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Topic: Trade and trade routes  

Geography

 Standard 2.  Knows the location of places, geographic features, and patterns of the environment
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Knows the spatial dynamics of various contemporary and historical events (e.g., the spread of radiation from the Chernobyl nuclear accident, how physical features have deterred migrations and invasions, trade and transportation in the contemporary world, the diffusion of contagious diseases such as the bubonic plague in 14th-century Europe or AIDS in the present-day world)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the spatial dynamics of various contemporary events
     2.Knows the spatial dynamics of various historical events
     3.Knows the spatial dynamics of the spread of radiation from the Chernobyl nuclear accident
     4.Understands the spatial dynamics of physical features that have deterred migrations
     5.Understands the spatial dynamics of physical features that have deterred invasions
     6.Understands the spatial dynamics of trade in the contemporary world
     7.Understands the spatial dynamics of transportation in the contemporary world
     8.Understands the spatial dynamics of the diffusion of contagious disease
     9.Knows the spatial dynamics of the diffusion the bubonic plague in 14th-century Europe
     10.Knows the spatial dynamics of the diffusion of AIDS in the present-day world
 Standard 11.  Understands the patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth's surface
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands historic and contemporary economic trade networks (e.g., the triangular trade routes of the 16th and 17th centuries; national and global patterns of migrant workers; economic relationships under imperialism such as American colonies and England in the 18th and 19th centuries, or Belgium and the Congo in the 20th century)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands historic economic trade networks
     2.Understands contemporary economic trade networks
     3.Understands the triangular trade routes of the 16th and 17th centuries
     4.Understands national patterns of migrant workers
     5.Understands global patterns of migrant workers
     6.Understands economic relationships under imperialism, such as American colonies and England in the 18th and 19th centuries

United States History

 Standard 1.  Understands the characteristics of societies in the Americas, Western Europe, and Western Africa that increasingly interacted after 1450
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the characteristics of Western African societies, such as Mali, Songhai, and Benin, in the 15th and 16th centuries (e.g., the economic importance of the trans-Saharan slave trade; the response of African states to early European coastal trading and raiding; general features of family organization, labor division, agriculture, manufacturing, trade)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands the economic importance of the trans-Saharan slave trade in West Africa in the 15th and 16th centuries
     5.Understands the response of African states to early European coastal trading and raiding in the 15th and 16th centuries
     10.Understands features of trade in Western African societies in the 15th and 16th centuries
 Standard 2.  Understands cultural and ecological interactions among previously unconnected people resulting from early European exploration and colonization
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands characteristics of the Spanish and Portuguese exploration and conquest of the Americas (e.g., the social composition of early settlers of America and their motives for exploration and colonization, connections between silver mined in Peru and Mexico and the rise of global trade and the price revolution in 16th century Europe, methods the Spanish used to conquer the Aztec and Incan empires, societies the Spanish explorers encountered in the Aztec and Incan settlements)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands connections between silver mined in Peru and Mexico and the rise of global trade and the price revolution in 16th century Europe
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the long-range social and ecological impact of the Columbian Exchange (e.g., how the horse, the pig, and the dandelion brought about changes in the land; how the sugar trade affected Caribbean slaves, Indian laborers, and European urban proletarians)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the Columbian Exchange in terms of how the sugar trade affected Caribbean slaves, Indian laborers, and European urban proletarians
 Standard 5.  Understands how the values and institutions of European economic life took root in the colonies and how slavery reshaped European and African life in the Americas
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the characteristics of mercantilism in colonial America (e.g., the Atlantic economy and triangular trade, overseas trade and the Navigation Acts, economic development in French, English, and Spanish colonies)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the Atlantic economy
     2.Understands triangular trade
     3.Understands overseas trade (colonial period)
     4.Knows about the Navigation Acts

World History

 Standard 3.  Understands the major characteristics of civilization and the development of civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands how economic, political, and environmental factors influenced the civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley (e.g., the impact of trade networks connecting various regions of Southwest Asia on Mesopotamian civilization; the importance of commercial, cultural, and political connections between Egypt and peoples of Nubia along the upper Nile; how geography and climate affected trade in the Nile Valley)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     10.Understands the impact of trade networks connecting various regions of Southwest Asia on Mesopotamian civilization
     11.Understands the importance of commercial, cultural, and political connections between Egypt and peoples of Nubia along the upper Nile
     12.Understands how geography and climate affected trade in the Nile Valley
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the role of economics in shaping the development of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley (e.g., the economic and cultural significance of the trade routes between Egypt, India, and Mesopotamia in the 3rd millennium, the importance of traded goods to each society)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how economic factors shaped the development of the civilization of Mesopotamia
     2.Understands how economic factors shaped the development of the early civilization of Egypt
     3.Understands how economic factors shaped the development of the civilization of the Indus Valley
     4.Understands the economic and cultural significance of the trade routes between Egypt, India, and Mesopotamia in the 3rd millennium
     5.Understands the importance of traded goods to Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley societies
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands features of trading networks in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley (e.g., those geographical characteristics that encouraged Mesopotamia to engage in trade and those which made trade difficult, shifting political relationships between trading partners in the 1st and 2nd millennia BCE and sources of conflict between them, the breadth of the Indus trade network)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands features of trading networks in Mesopotamia
     2.Understands features of trading networks in early Egypt
