomy
     2.Understands Mayan achievements in mathematics
     3.Understands Mayan achievements in developing a calendar
     4.Understands the place of archaeological evidence such as the "Long Count" calendar in the interpretation of Mayan history
     5.Understands how achievements in astronomy affected Mayan society
     6.Understands the value of mathematical innovations to farmers
     7.Understands the value of the calendar to farmers
 Standard 24.  Understands the expansion of states and civilizations in the Americas between 1000 and 1500
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands what archaeological, artistic, and written sources can illustrate about pre-European life in the Americas
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands what archaeological evidence can illustrate about pre European life in the Americas
     2.Understands what artistic sources can illustrate about pre European life in the Americas
     3.Understands what written sources can illustrate about pre European life in the Americas
 Standard 34.  Understands how Eurasian societies were transformed in an era of global trade and the emergence of European power from 1750 to 1870
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands aspects of Russian expansion and settlement in the late 18th and 19th centuries (e.g., why Russia was successful in wars of expansion against the Ottoman empire; why and how Russia expanded across Asia into Alaska, and along the California coast; what archaeological evidence reveals about daily life in the Russian settlements at Sitka and Bogeda Bay)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands aspects of Russian expansion in the late 18th and 19th centuries
     2.Understands aspects of Russian settlement in the late 18th and 19th centuries
     3.Knows why Russia was successful in wars of expansion against the Ottoman empire
     4.Knows why and how Russia expanded across Asia into Alaska, and along the California coast
     5.Knows what archaeological evidence reveals about daily life in the Russian settlements at Sitka and Bogeda Bay