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Topic: Places and regions over time  

Geography

 Standard 4.  Understands the physical and human characteristics of place
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 4.Knows the causes and effects of changes in a place over time (e.g., physical changes such as forest cover, water distribution, temperature fluctuations; human changes such as urban growth, the clearing of forests, development of transportation systems)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows physical changes that can occur in a place over time
     2.Knows human changes that can occur in a place over time
     3.Knows that forest cover can change over time
     4.Knows that water distribution can change over time
     5.Knows that temperatures can fluctuate over time
     6.Knows that urban growth changes a place over time
     7.Knows that forest clearing changes a place over time
     8.Knows that the development of transportation systems changes a place over time
 Standard 5.  Understands the concept of regions
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 2.Understands how regions change over time and the consequences of these changes (e.g., changes in population size or ethnic composition; construction of a new shopping center, a regional hospital, or a new manufacturing plant; changes in transportation; changes in environmental conditions)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how regions change over time
     2.Understands the consequences of regional changes over time
     3.Understands that regions have changes in population size over time
     4.Understands the consequences of regional changes in population size
     5.Understands that regions have changes in ethnic composition over time
     6.Understands the consequences of regional changes in ethnic composition
     7.Understands that regions have changes in changes in transportation over time
     8.Understands the consequences of regional changes in transportation
     9.Understands that regions have changes in changes in environmental conditions over time
     10.Understands the consequences of regional changes in environmental conditions
     11.Understands the consequences of the construction of a new shopping center on a region
     12.Understands the consequences of the construction of a regional hospital
     13.Understands the consequences of the construction of a new manufacturing plant on a region
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 4.Knows factors that contribute to changing regional characteristics (e.g., economic development, accessibility, migration, media image)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that economic development contributes to changing regional characteristics
     2.Knows that accessibility contributes to changing regional characteristics
     3.Knows that migration contributes to changing regional characteristics
     4.Knows that media images contribute to changing regional characteristics
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how regional boundaries change (e.g., changes resulting from shifts in population, environmental degradation, shifts in production and market patterns, wars)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that shifts in populations change regional boundaries
     2.Understands that environmental degradation changes regional boundaries
     3.Understands that shifts in production patterns change regional boundaries
     4.Understands that shifts in marketing patterns change regional boundaries
     5.Understands that wars change regional boundaries
   Benchmark 2.Knows factors that contribute to the dynamic nature of regions (e.g., human influences such as migration, technology, and capital investment; physical influences such as long-term climate shifts and seismic activity)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that human influences contribute to the dynamic nature of regions
     2.Knows that physical influences contribute to the dynamic nature of regions
     3.Knows that migration contributes to the dynamic nature of regions
     4.Knows that capital investment contributes to the dynamic nature of regions
     5.Knows that technology contributes to the dynamic nature of regions
     6.Knows that climatic shifts contribute to the dynamic nature of regions
     7.Knows that seismic activity contributes to the dynamic nature of regions
   Benchmark 4.Understands how changing conditions can result in the redefinition of a region (e.g., the reshaping of South Africa resulting from the economic and political realignments that followed the end of European colonialism, the Caribbean Basin's transition from a major sugarcane and hemp producer to a center for tourism)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the reshaping of South Africa resulting from the economic and political realignments that followed the end of European colonialism
     2.Understands the Caribbean Basin’s transition from a major sugarcane and hemp producer to a center for tourism
     3.Understands that regions are subject to redefinition
 Standard 6.  Understands that culture and experience influence people's perceptions of places and regions
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Knows ways in which people's changing views of places and regions reflect cultural change (e.g., rural settings becoming attractive as recreation areas to people living in densely populated cities, old mining ghost towns becoming tourist and gambling centers)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows ways in which people’s changing views of places reflect cultural change
     2.Knows ways in which people’s changing views of regions reflect cultural change
     3.Knows that rural settings have become attractive as recreation areas to people living in densely populated cities
     4.Knows that some old mining ghost towns have become tourist and gambling centers
 Standard 8.  Understands the characteristics of ecosystems on Earth's surface
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 4.Knows changes that have occurred over time in ecosystems in the local region (e.g., natural wetlands on a flood plain being replaced by farms, farmlands on a flood plain being replaced by housing developments)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows instances of natural wetlands on a floodplain being replaced by farms