     3.Understands features of trading networks in the Indus Valley
     4.Knows those geographical characteristics that encouraged Mesopotamia to engage in trade and those which made trade difficult
     5.Understands shifting political relationships between trading partners in the 1st and 2nd millennia BCE and sources of conflict between them
     6.Understands the breadth of the Indus trade network
 Standard 4.  Understands how agrarian societies spread and new states emerged in the third and second millennia BCE
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands interaction between urban centers of Southwest Asia, Egypt, and the Aegean Basin, and the Eastern Mediterranean coast (e.g., the important urban centers of Southwest Asia, Egypt, and the Aegean Basin; the role of cities along the Mediterranean coast as commercial bridges between the trading networks of Southwest Asia, Egypt, and the Mediterranean)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands the role of cities along the Mediterranean coast as commercial bridges between the trading networks of Southwest Asia, Egypt, and the Mediterranean
   Benchmark 7.Understands influences on the cultural and economic conditions of Minoan and Egyptian civilizations (e.g., the nature and extent of cultural contact between Minoan and Egyptian civilizations, the extent of Minoan trade and its impact on the development of Minoan civilization)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     6.Understands the extent of Minoan trade and its impact on the development of Minoan civilization
 Standard 5.  Understands the political, social, and cultural consequences of population movements and militarization in Eurasia in the second millennium BCE
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands characteristics of Mycenaean society (e.g., the impact of Mycenaean expansion and city-building on commerce and political life in the Eastern Mediterranean; society, trade, and government in Mycenae; comparisons of Mycenaean and Minoan societies from archaeological remains)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands features of trade in Mycenae
 Standard 7.  Understands technological and cultural innovation and change from 1000 to 600 BCE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands patterns of Phoenician political organization, culture, and trade in the Mediterranean basin (e.g., dominant trade routes, traded goods of major Phoenician port cities such as Carthage)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands patterns of Phoenician trade in the Mediterranean basin
     4.Knows dominant Phoenician trade routes in the Mediterranean basin
     5.Knows traded goods of major Phoenician port cities such as Carthage
   Benchmark 4.Understands major technological, military, and political events in the development of Kushite society (e.g., the importance of Nile Valley trade and the decline of the New Kingdom as factors in the rise of the Kushite state in the 1st millennium BCE, how iron was used in Kushite society and which uses were most important to the kingdom)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands the importance of Nile Valley trade and the decline of the New Kingdom as factors in the rise of the Kushite state in the 1st millennium BCE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 6.Understands the importance of maritime trade to the kingdom of Askum (e.g., the goods traded in this kingdom, and the situation that enabled Askum to play a role in long-distance trade)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the goods traded in the kingdom of Askum
     2.Understands the situation that enabled Askum to play a role in long distance trade
 Standard 9.  Understand how major religious and large-scale empires arose in the Mediterranean Basin, China, and India from 500 BCE to 300 CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 6.Understands the commercial and cultural significance of the trans-Eurasian "silk roads" to the Roman and Chinese Empires and the peoples of Central Asia
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the commercial significance of the trans Eurasian "silk roads" to the Roman and Chinese Empires and the peoples of Central Asia
     2.Understands the cultural significance of the trans Eurasian "silk roads" to the Roman and Chinese Empires and the peoples of Central Asia
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands influences on the economic and political framework of Roman society (e.g., how Roman unity contributed to the growth of trade among lands of the Mediterranean basin; the importance of Roman commercial connections with Sub-Saharan Africa, India, and East Asia; the history of the Punic Wars and the consequences of the wars for Rome; the major phases of Roman expansion, including the Roman occupation of Britain)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands how Roman unity contributed to the growth of trade among lands of the Mediterranean basin
     4.Understands the importance of Roman commercial connections with Sub Saharan Africa, India, and East Asia
 Standard 10.  Understands how early agrarian civilizations arose in Mesoamerica
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the framework of Olmec society and the influence of Olmec civilization on other civilizations (e.g., the cultural influence of the Olmec on the development of Zapotec and Mayan civilizations; the role of trade in the diffusion of this culture; the political, economic, and social structure of Olmec society and Olmec beliefs, and how this knowledge has been acquired in spite of undeciphered written records)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands the role of trade in the diffusion of Olmec culture
 Standard 11.  Understands major global trends from 1000 BCE to 300 CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the development of large regional empires (e.g., the significance of military power, state bureaucracy, legal codes, belief systems, written languages, and communications and trade networks; how trade networks, merchant communities, state power, tributary systems of production, and other factors contributed to the economic integration of large regions of Afro-Eurasia)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     6.Understands the significance of communications and trade networks in the development of large regional empires
     7.Understands how trade networks contributed to the economic integration of large regions of Afro Eurasia
     8.Understands how merchant communities contributed to the economic integration of large regions of Afro Eurasia
 Standard 12.  Understands the Imperial crises and their aftermath in various regions from 300 to 700 CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands how the spread of trade and religion influenced Southeast Asia and Polynesian areas (e.g., the impact of Indian civilization on state-building in mainland Southeast Asia and the Indonesian archipelago, the nature of monumental religious architecture as evidence for the spread of Buddhist and Hindu belief and practice in Southeast Asia, the function of Hindu and Buddhist clerics in the spread of their religions and trade to Southeast Asia and Malayo- Polynesia by the end of the 1st millennium BCE, the locations and geographic challenges of potential and actual trade routes in the Southeast Asian and Polynesian areas)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the spread of trade influenced Southeast Asia and Polynesian areas
     5.Understands the function of Hindu and Buddhist clerics in the spread of their religions and trade to Southeast Asia and Malayo Polynesia by the end of the 1st millennium BCE
     6.Knows the locations and geographic challenges of potential and actual trade routes in the Southeast Asian and Polynesian areas
