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Topic: Critical viewing 

Foreign Language

 Standard 2.  Understands and interprets written and spoken language on diverse topics from diverse media
  Level II (Grade K-4)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the main ideas of ability-appropriate video or television programs on familiar topics
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the main ideas of ability-appropriate videos on familiar topics
     2.Understands the main ideas of ability-appropriate television programs on familiar topics
  Level III (Grade 5-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the main ideas, themes, and basic details from diverse, authentic, ability-appropriate spoken media (e.g., radio, television, film, live presentation) on topics of personal interest or interest to peers in the target culture
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the main ideas from ability-appropriate spoken media on topics of personal interest or interest to peers in the target culture
     2.Understands the themes from ability-appropriate spoken media on topics of personal interest or interest to peers in the target culture
     3.Understands the basic details from ability-appropriate spoken media on topics of personal interest or interest to peers in the target culture
     4.Understands the main ideas, themes, and basic details from television programs
     5.Understands the main ideas, themes, and basic details from films
     6.Understands the main ideas, themes, and basic details from live presentations
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the main ideas and significant details of extended discussions, lectures, formal presentations, and various forms of media (e.g., radio or television programs, movies) that are appropriate at this developmental level
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the main ideas and significant details of extended discussions that are appropriate at this developmental level
     2.Understands the main ideas and significant details of lectures that are appropriate at this developmental level
     3.Understands the main ideas and significant details of formal presentations that are appropriate at this developmental level

Language Arts

 Standard 9.  Uses viewing skills and strategies to understand and interpret visual media
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the main idea or message in visual media (e.g., graphics, animation, comic books, television)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the main idea in visual media
     2.Understands the message in visual media
     3.Understands the main idea of graphic information
     4.Understands the message of graphic information
     5.Understands the main idea of animation
     6.Understands the message of animation
     7.Understands the main idea of a comic book
     8.Understands the message of a comic book
     9.Understands the main idea of a television program
     10.Understands the message of a television program
   Benchmark 2.Uses a variety of strategies to predict content and meaning in visual media (e.g., uses knowledge of the structure of television programs: for cartoons, make predictions based on program length, experience that a resolution will be reached and that main characters will overcome difficulties to return to the next episode; uses knowledge of cause-and-effect relationships to predict plot development)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses strategies to predict content in visual media
     2.Uses strategies to predict meaning in visual media
     3.Uses knowledge of the structure of television programs to predict content and meaning in visual media
     4.Uses knowledge of structure for cartoons to predict their content and meaning
     5.Makes of a program’s length to predict its content and meaning
     6.Uses knowledge based on experience that a resolution will be reached to predict content and meaning
     7.Makes predictions based on expectation that main characters will overcome difficulties to return to the next episode
     8.Uses knowledge of cause-and-effect relationships to predict plot development
   Benchmark 6.Understands the similarities and differences between real life and life depicted in visual media (e.g., compares own family to families represented in television cartoons or films; knows that there is a difference between a character in a program and the actor)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands similarities between real life and life depicted in visual media
     2.Understands differences between real life and life depicted in visual media
     3.Compares own family to families on television cartoons
     4.Compares own family to families on film
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 1.Understands different messages conveyed through visual media (e.g., main ideas and supporting details; facts and opinions; main characters, setting, and sequence of events in visual narratives)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands messages conveyed through visual media
     2.Understands main ideas in visual media
     3.Understands supporting details in visual media
     4.Understands facts in visual media
     5.Understands opinions in visual media
     6.Understands main characters in visual media
     7.Understands setting in visual narratives
     8.Understands sequence of events in visual narratives
   Benchmark 4.Understands the different ways in which people are stereotyped in visual media (e.g., clever people wearing glasses, mothers working at home, scientists wearing white coats; super heroes; people from different socio-cultural or minority groups) and understands that people could have been represented differently
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands people could be represented differently in visual media
     2.Knows the stereotype of clever people wearing glasses in visual media
     3.Knows the stereotype of mothers working at home in visual media
     4.Knows the stereotype of scientists wearing white coats in visual media
     5.Knows the stereotypes of super heroes in visual media
     6.Knows the stereotype of people from different socio-cultural in visual media
     7.Knows the stereotype of people from minority groups in visual media
