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Topic: Nature of language  

Foreign Language

 Standard 5.  Understands that different languages use different patterns to communicate and applies this knowledge to the target and native languages
  Level II (Grade K-4)
   Benchmark 1.Knows words that have been borrowed from one language to another and how these word borrowings may have developed
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows words that have been borrowed from one language to another
     2.Knows how word borrowings among languages may have developed
   Benchmark 2.Knows basic elements of the sound and writing systems of the target language and how these elements differ from the same elements of one’s native language
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows basic elements of the sound system of the target language
     2.Knows basic elements of the writing system of the target language
     3.Knows how the elements of the sound system of the target language differ from the same elements of one’s native language
     4.Knows how the elements of the writing system of the target language differ from the same elements of one’s native language
  Level III (Grade 5-8)
   Benchmark 2.Draws conclusions about the relationship among languages (e.g., based on cognates and idioms)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that there are underlying relationships among languages
     2.Draws conclusions about relationships among languages based on cognates
     3.Draws conclusions about relationships among languages based on idioms
   Benchmark 3.Understands that languages have critical sound distinctions that convey meaning
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows there is a relationship between how a word sounds and the meaning it conveys
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands that the ability to comprehend language surpasses the ability to produce language
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that producing language is not the same as comprehending it
     2.Understands that one can produce language without fully comprehending it
   Benchmark 3.Understands similar and different meanings of cognates in different languages and how this relates to the evolution of language
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands similar meanings of cognates in different languages
     2.Understands different meanings of cognates in different languages
     3.Understands how the similar and different meanings of cognates relates to the evolution of language
   Benchmark 4.Understands the nature of the writing systems in the target, native, and other languages (e.g., logographic, syllabic, alphabetic)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the nature of the writing system in the target language
     2.Understands the nature of the writing system in the native language
     3.Understands the nature of the writing systems in other languages
     4.Understands the nature of a logographic writing system
     5.Understands the nature of a syllabic writing system
     6.Understands the nature of an alphabetic writing system