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Topic: Mental maps, spatial relationships, and directional awareness 

Geography

 Standard 2.  Knows the location of places, geographic features, and patterns of the environment
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 1.Knows the location of school, home, neighborhood, community, state, and country
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the location of his or her school
     2.Knows the location of his or her home
     3.Knows the location of his or her neighborhood
     4.Knows the location of his or her community
     5.Knows the location of his or her state
     6.Knows the location of his or her country
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 2.Knows the location of major cities in North America
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows major cities in North America
     2.Knows where major North American cities are generally located
   Benchmark 3.Knows the approximate location of major continents, mountain ranges, and bodies of water on Earth
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the approximate location of the continents
     2.Knows the approximate location of major mountain ranges on Earth
     3.Knows the approximate location of major bodies of water on Earth
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 2.Knows how mental maps can reflect attitudes and perceptions of places (e.g., how personal interests emphasize some details at the expense of others)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how mental maps can reflect one’s attitudes of places
     2.Knows how mental maps can reflect one’s perceptions of places
     3.Knows that in mental maps, personal interests may emphasize some details at the expense of others
   Benchmark 3.Knows the relative location of, size of, and distances between places (e.g., major urban centers in the United States)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the relative location of various places in the United States
     2.Knows the relative size of various places in the United States
     3.Knows the relative distance between various places in the United States
     4.Knows the relative location of major urban centers in the United States
     5.Knows the relative size of major urban centers in the United States
     6.Knows the relative distance between major urban centers in the United States
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Knows the ways in which mental maps influence human decisions about location, settlement, and public policy (e.g., locating houses in areas with scenic views; decisions to migrate based on newspaper and magazine advertisements, or television programs and movies)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the ways in which mental maps influence human decisions about location
     2.Knows the ways in which mental maps influence human decisions about settlement
     3.Knows the ways in which mental maps influence human decisions about public policy
     4.Knows the ways in which mental maps influence human decisions about location, such as locating houses in areas with scenic views
     5.Knows the ways in which mental maps influence human decisions about settlement, such as decisions to migrate based on newspaper, magazine advertisements, television programs, and movies
   Benchmark 4.Knows common factors that affect mental maps (e.g., how differences in life experiences, age, and gender influence people's housing preferences or their view of public transportation in a city; Eurocentric, Americentric, or Sinocentric mental maps of the world)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how differences in life experiences influence people’s housing preferences
     2.Knows how differences in gender influence people’s housing preferences
     3.Knows how differences in age influence people’s housing preferences
     4.Knows how differences in life experiences influence people’s view of public transportation in a city
     5.Knows how differences in gender influence people’s view of public transportation in a city
     6.Knows how differences in age influence people’s view of public transportation in a city
     7.Knows how Eurocentric views influence mental maps of the world
     8.Knows how Americentric views influence mental maps of the world
     9.Knows how Sinocentric views influence mental maps of the world
 Standard 3.  Understands the characteristics and uses of spatial organization of Earth's surface
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 1.Identifies physical and human features in terms of the four spatial elements (e.g., locations [point], transportation and communication routes [line], regions [area], lakes filled with water [volume])
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Identifies physical features in terms of the four spatial elements
     2.Identifies human features in terms of the four spatial elements
     3.Understands that location relates to the spatial element of point
     4.Understands that transportation routes relate to the spatial element of line
     5.Understands that communication routes relate to the spatial element of line
     6.Understands that regions relate to the spatial element of area
     7.Understands that lakes filled with water relate to the spatial element of volume
   Benchmark 2.Knows the absolute and relative location of a community and places within it (e.g., parks, stores, landmarks)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the absolute location of a community
     2.Knows the relative location of a community
     3.Knows the absolute location of places within a community
     4.Knows the relative location of places within a community
     5.Knows the absolute location of parks within a community
     6.Knows the relative location of parks within a community
     7.Knows the absolute location of stores within a community
     8.Knows the relative location of stores within a community
     9.Knows the absolute location of landmarks within a community
     10.Knows the relative location of landmarks within a community
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the spatial organization of places through such concepts as location, distance, direction, scale, movement, and region
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the spatial organization of places through the concept of location
     2.Understands the spatial organization of places through the concept of distance
     3.Understands the spatial organization of places through the concept of direction
     4.Understands the spatial organization of places through the concept of scale
     5.Understands the spatial organization of places through the concept of movement
     6.Understands the spatial organization of places through the concept of a region