   Benchmark 7.Understands basic elements of advertising in visual media (e.g., sales approaches and techniques aimed at children, appealing elements used in memorable commercials, possible reasons for the choice of specific visual images)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands possible reasons for choice of visual images in advertising
     2.Understands sales approaches aimed at children in advertising
     3.Understands techniques aimed at children in advertising
     4.Understands appealing elements uses in memorable commercials
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands a variety of messages conveyed by visual media (e.g., main concept, details, themes or lessons, viewpoints)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the main concept in visual media
     2.Understands details in visual media
     3.Understands themes in visual media
     4.Understands lessons in visual media
     5.Understands viewpoints in visual media
   Benchmark 4.Understands the use of stereotypes and biases in visual media (e.g., distorted representations of society; imagery and stereotyping in advertising; elements of stereotypes such as physical characteristics, manner of speech, beliefs and attitudes)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands stereotypes in visual media
     2.Understands biases in visual media
     3.Understands distorted representations of society in visual media
     4.Understands imagery in advertising
     5.Understands stereotyping in advertising
     6.Understands elements of stereotypes
     7.Understands physical characteristics as a stereotype
     8.Understands manner of speech as a stereotype
     9.Understands beliefs as a stereotype
     10.Understands attitudes as a stereotype
   Benchmark 7.Understands reasons for varied interpretations of visual media (e.g., different purposes or circumstances while viewing, influence of personal knowledge and experiences, focusing on different stylistic features)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that different people may interpret media differently
     2.Understands that the purpose for viewing may affect the interpretation of media
     3.Understands that circumstances while viewing may affect the interpretation of media
     4.Understands the influence of personal knowledge on the interpretation of media
     5.Understands the influence of personal experiences on the interpretation of media
     6.Understands that focusing on different stylistic features may affect the interpretation of media
   Benchmark 8.Knows that people with special interests and expectations are the target audience for particular messages or products in visual media; and knows that design, language, and content reflect this (e.g., in advertising and sales techniques aimed specifically towards teenagers; in products aimed towards different classes, races, ages, genders; in the appeal of popular television shows and films for particular audiences)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows people with special expectations are target audience for particular messages in visual media
     2.Knows people with special interests are target audience for particular products in visual media
     3.Knows design of visual media reflects the intended audience
     4.Knows language of visual media reflects the intended audience
     5.Knows content of visual media reflects the intended audience
     6.Knows in advertising techniques aimed towards teenagers
     7.Knows sales techniques aimed towards teenagers
     8.Knows products aimed toward different classes
     9.Knows products aimed toward different races
     10.Knows products aimed toward different ages
     11.Knows products aimed toward different genders
     12.Knows appeal of popular television shows for particular audiences
     13.Knows appeal of popular films for particular audiences
   Benchmark 9.Understands techniques used in visual media to influence or appeal to a particular audience (e.g., production techniques, such as designing a news program as entertainment; persuasive techniques, such as exaggerated claims, portrayal of appealing lifestyles, bandwagon, glittering generalities; subliminal messages; narrative style)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands techniques used in visual media to influence and appeal to particular audiences
     2.Understands production techniques used in visual media
     3.Understands why news program may be designed as entertainment
     4.Understands persuasive techniques used in visual media
     5.Understands the use of exaggerated claims to influence an audience
     6.Understands the portrayal of appealing lifestyles to influence an audience
     7.Understands the use of bandwagon to influence an audience
     8.Understands the use of glittering generalities to influence an audience
     9.Understands the use of subliminal messages to influence an audience
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Uses a range of strategies to interpret visual media (e.g., draws conclusions, makes generalizations, synthesizes materials viewed, refers to images or information in visual media to support point of view, deconstructs media to determine the main idea)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Deconstructs media to determine main idea
     2.Draws conclusions about visual media
     3.Makes generalizations about visual media
     4.Synthesizes materials viewed in visual media
     5.Refers to images in visual media to support point of view
     6.Refers to information in visual media to support point of view
   Benchmark 5.Uses strategies to analyze stereotypes in visual media (e.g., recognizes stereotypes that serve the interests of some groups in society at the expense of others; identifies techniques used in visual media that perpetuate stereotypes)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Identifies techniques uses in visual media that perpetuate stereotypes
     2.Recognizes stereotypes that serve interest to groups in society at expense of others
   Benchmark 6.Understands the connection between context and values projected by visual media (e.g., how the portrayal of characters, people, and ideas may project socio-cultural values; influence of changing societal values on media products; political context, such as conflicts between loyalty and betrayal in ’High Noon’, made in America during the McCarthy period; cultural values suggested by omissions from visual media, such as soap operas featuring only well-off people)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the portrayal of characters, people, and ideas in media may project socio-cultural values.
