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Topic: Structure of cities and their related regions 

Geography

 Standard 11.  Understands the patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth's surface
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 1.Knows the factors that are important in the location of economic activities (e.g., warehouses and industries near major transportation routes, fast-food restaurants in highly accessible locations close to population concentrations, production sites near the sources of their raw materials or close to the consumers who buy their products)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that it is important for warehouses to be located near major transportation routes
     2.Knows that it is important for industries to be located near major transportation routes
     3.Knows that fast-food restaurants are located in highly accessible locations close to population concentrations
     4.Knows that production sites may be located near the sources of their raw materials
     5.Knows that production sites may be located close to the consumers who buy their products
 Standard 12.  Understands the patterns of human settlement and their causes
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 5.Knows the characteristics and locations of cities (e.g., location along transportation routes, availability of resources, continued access to other cities and resources) and how cities have changed over time (e.g., the movement of industry from downtown to the edge of cities, suburban growth, changes in the shapes of urban areas)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the characteristics of cities
     2.Knows the general locations of cities
     3.Knows how cities have changed over time
     4.Understands that cities are often located along transportation routes
     5.Understands the importance of available resources in cities
     6.Understands the importance of continued access of cities to other cites
     7.Understands the importance of continued access of cities to resources
     8.Understands the movement of industry from downtown to the edge of cities
     9.Understands suburban growth
     10.Understands how the shape of urban areas has changed
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 3.Knows ways in which both the landscape and society change as a consequence of shifting from a dispersed to a concentrated settlement form (e.g., a larger marketplace, the need for an agricultural surplus to provide for the urban population, the loss of some rural workers as people decide to move into the city, changes in the transportation system)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows ways in the landscape changes as a consequence of shifting from a dispersed to a concentrated settlement form
     2.Knows ways in which society changes as a consequence of shifting from a dispersed to a concentrated settlement form
     3.Understands a larger marketplace as a consequence of the shift from a dispersed to a concentrated settlement form
     4.Understands the need for an agricultural surplus to provide for the urban population as a consequence of the shift from a dispersed to a concentrated settlement form
     5.Understands the loss of some rural workers as people decide to move into the city as a consequence of the shift from a dispersed to a concentrated settlement form
     6.Understands changes in the transportation system as a consequence of the shift from a dispersed to a concentrated settlement form
   Benchmark 4.Knows the factors involved in the development of cities (e.g., geographic factors for location such as transportation and food supply; the need for a marketplace, religious needs, or for military protection)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the geographic factors involved in the development of cities
     2.Understands transportation as a geographic factor involved in the development of cities
     3.Understands the food supply as a geographic factor involved in the development of cities
     4.Understands the need for a marketplace as a factor involved in the development of cities
     5.Understands that religious needs are factors in involved in the development of cities
     6.Understands that the need for military protection is a factor involved in the development of cities
   Benchmark 5.Knows the internal spatial structures of cities (e.g., the concentric zone model and the sector model of cities; the impact of different transportation systems on the spatial arrangement of business, industry, and residence in a city)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the concentric zone model of cities
     2.Understands the sector model of cities
     3.Understands the impact of different transportation systems on the spatial arrangement of business in a city
     4.Understands the impact of different transportation systems on the spatial arrangement of industry in a city
     5.Understands the impact of different transportation systems on the spatial arrangement of residence in a city
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Knows the shape of cities in the United States and factors that influence urban morphology (e.g., transportation routes, physical barriers, zoning regulations)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the shape of cities in the United States
     2.Knows the factors that influence urban morphology
     3.Knows that transportation routes influence urban morphology
     4.Knows that physical barriers influence urban morphology
     5.Knows that zoning regulations influence urban morphology
   Benchmark 4.Knows the consequences of factors such as population changes or the arrival/departure of a major industry or business on the settlement patterns of an area (e.g., stress on infrastructure, problems of public safety and fire protection, crisis in delivering school and medical services)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the consequences population changes on the settlement patterns of an area
     2.Knows the consequences of the arrival/departure of a major industry or business on the settlement patterns of an area
     3.Understands stress on infrastructure as a consequence of population changes
     4.Understands stress on infrastructure as a consequence of the arrival/departure of a major industry or business
     5.Understands problems of public safety and fire protection as a consequence of population changes
     6.Understands problems of public safety and fire protection as a consequence of the arrival/departure of a major industry or business
     7.Understands the crisis in delivering school services as a consequence of population changes
     8.Understands the crisis in delivering school services as a consequence of the arrival/departure of a major industry or business
     9.Understands the crisis in delivering medical services as a consequence of population changes
     10.Understands the crisis in delivering medical services as a consequence of the arrival/departure of a major industry or business
   Benchmark 5.Understands the physical and human impact of emerging urban forms in the present-day world (e.g., the rise of megalopoli, edge cities, and metropolitan corridors; increasing numbers of ethnic enclaves in urban areas and the development of legislation to protect the rights of ethnic and racial minorities; improved light-rail systems within cities providing ease of access to ex-urban areas)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the physical impact of emerging urban forms in the present-day world
     2.Understands the human impact of emerging urban forms in the present-day world
     3.Understands the impact of the rise of megalopoli
     4.Understands the impact of the rise of edge cities
     5.Understands the impact of the rise of metropolitan corridors
     6.Understands the increasing numbers of ethnic enclaves in urban areas
     7.Understands the development of legislation to protect the rights of ethnic and racial minorities
     8.Understands improved light-rail systems within cities providing ease of access to ex-urban areas
 Standard 18.  Understands global development and environmental issues
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 3.Knows how the quality of environments in large cities can be improved (e.g., greenways, transportation corridors, pedestrian walkways, bicycle lanes)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that greenways improve the quality of environment in large cities
     2.Knows that transportation corridors improve the quality of environment in large cities
     3.Knows that pedestrian walkways improve the quality of environment in large cities
     4.Knows that bicycle lanes improve the quality of environment in large cities