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands how the spread of different religions influenced political and social conditions in various regions (e.g., the spread of religious Daoism and Buddhism in China; possible causal relationships between the spread of Christianity and Buddhism, and the expansion of international trade; royal patronage of religion and the desires of a growing middle class for "peace" to enable commercial expansion)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     5.Understands the relationship of the expansion of international trade to the spread of different religions
     6.Understands royal patronage of religion and the desires of a growing middle class for "peace" to enable commercial expansion
   Benchmark 7.Understands the significance of Pandyas and Pallavas (e.g., the history of Pandyas and Pallavas in South India; trade relationships with West Asia, Greece, Rome, and Southeast Asia; how Pallavas helped spread Hindu and Buddhist thought to Southeast Asia)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands trade relationships with West Asia, Greece, Rome, and Southeast Asia
 Standard 13.  Understands the causes and consequences of the development of Islamic civilization between the 7th and 10th centuries
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the effect of geography on different groups and their trade practices (e.g., nomads, town-dwellers, trade practices on the Arabian peninsula; the goods traded and the origins of these goods)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the effect of geography on nomads of the Arabian peninsula and their trade practices
     2.Understands the effect of geography on town-dwellers on the Arabian peninsula and their trade practices
     3.Understands the effects of geography on trade practices on the Arabian peninsula
     4.Knows the goods traded on the Arabian peninsula and the origins of these goods
   Benchmark 5.Understands the significance of Baghdad (e.g., the trade network and goods traded, its role as a center of commerce in the 8th to 10th centuries CE)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the trade network in Baghdad, including goods traded
     2.Understands Baghdad’s role as a center of commerce in the 8th to 10th centuries CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands significant aspects of Abbasid culture (e.g., sources of Abbasid wealth and the economic and political importance of various forms of slavery; why the Abbasid state became a center of Afro-Eurasian commercial exchange; how the Abbasids promoted and preserved Greek learning and contributed to science, mathematics, and medicine; the contributions of specific individuals to the Abbasid advancement of scientific knowledge)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands why the Abbasid state became a center of Afro Eurasian commercial exchange
 Standard 14.  Understands major developments in East Asia and Southeast Asia in the era of the Tang Dynasty from 600 to 900 CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the importance of the commercial state of Srivijava and the Straits of Malacca in Southeast Asia as a trade link between India and China (e.g., how the monsoon winds and geography of the strait contributed to Srivijava's wealth and power)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the importance of the commercial state of Srivijava in Southeast Asia as a trade link between India and China
     2.Understands the importance of the Straits of Malacca in Southeast Asia as a trade link between India and China
     3.Understands how the monsoon winds contributed to Srivijava’s wealth and power
     4.Understands how the geography of the strait contributed to Srivijava’s wealth and power
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the culture and technological achievements of Tang China (e.g., the ideals and values of everyday life expressed in the poetry, landscape, painting, and pottery of the Tang Dynasty; the system of roads and canals in Tang China; the extent of the Tang Empire, the trade routes used by the empire, and the products exchanged; major technologies developed under the Tang Dynasty, how these technologies influenced Tang society and spread to other regions)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     6.Knows the trade routes used by the Tang empire
     7.Knows the products exchanged along trade routes in the Tang empire
 Standard 15.  Understands the political, social, and cultural redefinitions in Europe from 500 to 1000 CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the role of Norse peoples in the development of Europe (e.g., Nordic contributions to long-distance trade and exploration, the failure of Norse settlements in Newfoundland and Greenland)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows Nordic contributions to long distance trade and exploration
 Standard 16.  Understands the development of agricultural societies and new states in tropical Africa and Oceania
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands influences on state-building in West Africa (e.g., how the natural environments of West Africa defined agricultural production, and the importance of the Niger River in promoting agriculture, commerce, and state-building; the growth of the Ghana empire; how Islam, labor specialization, regional commerce and the trans-Saharan camel trade promoted urbanization in West Africa; the governing system of the royal court in Ghana, and how the effectiveness of imperial efforts was aided by a belief in the king's divinity)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the importance of the Niger River in promoting agriculture, commerce, and state building
     6.Understands how regional commerce promoted urbanization in West Africa
     7.Understands how the trans Saharan camel trade promoted urbanization in West Africa
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands economic, social, and religious influences on Ghana society (e.g., what archaeological evidence indicates about the development of Jenne-jeno and Kumbi-Saleh into important early commercial cities; the agriculture, trade, standard of living, expansionary tendencies and role of religious ideas in Ghana)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Knows what archaeological evidence indicates about the development of Jenn jeno and Kumbi Saleh into important early commercial cities
     6.Understands features of trade in Ghana
 Standard 17.  Understands the rise of centers of civilization in Mesoamerica and Andean South America in the 1st millennium CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the economic and agricultural elements of Mayan society (e.g., the extent, importance, and composition of Mayan trade; the adaptability and importance of Mayan agricultural techniques and their connection to the rise of Mayan city-states)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands the extent, importance, and composition of Mayan trade
 Standard 18.  Understands major global trends from 300 to 1000 CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Knows the maritime and overland trade routes linking regions of Afro-Eurasia and understands the importance of international trade for African and Eurasian societies
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the maritime and overland trade routes linking regions of Afro Eurasia
     2.Understands the importance of international trade for African and Eurasian societies
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the growth of economic and cultural exchanges among different regions from 300 to 1000 CE (e.g., the importance of Muslim civilization in mediating long-distance commercial, cultural, intellectual, and food crop exchange across Eurasia and parts of Africa; migrations of farming peoples to new regions of Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa, China, Oceania, and Mesoamerica; connections between new settlements and the development of towns, trade, and greater cultural complexity in these regions)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the growth of economic exchanges among different regions from 300 to 1000 CE