     3.Understands the influence of changing societal values on media products
     4.Understands political contexts in media
     5.Understands that omissions in visual media may reflect cultural values
   Benchmark 10.Understands a variety of techniques used in advertising (e.g., portrayals of happy families and exotic places; celebrity endorsement; use of humor; emphasis on value and reliability; sex appeal; science and statistics; appeal to fears and insecurities)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands appeal to insecurities in advertising
     2.Understands portrayals of happy families in advertising
     3.Understands portrayals of exotic places in advertising
     4.Understands celebrity endorsement in advertising
     5.Understands use of humor in advertising
     6.Understands emphasis on value in advertising
     7.Understands emphasis on reliability in advertising
     8.Understands sex appeal in advertising
     9.Understands science in advertising
     10.Understands statistics in advertising
     11.Understands appeal to fears in advertising
   Benchmark 12.Understands the effects of visual media on audiences with different backgrounds (e.g., age, nationality, gender, class, belief system)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands belief system affects audiences of visual media
     2.Understands age affects audiences of visual media
     3.Understands nationality affects audiences of visual media
     4.Understands gender affects audiences of visual media
     5.Understands class affects audiences of visual media
 Standard 10.  Understands the characteristics and components of the media
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the different purposes of various media (e.g., to provide entertainment or information, to persuade, to transmit culture, to focus attention on an issue)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that a purpose of media is to persuade
     2.Understands that a purpose of media is to provide entertainment
     3.Understands that a purpose of media is to provide information
     4.Understands that a purpose of media is to transmit culture
     5.Understands that a purpose of media is to focus attention on an issue
   Benchmark 3.Understands how the type of media affects coverage of events or issues (e.g., how the same event is covered by the radio, television, and newspapers; how each medium shapes facts into a particular point of view; how limitations and advantages of various media affect coverage of events)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands media affects coverage of events
     2.Understands media affects coverage of issues
     3.Understands how same event is covered by radio, television, and newspapers
     4.Understands how each medium shapes facts into particular point of view
     5.Understands how limitations of media affect coverage of events
     6.Understands how advantages of media affect coverage of events
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands that media messages have economic, political, social, and aesthetic purposes (e.g., to make money, to gain power or authority over others, to present ideas about how people should think or behave, to experiment with different kinds of symbolic forms or ideas)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that media messages have economic purposes
     2.Understands that media messages have political purposes
     3.Understands that media messages have social purposes
     4.Understands that media messages have aesthetic purposes
     5.Understands that the purpose of a media message may be to make money
     6.Understands that the purpose of a media message may be to gain power or authority over others
     7.Understands that the purpose of a media message may be to present ideas about how people should think or behave
     8.Understands that the purpose of a media message may be to experiment with different kinds of symbolic forms
     11.Understands that the purpose of a media message may be to experiment with different kinds of ideas
   Benchmark 2.Understands how different media (e.g., documentaries, current affairs programs, web pages) are structured to present a particular subject or point of view
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how media are structured to present a subject
     2.Understands how media are structured to present a point of view
     3.Understands how documentaries are structured to present a subject
     4.Understands how documentaries are structured to present a point of view
     5.Understands how web pages are structured to present a subject
     6.Understands how web pages are structured to present a point of view
     7.Understands how current affair programs are structured to present a subject
     8.Understands how current affair programs are structured to present a point of view
