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Topic: Confederal, federal, and unitary systems 

Civics

 Standard 6.  Understands the advantages and disadvantages of federal, confederal, and unitary systems of government
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 1.Knows the basic characteristics of a confederal system of government (e.g., sovereign states delegate powers to a national government for specific purposes), and knows examples of this system of government (e.g., the United States under the Articles of Confederation and the Confederate States of America)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the basic characteristics of a confederal system of government
     2.Knows that in a confederal system, sovereign states delegate powers to a national government for specific purposes
     3.Knows examples of confederal systems of government
     4.Knows that the United States, under the Articles of Confederation, is an example of a confederal system
     5.Knows that the United States, under the Confederate States of America, is an example of a confederal system
   Benchmark 2.Knows the basic characteristics of a federal system of government (e.g., power is divided and shared between national and state governments), and knows examples of this system of government (e.g., the government of the United States)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the basic characteristics of a federal system of government
     2.Knows that in a federal system, the power is divided and shared between national and state governments
     3.Knows examples of federal systems of government
     4.Knows that the government of the United States is a federal system
   Benchmark 3.Knows the basic characteristics of a unitary system of government (e.g., power is concentrated in a central government; state and local governments can exercise only those powers given to them by the central government), and knows examples of this system of government (e.g., state governments of the United States)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the basic characteristics of a unitary system of government
     2.Knows that in a unitary system, the power is concentrated in a central government
     3.Knows that in a unitary system, state and local governments can exercise only those powers given to them by the central government
     4.Knows examples of unitary systems of government
     5.Knows that the state governments of the United States are unitary systems
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how power is distributed, shared, and limited in confederal, federal, and unitary systems of government (e.g., in terms of effectiveness, prevention of the abuse of power, responsiveness to popular will, stability)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how power is distributed in a confederal system of government
     2.Understands how power is shared in a confederal system of government
     3.Understands how power is limited in a confederal system of government
     4.Understands how power is distributed in a federal system of government
     5.Understands how power is shared in a federal system of government
     6.Understands how power is limited in a federal system of government
     7.Understands how power is distributed in a unitary system of government
     8.Understands how power is shared in a unitary system of government
     9.Understands how power is limited in a unitary system of government
     10.Understands the effectiveness of the confederal system
     11.Understands how a confederal system prevents the abuse of power
     12.Understands how a confederal system responds to popular will
     13.Understands the stability of the confederal system
     14.Understands the effectiveness of the federal system
     15.Understands how a federal system prevents the abuse of power
     16.Understands how a federal system responds to popular will
     17.Understands the stability of the federal system
     18.Understands the effectiveness of the unitary system
     19.Understands how a unitary system prevents the abuse of power
     20.Understands how a unitary system responds to popular will
     21.Understands the stability of the unitary system
   Benchmark 2.Knows the advantages and disadvantages of confederal, federal, and unitary systems in fulfilling the purposes of constitutional government
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the advantages and disadvantages of confederal systems in fulfilling the purposes of constitutional government
     2.Knows the advantages and disadvantages of federal systems in fulfilling the purposes of constitutional government
     3.Knows the advantages and disadvantages of unitary systems in fulfilling the purposes of constitutional government