     3.Understands the importance of Muslim civilization in mediating long distance commercial, cultural, intellectual, and food crop exchange across Eurasia and parts of Africa
     4.Knows how migrations of farming peoples to new regions of Europe affected economic and cultural exchanges among different regions from 300 to 1000 CE
     5.Knows how migrations of farming peoples to new regions of Sub-Saharan Africa affected economic and cultural exchanges among different regions from 300 to 1000 CE
     6.Knows how migrations of farming peoples to new regions of China affected economic and cultural exchanges among different regions from 300 to 1000 CE
     7.Knows how migrations of farming peoples to new regions of Oceania affected economic and cultural exchanges among different regions from 300 to 1000 CE
     8.Knows how migrations of farming peoples to new regions of Mesoamerica affected economic and cultural exchanges among different regions from 300 to 1000 CE
     9.Understands connections between new settlements and the development of towns, trade, and greater cultural complexity in these regions
 Standard 19.  Understands the maturation of an interregional system of communication, trade, and cultural exchange during a period of Chinese economic power and Islamic expansion
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the impact of urbanization and commercial expansion on Chinese society between the 10th and 13th centuries (e.g., the effects of major technological and scientific inventions in the Song era on Chinese life, China's trade with Southeast Asia and the lands rimming the Indian Ocean, how this trade affected China internally)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the impact of commercial expansion on Chinese society between the 10th and 13th centuries
     4.Knows features of China’s trade with Southeast Asia and the lands rimming the Indian Ocean
     5.Understands the effects on Chinese society of China’s trade with Southeast Asia and the lands rimming the Indian Ocean
   Benchmark 4.Understands features of trade routes in Asia, Europe, and Africa (e.g., how goods traveled from East Asia to Europe and the importance of the Indian Ocean to the societies of Asia, East Africa, and Europe; the usefulness of the camel in desert transportation and trade)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands features of trade routes in Asia
     2.Understands features of trade routes in Europe
     3.Understands features of trade routes in Africa
     4.Knows how goods traveled from East Asia to Europe
     5.Understands the importance of the Indian Ocean to the societies of Asia, East Africa, and Europe
     6.Understands the usefulness of the camel in desert transportation and trade
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the social and economic elements of Song China (e.g., how improved agricultural production and increased trade helped the growth of cities and the merchant class in Song China; the traditional social attitudes of China toward merchants and commercial activity; significant achievements and developments of the Song Dynasty, the rigors and class restrictions of the civil service examination in Song China)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the economic elements of Song China
     3.Understands how improved agricultural production and increased trade helped the growth of cities and the merchant class in Song China
     4.Knows the traditional social attitudes of China toward merchants and commercial activity
   Benchmark 7.Understands elements of trade in different regions (e.g., the importance of Cairo and other major cities as centers of international trade and culture; how the spread of Islam was connected to trade in Central Asia, East Africa, West Africa, the coasts of India, and Southeast Asia; the importance to individual societies of goods traded between Asia, Africa, and Europe; the consequences placed on maritime trade by the seasonal monsoon winds in the Indian Ocean; features and functions of caravansaries and khans in Central Asian and Middle Eastern cities; which ships were most successfully used for trade in the Indian Ocean and why)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the importance of Cairo and other major cities as centers of international trade and culture
     2.Understands how the spread of Islam was connected to trade in Central Asia, East Africa, West Africa, the coasts of India, and Southeast Asia
     3.Understands the importance to individual societies of goods traded between Asia, Africa, and Europe
     4.Understands the consequences placed on maritime trade by the seasonal monsoon winds in the Indian Ocean
     5.Knows features and functions of caravansaries and khans in Central Asian and Middle Eastern cities
     6.Knows which ships were most successfully used for trade in the Indian Ocean and why
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Understands how interregional trade and communication affected Eurasia and Africa (e.g., how international trade encouraged the rise of city-states along the East African coast, and helped end the isolation of African societies below the Saharan desert; the impact of economic and commercial expansion of Song China on communication and trade in Eurasia)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how interregional trade and communication affected Eurasia
     2.Understands how interregional trade and communication affected Africa
     3.Understands how international trade encouraged the rise of city states along the East African coast
     4.Understands how international trade helped end the isolation of African societies below the Saharan desert
     5.Understands the impact of economic and commercial expansion of Song China on communication and trade in Eurasia
 Standard 21.  Understands the rise of the Mongol Empire and its consequences for Eurasian peoples from 1200 to 1350
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the political features of the Mongol Empire and its influence on other regions (e.g., the political character of Mongol rule in China, Central Asia, southwest Asia, and Russia; the significance of the "Pax Mongolica" and how long-distance communication and trade led to cultural and technological diffusion across Eurasia; how Mongol military organization and techniques led to victory in their conquests between 1206 and 1279)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     5.Knows how long distance communication and trade led to cultural and technological diffusion across Eurasia
   Benchmark 4.Knows the trade routes that emerged under Mongol domination, and the goods traded along these routes
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the trade routes that emerged under Mongol domination
     2.Knows the goods traded along trade routes under Mongol domination
 Standard 22.  Understands the growth of states, towns, and trade in Sub-Saharan Africa between the 11th and 15th centuries
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands influences on the economic development of Sub-Saharan empires (e.g., the importance of agriculture, gold production, and the trans-Saharan caravan trade to the growth of the Mali and Songhay Empires; the importance of trade within the major city-states and populations of Sub-Saharan Africa)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands the importance of the trans-Saharan caravan trade to the growth of the Mali and Songhay Empires
