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Topic: Geologic, atmospheric, and hydrospheric processes  

Geography

 Standard 3.  Understands the characteristics and uses of spatial organization of Earth's surface
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 1.Knows patterns on the landscape produced by physical processes (e.g., the drainage basin of a river system, the ridge-and-valley pattern of the Appalachians, vegetation on the windward and leeward sides of a mountain range)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that the drainage basin of a river system is a pattern produced by a physical process
     2.Knows that the ridge-and-valley pattern of the Appalachians is produced by a physical process
     3.Knows that vegetation patterns on the windward and leeward sides of a mountain range are produced by physical processes
 Standard 4.  Understands the physical and human characteristics of place
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands why places have specific physical and human characteristics in different parts of the world (e.g., the effects of climatic and tectonic processes, settlement and migration patterns, site and situation components)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands why places have specific physical characteristics in different parts of the world
     2.Understands why places have specific human characteristics in different parts of the world
     3.Understands the effect of climatic processes on physical characteristics in different parts of the world
     4.Understands the effect of climatic processes on human characteristics in different parts of the world
     5.Understands the effect of tectonic processes on physical characteristics in different parts of the world
     6.Understands the effect of tectonic processes on human characteristics in different parts of the world
     7.Understands the effect of settlement patterns on physical characteristics in different parts of the world
     8.Understands the effect of settlement patterns on human characteristics in different parts of the world
     9.Understands the effect of migration patterns on physical characteristics in different parts of the world
     10.Understands the effect of migration patterns on human characteristics in different parts of the world
     11.Understands the effect of site components on physical characteristics in different parts of the world
     12.Understands the effect of site components on human characteristics in different parts of the world
     13.Understands the effect of situation components on physical characteristics in different parts of the world
     14.Understands the effect of situation components on human characteristics in different parts of the world
 Standard 7.  Knows the physical processes that shape patterns on Earth's surface
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 1.Knows the physical components of Earth’s atmosphere (e.g., weather and climate), lithosphere (e.g., land forms such as mountains, hills, plateaus, plains), hydrosphere (e.g., oceans, lakes, rivers), and biosphere (e.g., vegetation and biomes)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the physical components of the Earth’s atmosphere
     2.Knows the physical components of the Earth’s lithosphere
     3.Knows the physical components of the Earth’s hydrosphere
     4.Knows the physical components of the Earth’s biosphere
     5.Knows that weather is a physical component of the Earth’s atmosphere
     6.Knows that climate is a physical component of the Earth’s atmosphere
     7.Knows that lands forms are a physical component of Earth’s lithosphere
     8.Knows that mountains are a physical component of the Earth’s lithosphere
     9.Knows that hills are a physical component of the Earth’s lithosphere
     10.Knows that plateaus are a physical component of the Earth’s lithosphere
     11.Knows that plains are a physical component of the Earth’s lithosphere
     12.Knows that oceans are a physical component of the Earth’s hydrosphere
     13.Knows that lakes are a physical component of the Earth’s hydrosphere
     14.Knows that rivers are a physical component of the Earth’s hydrosphere
     15.Knows that vegetation is a physical component of the Earth’s biosphere
     16.Knows that biomes are a physical component of the Earth’s biosphere
   Benchmark 2.Understands how physical processes help to shape features and patterns on Earth's surface (e.g., the effects of climate and weather on vegetation, erosion and deposition on land forms, mud slides on hills)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how physical processes help to shape features on the Earth’s surface
     2.Understands how physical processes help to shape patterns on the Earth’s surface
     3.Understands the effect of climate on vegetation
     4.Understands the effect of weather on vegetation
     5.Understands the effect of erosion on land forms
     6.Understands the effect of deposition of sediment of land forms
     7.Understands the effect of mud slides on hills
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 1.Knows the major processes that shape patterns in the physical environment (e.g., the erosional agents such as water and ice, earthquake zones and volcanic activity, the ocean circulation system)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the erosional agents that shape patterns in the physical environment
     2.Knows that water shapes patterns in the physical environment
     3.Knows that ice shapes patterns in the physical environment
     4.Knows that earthquake zones shape patterns in the physical environment
     5.Knows that volcanic activity shapes patterns in the physical environment
     6.Knows that the ocean circulation system shapes patterns in the physical environment
   Benchmark 3.Knows the consequences of a specific physical process operating on Earth's surface (e.g., effects of an extreme weather phenomenon such as a hurricane's impact on a coastal ecosystem, effects of heavy rainfall on hill slopes, effects of the continued movement of Earth's tectonic plates)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the effects of a hurricane on a coastal ecosystem
     2.Knows the effects of heavy rainfall on hill slopes
     3.Knows how the continued movement of tectonic plates affects the Earth’s surface
     4.Knows the effects of extreme weather phenomena
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the effects of different physical cycles (e.g., world atmospheric circulation, ocean circulation) on the physical environment of Earth
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the effect world atmospheric circulation on the Earth’s physical environment
     2.Understands the effect ocean circulation on the Earth’s physical environment
   Benchmark 3.Understands how physical systems are dynamic and interactive (e.g., the relationships between changes in land forms and the effects of climate such as the erosion of hill slopes by precipitation, deposition of sediments by floods, and shaping of land surfaces by wind)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how physical systems are dynamic
     2.Understands how physical systems are interactive
     3.Understands the relationships between climate and changes in land forms
     4.Understands the relationship between the erosion of hill slopes and precipitation
     5.Understands the relationship between the deposition of sediments and flooding
     6.Understands the relationship between the shaping of land surfaces and wind
   Benchmark 4.Understands how physical processes affect different regions of the United States and the world (e.g., effects of hurricanes in the Caribbean Basin and the eastern United States or of earthquakes in Turkey, Japan, and Nicaragua; effects of desertification and soil degradation, flash floods, dust storms, sand movement, soil erosion and salt accumulation in dry environments)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how physical processes affect different regions of the United States
     2.Understands how physical processes affect different regions around the world
     3.Understands the effects of hurricanes in the Caribbean Basin
     4.Understands the effects of hurricanes in the eastern United States
     5.Understands the effects of earthquakes in Turkey
     6.Understands the effects of earthquakes in Japan
     7.Understands the effects of earthquakes in Nicaragua
     8.Understands the effects of desertification in dry environments
     9.Understands the effects of soil degradation in dry environments
     10.Understands the effects of flash floods in dry environments
     11.Understands the effects of dust storms in dry environments
     12.Understands the effects of sand movement in dry environments
     13.Understands the effects of soil erosion in dry environments
     14.Understands the effects of salt accumulation in dry environments
 Standard 8.  Understands the characteristics of ecosystems on Earth's surface
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 6.Understands the life cycle of a lake ecosystem from birth to death (including the process of eutrophication)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that lakes go through a life cycle
     2.Understands the process of eutrophication in lakes