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Topic: Power and authority 

Civics

 Standard 1.  Understands ideas about civic life, politics, and government
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 1.Knows examples of situations in which individuals are acting on their own (e.g., two friends decide to do something) and situations in which individuals' actions are directed by others (e.g., parents tell their children to do something)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows situations in which individuals are acting on their own
     2.Knows situations in which individuals’ actions are directed by others
     3.Knows that when two friends decide to do something, they are acting on their own
     4.Knows that when parents tell their children to do something, the children’s actions are being directed by others
   Benchmark 2.Knows examples of authority (e.g., a teacher tells a group of students to do something) and power without authority (e.g., an older, larger student tells a group of younger students to do something)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows examples of authority
     2.Knows examples of power without authority
     3.Knows that a teacher telling a group of students to do something is an example of authority
     4.Knows that an older, larger student telling a group of younger students to do something is an example of power without authority
   Benchmark 3.Knows some of the problems that might result from lack of effective authority (e.g., inability to settle disputes or accomplish necessary tasks)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that problems can result from a lack of effective authority
     2.Knows that it may not possible to settle disputes without effective authority
     3.Knows that it may not possible to accomplish necessary tasks without effective authority
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 1.Knows various people and groups who make, apply, and enforce rules and laws for others (e.g., adult family members, teachers, city councils, governors, tribal governments, national governments) and who manage disputes about rules and laws (e.g., courts at all levels)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows various people who make laws for others
     2.Knows various people who apply laws for others
     3.Knows various people who enforce rules and laws for others
     4.Knows various groups who make laws for others
     5.Knows various groups who apply laws for others
     6.Knows various groups who enforce rules and laws for others
     7.Knows that adult family members make, apply, and enforce rules
     8.Knows that teachers make, apply, and enforce rules
     9.Knows that city councils make, apply, and enforce laws
     10.Knows that governors make, apply, and enforce laws
     11.Knows that tribal governments make, apply, and enforce laws
     12.Knows that national governments make, apply, and enforce laws
     13.Knows various people who manage disputes about rules and laws
     14.Knows various groups who manage disputes about rules and laws
     15.Knows that the courts manage disputes about rules and laws
   Benchmark 2.Knows the difference between power (e.g., the capacity to direct or control something or someone) and authority (e.g., power that people have the right to use because of custom, law, or the consent of the governed)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the difference between power and authority
     2.Knows that power is the capacity to direct or control something or someone
     3.Knows that authority is the power that people have the right to use because of custom, law, or the consent of the governed
   Benchmark 3.Knows ways in which authority is used (e.g., parents have authority to direct and control their children, governors of states have the authority to carry out and enforce laws) and ways in which power can be used without authority (e.g., a bully forcing smaller children to give up their lunch money, a robber holding up a bank)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows ways in which authority is used
     2.Knows ways in which power can be used without authority
     3.Knows that parents have the authority to direct and control their children
     4.Knows that governors of states have the authority to carry out and enforce laws
     5.Knows that a bully forcing smaller children to give up their lunch money is an example of power without authority
     6.Knows that a robber holding up a bank is an example of power without authority
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 3.Knows institutions that have the authority to direct or control the behavior of members of a society (e.g., a school board, state legislature, courts, Congress)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that some institutions have the authority to direct or control the behavior of members of a society
     2.Knows that a school board has the authority to direct and control the behavior of others
     3.Knows that a state legislature has the authority to direct and control the behavior of others
     4.Knows that the courts have the authority to direct and control the behavior of others
     5.Knows that Congress has the authority to direct and control the behavior of others
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Knows formal institutions that have the authority to make and implement binding decisions (e.g., tribal councils, courts, monarchies, democratic legislatures)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that tribal councils are formal institutions that have the authority to make and implement binding decisions
     2.Knows that courts are formal institutions that have the authority to make and implement binding decisions
     3.Knows that monarchies are formal institutions that have the authority to make and implement binding decisions
     4.Knows that democratic legislatures are formal institutions that have the authority to make and implement binding decisions
   Benchmark 3.Understands the nature of political authority (e.g., characteristics such as legitimacy, stability, limitations)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that legitimacy is a characteristic of political authority
     2.Knows that stability is a characteristic of political authority
     3.Knows that limitation is a characteristic of political authority
     4.Understands the concept of political authority
   Benchmark 4.Understands the sources of political authority (e.g., consent of the governed, birth, knowledge) and its functions (e.g., create and enforce laws)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that consent of the government can be a source of political authority
     2.Knows that birth can be a source of political authority
     3.Knows that knowledge can be a source of political authority
     4.Knows the one function of political authority is the creation and enforcement of laws
     5.Knows the sources of political authority
     6.Knows the functions of political authority
 Standard 2.  Understands the essential characteristics of limited and unlimited governments
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 1.Knows that people in positions of authority have limits on their authority (e.g., a crossing guard cannot act as an umpire at a baseball game)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that authority can be limited
     2.Knows examples of limited authority
     3.Knows that a crossing guard not being able to act as an umpire at a baseball game is an example of limited authority