     4.Understands the importance of trade within the major city states and populations of Sub-Saharan Africa
   Benchmark 3.Understands the emergence of commercial towns on the East African coast and the significance of Swahili as the language of trade
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the emergence of commercial towns on the East African coast
     2.Understands the significance of Swahili as the language of trade
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands significant features of the major population centers of Bantu and the East African coastal region in the 2nd millennium CE (e.g., influences on the economic and cultural life of Kilwa and other East African coastal cities, the Bantu state of Great Zimbabwe and its links to the Indian Ocean trade, consequences of the contact between Bantu farmers and Khoisan hunter-gatherers in the early 2nd millennium)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands influences on the economic life of Kilwa and other East African coastal cities
     5.Understands the Bantu state of Great Zimbabwe and its links to the Indian Ocean trade
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the political, social, economic, and religious development of the West African Sudan and the East African coast between the 8th and 13th centuries (e.g., how these areas were affected by outside influences, the role of commerce in their development)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     5.Understands the role of commerce in the development of the West African Sudan and the East African coast between the 8th and 13th centuries
   Benchmark 5.Understands the network of trade between East Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Persian Gulf (e.g., sources of traded items, controlling parties), the goods traded, and the importance of city-states such as Kilwa in this network
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows sources of traded items between East Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Persian Gulf
     2.Knows controlling parties involved in trade between East Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Persian Gulf
     3.Knows the goods traded between East Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Persian Gulf
     4.Understands the importance of city states such as Kilwa in the network of trade between East Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Persian Gulf
 Standard 23.  Understands patterns of crisis and recovery in Afro-Eurasia between 1300 and 1450
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the Zheng He maritime expeditions of the early 15th century, and why the Ming state initiated, then terminated, these voyages
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the Zheng He maritime expeditions of the early 15th century
     2.Understands why the Ming state initiated, then terminated, the Zheng He maritime expeditions
 Standard 24.  Understands the expansion of states and civilizations in the Americas between 1000 and 1500
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands cultural and economic elements of North American and Mesoamerican civilizations (e.g., the major characteristics of Toltecs, Anasazi, Pueblo, and North American mound-building peoples; patterns of long-distance trade centered in Mesoamerica)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Knows patterns of long distance trade centered in Mesoamerica
 Standard 25.  Understands major global trends from 1000 to 1500 CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands influences on the growth of long-distance exchanges between different regions (e.g., the continuing spread of Islam, and the importance of Muslim civilization in mediating long-distance commercial, cultural, and intellectual exchanges; why new ports, manufacturing centers, merchant communities, and long-distance trade routes emerged in the region of the "Southern Seas," from the Arabian Sea to the coasts of China)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the continuing spread of Islam and the importance of Muslim civilization in mediating long distance commercial, cultural, and intellectual exchanges
     2.Understands why new ports, manufacturing centers, merchant communities, and long distance trade routes emerged in the region of the "Southern Seas," from the Arabian Sea to the coasts of China
 Standard 26.  Understands how the transoceanic interlinking of all major regions of the world between 1450 and 1600 led to global transformations
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the interregional trading system that linked peoples of Africa, Asia, and Europe on the eve of the European overseas voyages
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how an interregional trading system links people across continents
     2.Knows the character of the interregional trading system on the eve of the European overseas voyages
   Benchmark 2.Understands what contributed to increasing oceanic travel in the 15th and 16th centuries (e.g., major Spanish and Portuguese technological innovations in shipbuilding, navigation, and naval warfare; navigational inventions such as the compass, astrolabe, and quadrant; trade routes of prominent Asian and European explorers and how prevailing wind currents influenced these routes; the features of Chinese and Arab sailing vessels that made long-distance travel easier)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Knows trade routes of prominent Asian and European explorers
     4.Knows how prevailing wind currents influenced trade routes of prominent Asian and European explorers
   Benchmark 3.Understands the character and impact of Portuguese maritime expansion to Africa, India, and Southeast Asia upon local populations (e.g., relations between King Affonso II of the Kongo and Portuguese, why Bartholomew de las Casas was considered the "defender of the Indians")
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the character and impact on local populations of Portuguese maritime expansion to Africa
     2.Understands the character and impact on local populations of Portuguese maritime expansion to India
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands cultural interaction between various societies in the late 15th and 16th centuries (e.g., how the Church helped administer Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the Americas; reasons for the fall of the Incan Empire to Pizarro; how the Portuguese dominated seaborne trade in the Indian Ocean basin in the 16th century; the relations between pilgrims and indigenous populations in North and South America, and the role different religious sects played in these relations; how the presence of Spanish conquerors affected the daily lives of Aztec, Maya, and Inca peoples)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands how the Portuguese dominated seaborne trade in the Indian Ocean basin in the 16th century
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands features of Portuguese overseas trade and exploration (e.g., the goals of the Portuguese trading policy as established by King Jo o II, and his reasons for refusing to finance Columbus' expedition west; the impact of maritime technologies on the quality of Portuguese sailing in the 15th century)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands features of Portuguese overseas trade
     3.Knows the goals of the Portuguese trading policy as established by King João II, and his reasons for refusing to finance Columbus’ expedition west
   Benchmark 6.Knows the extent of Chinese naval and commercial activities in the Indian Ocean in the 15th century, and understands what these activities reveal about Chinese wealth, technology, and its use of tributes as a means of trade
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the extent of Chinese naval and commercial activities in the Indian Ocean in the 15th century
