Standards Database Logo
Home | Browse | Search | Purpose | History | Process | Acknowledgment| Reference

 


 


Topic: Spatial organization, dynamics, and interaction 

Geography

 Standard 2.  Knows the location of places, geographic features, and patterns of the environment
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Knows the spatial dynamics of various contemporary and historical events (e.g., the spread of radiation from the Chernobyl nuclear accident, how physical features have deterred migrations and invasions, trade and transportation in the contemporary world, the diffusion of contagious diseases such as the bubonic plague in 14th-century Europe or AIDS in the present-day world)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the spatial dynamics of various contemporary events
     2.Knows the spatial dynamics of various historical events
     3.Knows the spatial dynamics of the spread of radiation from the Chernobyl nuclear accident
     4.Understands the spatial dynamics of physical features that have deterred migrations
     5.Understands the spatial dynamics of physical features that have deterred invasions
     6.Understands the spatial dynamics of trade in the contemporary world
     7.Understands the spatial dynamics of transportation in the contemporary world
     8.Understands the spatial dynamics of the diffusion of contagious disease
     9.Knows the spatial dynamics of the diffusion the bubonic plague in 14th-century Europe
     10.Knows the spatial dynamics of the diffusion of AIDS in the present-day world
 Standard 3.  Understands the characteristics and uses of spatial organization of Earth's surface
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 1.Identifies physical and human features in terms of the four spatial elements (e.g., locations [point], transportation and communication routes [line], regions [area], lakes filled with water [volume])
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Identifies physical features in terms of the four spatial elements
     2.Identifies human features in terms of the four spatial elements
     3.Understands that location relates to the spatial element of point
     4.Understands that transportation routes relate to the spatial element of line
     5.Understands that communication routes relate to the spatial element of line
     6.Understands that regions relate to the spatial element of area
     7.Understands that lakes filled with water relate to the spatial element of volume
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the spatial organization of places through such concepts as location, distance, direction, scale, movement, and region
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the spatial organization of places through the concept of location
     2.Understands the spatial organization of places through the concept of distance
     3.Understands the spatial organization of places through the concept of direction
     4.Understands the spatial organization of places through the concept of scale
     5.Understands the spatial organization of places through the concept of movement
     6.Understands the spatial organization of places through the concept of a region
   Benchmark 4.Knows different methods used to measure distance (e.g., miles, kilometers, time, cost, perception)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that distance can be measured in miles
     2.Knows that distance can be measured in kilometers
     3.Knows that distance can be measured by time
     4.Knows that distance can be measured by cost
     5.Knows that distance can be measured by perception
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how concepts of spatial interaction (e.g., complementarity, intervening opportunity, distance decay, connections) account for patterns of movement in space (e.g., transportation routes, trade and migration patterns, commodity flows)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the spatial concept of complementarity accounts for patterns of movement in space
     2.Understands how the spatial concept of distance decay accounts for patterns of movement in space
     3.Understands how the spatial concept of intervening opportunity accounts for patterns of movement in space
     4.Understands how the spatial concept of connections accounts for patterns of movement in space
     5.Understands how concepts of spatial interaction account for transportation routes
     6.Understands how concepts of spatial interaction account for trade patterns
     7.Understands how concepts of spatial interaction account for migration patterns
     8.Understands how concepts of spatial interaction account for commodity flows
   Benchmark 2.Understands relationships in and between places (e.g., differences in threshold population or demand needed to support retail activities in a place, why there are many small central places and few large central places, law of retail gravitation)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands a threshold population is needed to support retail activities in a place
     2.Understands a certain demand is needed to support retail activities in a place
     3.Understands why there are many small central places and few large central places
     4.Understands the law of retail gravitation
     5.Understands relationship within places
     6.Understands relationships between places
 Standard 5.  Understands the concept of regions
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Knows ways in which the concept of a region can be used to simplify the complexity of Earth’s space (e.g., by arranging an area into sections to help understand a particular topic or problem)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that by arranging an area into sections to understand a particular topic, the complexity of Earth’s space is simplified
     2.Knows that by arranging an area into sections to understand a particular problem, the complexity of Earth’s space is simplified
   Benchmark 6.Understands the different ways in which regional systems are structured (e.g., precinct, ward, county, state, and national levels of a political party hierarchy; hub-and-spoke airline operations; postal-service zip codes; assignment of Social Security numbers by region)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that regional systems can be structured into precinct levels of a political party hierarchy
     2.Understands that regional systems can be structured into ward levels of a political party hierarchy
     3.Understands that regional systems can be structured into county levels of a political party hierarchy
     4.Understands that regional systems can be structured into state levels of a political party hierarchy
     5.Understands that regional systems can be structured into national levels of a political party hierarchy
     6.Understands hub-and-spoke airline operations as a structure in a regional system
     7.Understands postal-service zip codes as a structure in a regional system
     8.Understands regional Social Security numbers as a structure in a regional system
 Standard 13.  Understands the forces of cooperation and conflict that shape the divisions of Earth's surface
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the reasons for multiple and overlapping spatial divisions in society (e.g., postal zones, school districts, telephone area codes, voting wards)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the reasons for multiple spatial divisions in society
     2.Understands the reasons for overlapping spatial divisions in society
     3.Understands that postal zones contribute to multiple spatial divisions in society
     4.Understands that postal zones contribute to overlapping spatial divisions in society
     5.Understands that school districts contribute to multiple spatial divisions in society
     6.Understands that school districts contribute to overlapping spatial divisions in society
     7.Understands that telephone area codes contribute to multiple spatial divisions in society
     8.Understands that telephone area codes contribute to overlapping spatial divisions in society
     9.Understands that voting wards contribute to multiple spatial divisions in society
     10.Understands that voting wards contribute to overlapping spatial divisions in society
 Standard 17.  Understands how geography is used to interpret the past
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 3.Knows the ways in which the spatial organization of society changes over time (e.g., process of urban growth in the United States; changes in the internal structure, form, and function of urban areas in different regions of the world at different times)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the process of urban growth in the United States as a change in the spatial organization of society
     2.Knows that the spatial organization of society changes when the internal structure of urban areas change
     3.Knows that the spatial organization of society changes when urban areas change in form
     4.Knows that the spatial organization of society changes when the functions of urban areas change