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Topic: Nature of representation 

Civics

 Standard 7.  Understands alternative forms of representation and how they serve the purposes of constitutional government
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the major arguments for and against representative government as distinguished from direct popular rule
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the major arguments for representative government as distinguished from direct popular rule
     2.Understands the major arguments against representative government as distinguished from direct popular rule
   Benchmark 2.Knows common bases upon which representation is or has been established (e.g., geographic areas; citizenship; social class or caste; age, sex, or property; religion, race, and ethnicity)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that representation is established on geographic areas
     2.Knows that representation is established on citizenship
     3.Knows that representation was based on social class at one time
     4.Knows that representation was based on caste at one time
     5.Knows that representation was based on age at one time
     6.Knows that representation was based on gender at one time
     7.Knows that representation was based on property ownership at one time
     8.Knows that representation was based on religion at one time
     9.Knows that representation was based on race at one time
     10.Knows that representation was based on ethnicity at one time
   Benchmark 3.Understands differing bases of electoral systems (e.g., winner-take-all systems, proportional systems)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the concept of an electoral system
     2.Understands the winner-take-all system
     3.Understands the proportional system
   Benchmark 4.Understands differing theories of representation (e.g., obligation of a representative to promote the interests of a particular constituency vs. obligation to promote the interests of the society as a whole)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the theory that representatives have an obligation to promote the interests of a particular constituency
     2.Understands the theory that representatives have an obligation to promote the interests of the society as a whole
     3.Knows there are differing theories about the obligations of the representative
 Standard 15.  Understands how the United States Constitution grants and distributes power and responsibilities to national and state government and how it seeks to prevent the abuse of power
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 8.Knows current issues concerning representation (e.g., term limitations, legislative districting, geographical and group representation)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows current issues concerning representation, such as term limitations
     2.Knows current issues concerning representation, such as legislative districting
     3.Knows current issues concerning representation, such as geographical and group representation