     2.Understands what Chinese naval and commercial activities in the Indian Ocean reveal about Chinese wealth
     3.Understands what Chinese naval and commercial activities in the Indian Ocean reveal about Chinese technology
     4.Understands what Chinese naval and commercial activities in the Indian Ocean reveal about China’s use of tributes as a means of trade
   Benchmark 8.Understands how various cultures responded to European presence in the 15th and 16th centuries (e.g., how practitioners of free trade along the northern rim of the Indian Ocean responded to European penetration; relations between the church and native populations; Asian responses to European naval encroachments)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how practitioners of free trade along the northern rim of the Indian Ocean responded to European penetration
 Standard 27.  Understands how European society experienced political, economic, and cultural transformations in an age of global intercommunication between 1450 and 1750
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 8.Understands the effects on world trade of the Spanish silver trade from America
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows features of the Spanish silver trade from America
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands shifts in the European economy, trade, and labor systems in the 16th century (e.g., aspects of manufacturing and production in the 16th century's emerging capitalist economy, developments that affected men's and women's work options in this period, trends in worldwide trade in the 16th century, how the Dutch and English merchant classes established a significant presence in the world market)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands shifts in European trade in the 16th century
     6.Knows trends in worldwide trade in the 16th century
     7.Understands how the Dutch and English merchant classes established a significant presence in the world market
 Standard 28.  Understands how large territorial empires dominated much of Eurasia between the 16th and 18th centuries
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the network of Afro-Eurasian trade in the 16th and 17th centuries (e.g., the importance of Indian textiles, spices, and other products in the trade; how spices brought to Europe by Vasco da Gama initiated the spice trade between India and Europe)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the importance of Indian textiles, spices, and other products in Afro-Eurasian trade in the 16th and 17th centuries
     2.Knows how spices brought to Europe by Vasco da Gama initiated the spice trade between India and Europe
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands cultural, political, and economic factors that influenced the development of the Ottoman Empire (e.g., the development of the Ottoman Empire among diverse religious and ethnic groups, the Christian European view of the Ottoman seizure of Constantinople in 1453, trade routes within the Ottoman Empire and how trade was affected by the development of a sea route around Africa)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     6.Knows trade routes within the Ottoman Empire
     7.Knows how trade in the Ottoman Empire was affected by the development of a sea route around Africa
   Benchmark 7.Knows how the popularity of Indian textiles in Europe undermined the efforts of the East India Company to sell more British goods in India than it imported
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the popularity of Indian textiles in Europe
 Standard 29.  Understands the economic, political, and cultural interrelations among peoples of Africa, Europe, and the Americas between 1500 and 1750
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands elements of the trans-Atlantic African slave trade (e.g., how slaves were transported to the Americas via the "middle passage"; how European firms and governments organized and financed the slave trade; conditions of slave life on plantations in the Caribbean, Brazil, and British North America; how slaves resisted servitude and preserved their African heritage)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how slaves were transported to the Americas via the "middle passage"
     2.Understands how European firms and governments organized and financed the slave trade
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands features of and participants in the slave trade (e.g., ways in which entrepreneurs and colonial governments exploited American Indian labor, and the use of African slave labor for commercial agriculture; the treatment of slaves in the Western Hemisphere as opposed to those in the Islamic lands, Christian Europe, and West Africa; the organization of long-distance trade in West and Central Africa and circumstances under which African governments, elites, and merchants participated in the sale of slaves to Europeans; treatment of slaves and forms of resistance used in the "middle passage")
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows participants in the slave trade
     5.Understands the organization of long distance trade in West and Central Africa
     6.Knows circumstances under which African governments, elites, and merchants participated in the sale of slaves to Europeans
     7.Understands the treatment of slaves in the "middle passage"
     8.Knows forms of resistance used by slaves in the "middle passage"
 Standard 30.  Understands transformations in Asian societies in the era of European expansion
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the impact of European military and commercial involvement in Asia (e.g., how the Netherlands, England, and France became naval and commercial powers in the Indian Ocean basin in the 17th and 18th centuries; the impact of British and French commercial and military penetration on politics, economy, and society in India; why the Dutch wanted military and commercial influence in Indonesia and how this imperialism affected the region's economy and society; why Asian trade was so important within the British economic and political structure)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the impact of European commercial involvement in Asia
     3.Understands how the Netherlands, England, and France became naval and commercial powers in the Indian Ocean basin in the 17th and 18th centuries
     4.Understands the impact of British and French commercial and military penetration on politics, economy, and society in India
     5.Knows why the Dutch wanted military and commercial influence in Indonesia
     6.Understands how Dutch imperialism in Asia affected the region’s economy and society
     7.Understands why Asian trade was so important within the British economic and political structure
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands trade patterns and relations between Europe and China (e.g., how well the Chinese government was able to control European trade within its borders and the extent of European commercial penetration; trade routes and major port cities used by the Europeans in their trade with China, and why Gangzhou [Canton] was central in this trade; the trade relationship between Britain and China in the 18th century)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how well the Chinese government was able to control European trade within its borders
     2.Understands the extent of European commercial penetration into China
     3.Knows trade routes and major port cities used by the Europeans in their trade with China
     4.Knows why Gangzhou (Canton) was central in European trade with China
     5.Understands the trade relationship between Britain and China in the 18th century