     2.Knows instances of farmlands on a floodplain being replaced by housing developments
 Standard 9.  Understands the nature, distribution and migration of human populations on Earth's surface
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 3.Knows the ways in which human movement and migration influence the character of a place (e.g., New Delhi before and after the partition of the Indian subcontinent in the 1940s and the massive realignment of the Hindu and Muslim populations; Boston before and after the large-scale influx of Irish immigrants in the mid-nineteenth century; the impact of Indians settling in South Africa, Algerians settling in France, Vietnamese settling in the United States)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows ways in which human movement influences the character of a place
     2.Knows ways in which human migration influences the character of a place
     3.Understands the character of New Delhi before and after the partition of the Indian subcontinent in the 1940s and the massive realignment of the Hindu and Muslim populations
     4.Understands the character of Boston before and after the large-scale influx of Irish immigrants in the mid-nineteenth century
     5.Understands the impact of Indians settling in South Africa
     6.Understands the impact of Algerians settling in France
     7.Understands the impact of Vietnamese settling in the United States
 Standard 12.  Understands the patterns of human settlement and their causes
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 5.Knows the characteristics and locations of cities (e.g., location along transportation routes, availability of resources, continued access to other cities and resources) and how cities have changed over time (e.g., the movement of industry from downtown to the edge of cities, suburban growth, changes in the shapes of urban areas)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the characteristics of cities
     2.Knows the general locations of cities
     3.Knows how cities have changed over time
     4.Understands that cities are often located along transportation routes
     5.Understands the importance of available resources in cities
     6.Understands the importance of continued access of cities to other cites
     7.Understands the importance of continued access of cities to resources
     8.Understands the movement of industry from downtown to the edge of cities
     9.Understands suburban growth
     10.Understands how the shape of urban areas has changed
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how the functions of cities today differ from those of towns and villages and cities in earlier times (e.g., more specialized economic and social activities, greater concentration of services, greater availability of the same services)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the more specialized economic activities in cities of today versus those of earlier times
     2.Understands the more specialized social activities in cities of today versus those of earlier times
     3.Understands the greater concentration of services in cities of today versus those of earlier times
     4.Understands the greater availability of the same service in cities of today versus those of earlier times
 Standard 17.  Understands how geography is used to interpret the past
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 1.Knows how areas of a community have changed over time (in terms of, e.g., size and style of homes; how people earn their living; changes in the plant and animal population)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how areas of a community have changed over time in terms of size and style of homes
     2.Knows how areas of a community have changed over time in terms of how people earn their living
     3.Knows how areas of a community have changed over time in terms of changes in the plant and animal population
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 1.Knows the factors that have contributed to changing land use in a community (e.g., street and road development, population shifts, regulations governing land use)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that street and road development has contributed to changing land use in communities
     2.Knows that population shifts have contributed to changing land use in communities
     3.Knows that regulations governing land use has contributed to changing land use in communities
   Benchmark 2.Knows the ways in which changes in people's perceptions of environments have influenced human migration and settlement over time (e.g., the history of oil discovery and its effect on migration in different United States regions such as Pennsylvania, Louisiana, or Texas)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the ways in which changes in people’s perceptions of environments have influenced human migration over time
     2.Knows the ways in which changes in people’s perceptions of environments have influenced human settlement over time
     3.Knows the history of oil discovery and its effect on migration in different regions in the United States
     4.Knows how the discovery of oil affected migration in Pennsylvania
     5.Knows how the discovery of oil affected migration in Louisiana
     6.Knows how the discovery of oil affected migration in Texas
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 3.Knows the ways in which the spatial organization of society changes over time (e.g., process of urban growth in the United States; changes in the internal structure, form, and function of urban areas in different regions of the world at different times)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the process of urban growth in the United States as a change in the spatial organization of society
     2.Knows that the spatial organization of society changes when the internal structure of urban areas change
     3.Knows that the spatial organization of society changes when urban areas change in form
     4.Knows that the spatial organization of society changes when the functions of urban areas change