   Benchmark 7.Understand different aspects of advertising in media (e.g., advertising intertwined with media content, such as advertising copy presented in the form of news stories or the close association of feature articles with surrounding advertisements; the influence of advertising on virtually every aspect of the media, such as the structure of newspapers; advertisers as a pressure group; sponsorship as a form of advertising; ambience in media that is sympathetic to advertising, such as lifestyles portrayed on television)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands advertising copy presented in forms of feature articles with surrounding advertisements
     2.Understands advertising intertwined with media content
     3.Understands advertising copy presented in forms of news stories
     4.Understands influence of advertising on virtually every aspect of media
     5.Understands advertisers as a pressure group
     6.Understands sponsorship as a form of advertising
     7.Understands ambience in media that is sympathetic to advertising (lifestyles portrayed on TV)

Theatre

 Standard 5.  Understands how informal and formal theatre, film, television, and electronic media productions create and communicate meaning
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   Benchmark 1.Knows the difference between pretend and real
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the concept of pretend
     2.Understands the concept of real
  Level II (Grade K-4)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the visual, aural, oral, and kinetic elements of dramatic performances
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the visual elements of dramatic performances
     2.Understands the aural elements of dramatic performances
     3.Understands the oral elements of dramatic performances
     4.Understands the kinetic elements of dramatic performances
   Benchmark 4.Knows how alternative ideas can be used to enhance character roles, environments, and situations
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how alternative ideas can be used to enhance character roles
     2.Knows how alternative ideas can be used to enhance environments
     3.Knows how alternative ideas can be used to enhance situations
   Benchmark 5.Knows appropriate terminology used in analyzing dramatizations (e.g., intent, structure, effectiveness, worth)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows terms, such as "intent," used in analyzing dramatizations
     2.Knows terms, such as "structure," used in analyzing dramatizations
     3.Knows terms, such as "effectiveness," used in analyzing dramatizations
     4.Knows terms, such as "worth," used in analyzing dramatizations
   Benchmark 6.Identifies people, events, time, and place in classroom dramatizations
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Identifies people in classroom dramatizations
     2.Identifies events in classroom dramatizations
     3.Identifies time in classroom dramatizations
     4.Identifies place in classroom dramatizations
  Level III (Grade 5-8)
   Benchmark 2.Articulates the meanings constructed from one’s own and others’ dramatic performances
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Articulates the meanings constructed from the dramatic performances of others
   Benchmark 3.Understands the perceived effectiveness of artistic choices found in dramatic performances
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the concept of perceived effectiveness in drama
     2.Understands that artistic choices may or may not be effective
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Knows how social meanings (aural, oral, and visual symbols with personal and/or social significance) communicated in informal productions, formal productions, and personal performances of different cultures and historical periods can relate to current personal, national, and international issues
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how social meanings communicated in productions and performances can relate to current personal issues
     2.Knows how social meanings communicated in productions and performances can relate to current national issues
     3.Knows how social meanings communicated in productions and performances can relate to current international issues
     4.Knows that social meanings in theatre include aural, oral, and visual symbols with personal and/or social significance
   Benchmark 2.Articulates and justifies personal aesthetic criteria for comparing perceived artistic intent with the final aesthetic achievement
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Compares the perceived artistic intent with the final aesthetic achievement
     2.Develops personal aesthetic criteria to theatre
   Benchmark 3.Understands how the context in which a dramatic performance is set can enhance or hinder its effectiveness
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the context in which a dramatic performance is set can enhance its effectiveness
     2.Understands how the context in which a dramatic performance is set can hinder its effectiveness