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the economic and cultural consequences of European involvement in other countries (e.g., the significance of Christian missionary activity in India, Vietnam, and the Philippines, and how people of other religions - Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam - responded to these efforts; Joseph Francois Dupleix's theory of "divide and rule" in South India for the French, and how this policy affected relations between the British East India Company and Indian peasants; how the French, Dutch, and British attempted to remedy unfavorable trade balances in Asia between 1500 and 1800)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the economic consequences of European involvement in other countries
     6.Understands how Joseph Francois Dupleix’s theory of "divide and rule" in South India for the French affected relations between the British East India Company and Indian peasants
     7.Knows how the French, Dutch, and British attempted to remedy unfavorable trade balances in Asia between 1500 and 1800
   Benchmark 4.Understands the cultural, economic, and social structure of China during the period of European commercial expansion (e.g., cultural and economic achievements of the Chinese during the reigns of the Kangzi and Qianlong emperors; the major differences in the trading policies of the Ming and Manchu, the factors that contributed to these changes, and European products desired by the Chinese; aspects of life of the elite in China; the family and its role in Chinese society)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     6.Knows the major differences in the trading policies of the Ming and Manchu
     7.Knows the factors that contributed to changes in the trading policies of the Ming and Manchu
     8.Knows European products desired by the Chinese that affected trading policies
   Benchmark 8.Understands foreign influences on Japanese and Chinese economies (e.g., the impact of American silver upon the Japanese and Chinese economies between the 16th and 18th centuries, the role the Portuguese and Dutch played in Japanese trade, and why Japan limited trade to the West but not to Asia)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands foreign influences on the Japanese economy
     2.Understands foreign influences on the Chinese economy
     3.Understands the impact of American silver upon the Japanese economy between the 16th and 18th centuries
     4.Understands the impact of American silver upon the Chinese economy between the 16th and 18th centuries
     5.Knows the role the Portuguese and Dutch played in Japanese trade
     6.Understands why Japan limited trade to the West but not to Asia
 Standard 31.  Understands major global trends from 1450 to 1770
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands how traditional Puritan and Confucian attitudes toward profit making affected commerce and trading practices in China and the early New England colonies
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how traditional Confucian attitudes toward profit making affected commerce and trading practices in China
     2.Understands how traditional Puritan attitudes toward profit making affected commerce and trading practices in the early New England colonies
 Standard 33.  Understands the causes and consequences of the agricultural and industrial revolutions from 1700 to 1850
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands why industrialization flourished in Britain (e.g., Britain's commercial connections with foreign markets in the early industrial revolution; Britain's unique combination of geography, location, natural resources, economy, technology, and political tendencies)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows Britain’s commercial connections with foreign markets in the early industrial revolution
     2.Understands how Britain’s unique combination of geography, location, natural resources, economy, technology, and political tendencies contributed to early industrialization
 Standard 34.  Understands how Eurasian societies were transformed in an era of global trade and the emergence of European power from 1750 to 1870
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 5.Understands Chinese policies toward foreign trade and immigration to other countries (e.g., why China resisted political contact and trade with Europeans, and how the opium trade contributed to European penetration of Chinese markets; motivations behind the Chinese trading policy and China's desire to keep out foreigners; motivations behind Chinese immigration to the U.S. and Southeast Asia)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands Chinese policies toward foreign trade with other countries (1750-1870 CE)
     3.Understands why China resisted political contact and trade with Europeans (1750-1870 CE)
     4.Understands how the opium trade contributed to European penetration of Chinese markets
     5.Knows motivations behind the Chinese trading policy and China’s desire to keep out foreigners
   Benchmark 7.Understands the emergence of European trading companies and their impact on Indian culture (e.g., the origins of both the French and British East India companies, what their charters enabled them to do, and how the home countries viewed the role of these companies in India; the trading relationship between the East India companies and Indian rulers)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the emergence of European trading companies
     2.Understands the impact of European trading companies on Indian culture
     3.Knows the origins of the French East India Company
     4.Knows the origins of the British East India Company
     5.Knows what the charter of the French East India Company enabled it to do
     6.Knows what the charter of the British East India Company enabled it to do
     7.Understands how France viewed the role of the French East India Company in India
     8.Understands how Britain viewed the role of the British East India Company in India
     9.Understands the trading relationship between the East India companies and Indian rulers
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the impact of foreign trade and politics on Indian culture (e.g., major trade routes that linked China, India, and Europe, and the impact of this trade on Indian agriculture and industry; the decline of the Mughal empire and the rise of British political and military influence in India between 1750 and 1858; the competitive policies of the British and the French in India, and why the British East India Company was able to prevail; the goods imported to and exported from India)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the impact of foreign trade on Indian culture
     3.Knows major trade routes that linked China, India, and Europe
     4.Understands the impact of trade between China, India, and Europe on Indian agriculture and industry
     6.Knows the competitive policies of the British and the French in India
     7.Knows why the British East India Company was able to prevail over the French East India Company in India
     8.Knows the goods imported to and exported from India
   Benchmark 9.Understands Dutch involvement in various regions (e.g., changes in Dutch influence and control in South Asia between 1815 and 1850, how the Dutch ruled their colonies in the East Indies and what types of goods were traded by the Dutch in this region)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Knows what types of goods were traded by the Dutch in this region
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the social structure of the Ottoman Empire in the early and middle 19th century (e.g., the effects of population growth and European commercial penetration on Ottoman society and government; the roles of janissaries and Jewish and Christian merchants and landowners changed by the middle of the 19th century; the relative presence and the location of diverse religious and ethnic groups within the Ottoman Empire in 1800, and the prevailing Ottoman policy toward religion; the success and reception of the reforms of 1856 in the Hatt-I-Humayun issued by Abdul-Mejid)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the effects of European commercial penetration on Ottoman society and government
   Benchmark 5.Understands China's relations with Western countries (e.g., reasons for the Chinese diaspora in Southeast Asia and the Americas, the role of overseas Chinese in attempts to reform the Qing, the Chinese and British positions on opium sales and trade within China, prominent Chinese views on China's relations with the West and challenges presented to the West)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Knows the Chinese and British positions on opium sales and trade within China
     4.Understands prominent Chinese views on China’s relations with the West and challenges presented to the West
 Standard 35.  Understands patterns of nationalism, state-building, and social reform in Europe and the Americas from 1830 to 1914
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 7.Understands how political and economic change influenced Latin American society in the 19th century (e.g., Latin America's growing dependence on the global market economy, as well as the effects of international trade and investment on the power of landowners and the urban middle class; the consequences of economic development, elite domination, and the abolition of slavery for peasants, indigenous populations, and immigrant laborers in Latin America; the impact of the expansion of secular education upon women's legal and political rights; the roles and perspectives of the caudillo, military official, landowner, urban bourgeoisie, or church official in post-independence Latin America; attitudes toward nationalism and cultural identity in 19th-century Latin America)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands how economic change influenced Latin American society in the 19th century
     3.Understands Latin America’s growing dependence on the global market economy, as well as the effects of international trade and investment on the power of landowners and the urban middle class
 Standard 36.  Understands patterns of global change in the era of Western military and economic dominance from 1800 to 1914
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 5.Understands events that shaped African relations with other countries (e.g., the rise of the Zulu empire and its effects on African societies and European colonial settlements; how the discovery of gold and diamonds in South Africa affected British investors and race relations among Africans, Afrikaners, and British colonial authorities; the relationship between European and African merchants and the types of products traded between the two in the period after slavery ended)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands how the discovery of gold and diamonds in South Africa affected British investors
     4.Understands how the discovery of gold and diamonds in South Africa affected race relations among Africans, Afrikaners, and British colonial authorities
     5.Understands the relationship between European and African merchants
     6.Knows the types of products traded between European and African merchants in the period after slavery ended
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 7.Understands the role of trade in shaping political and social conditions in various regions (e.g., how West African economies changed after the end of the trans-Atlantic slave trade; how trade helped make empire-builders such as Zanzibar and Tippu Tip; the effect trade had on resistance to European imperialism; the location of the Suez Canal, how and why it was created, and what it did for world trade and political alliances)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the role of trade in shaping political conditions in various regions
     2.Understands the role of trade in shaping social conditions in various regions
     3.Understands how West African economies changed after the end of the trans Atlantic slave trade
     4.Understands how trade helped make empire builders such as Zanzibar and Tippu Tip
     5.Understands the effect trade had on resistance to European imperialism
     6.Knows the location of the Suez Canal, how and why it was created, and what it did for world trade and political alliances
 Standard 38.  Understands reform, revolution, and social change in the world economy of the early 20th century
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the diverse factors that contributed to the industrialization of various countries (e.g., how entrepreneurs, scientists, technicians, and urban workers in Asia, Africa, and Latin America participated in world trade and industrialization; how changes in land ownership policy, new technology, and government subsidies encouraged industrial development in Japan)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how entrepreneurs, scientists, technicians, and urban workers in Asia, Africa, and Latin America participated in world trade and industrialization
 Standard 40.  Understands the search for peace and stability throughout the world in the 1920s and 1930s
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 11.Understands the origins and consequences for international trade of the U.S. Smoot-Hawley Tariff (e.g., how international trade was affected by the depression, how other nations reacted to the tariff)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the origins of the U.S. Smoot-Hawley Tariff
     2.Understands the consequences of the U.S. Smoot-Hawley Tariff for international trade from
     3.Understands how international trade was affected by the depression
     4.Understands how other nations reacted to the tariff
 Standard 44.  Understands the search for community, stability, and peace in an interdependent world
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the impact of increasing economic interdependence in different regions of the world (e.g., how global communications and changing international labor demands have shaped new patterns of world migration since World War II, the effects of the European Economic Community and its growth on economic productivity and political integration in Europe, the emergence of the Pacific Rim economy and economic growth in South Korea and Singapore in recent decades, the effects of new transport and communications technology on patterns of world trade and finance)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     5.Understands the effects of new transport and communications technology on patterns of world trade and finance
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands major reasons for the great disparities between industrialized and developing nations (e.g., disparities in resources, production, capital investment, labor, or trade; possible programs and measures to help equalize these disparities)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     5.Understands the disparities in trade between industrialized and developing countries
 Standard 46.  Understands long-term changes and recurring patterns in world history
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands major patterns of long-distance trade from ancient times to the present and how trade has contributed to economic and cultural change in particular societies or civilizations
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands major patterns of long distance trade from ancient times to the present
     2.Understands how trade has contributed to economic change in particular societies or civilizations
     3.Understands how trade has contributed to cultural change in particular societies or civilizations