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Topic: Biodiversity 

Geography

 Standard 8.  Understands the characteristics of ecosystems on Earth's surface
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how relationships between soil, climate, and plant and animal life affect the distribution of ecosystems (e.g., effects of solar energy and water supply on the nature of plant communities)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the effects of solar energy on the nature of plant communities
     2.Understands the effects of the water supply on the nature of plant communities
     3.Understands that relationships within ecosystems affects the distribution of such ecosystems
   Benchmark 2.Knows ecosystems in terms of their biodiversity and productivity (e.g., the low productivity of deserts and the high productivity of midlatitude forests and tropical forests) and their potential value to all living things (e.g., as a source of oxygen for life forms, as a source of food for indigenous peoples, as a source of raw materials for international trade)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows a variety of ecosystems in terms of their biodiversity
     2.Knows a variety of ecosystems in terms of their productivity
     3.Knows a variety of ecosystems in terms of their potential value to all living things
     4.Knows that deserts have a low productivity
     5.Knows that midlatitude forests have a high productivity
     6.Knows that tropical forests have a high productivity
     7.Knows ecosystems that are a source of oxygen for life forms
     8.Knows ecosystems that are a source of food for indigenous peoples
     9.Knows ecosystems that are a source of raw materials for international trade
   Benchmark 4.Knows the effects of both physical and human changes in ecosystems (e.g., the disruption of energy flows and chemical cycles and the reduction of species diversity, how acid rain resulting from air pollution affects water bodies and forests and how depletion of the atmosphere's ozone layer through the use of chemicals may affect the health of humans)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the effects of physical changes in ecosystems
     2.Knows the effects of human changes in ecosystems
     3.Knows that the disruption of energy flows in an ecosystem reduces species diversity
     4.Knows that the disruption of chemical cycles in an ecosystem reduces species diversity
     5.Knows how acid rain, resulting from air pollution, affects bodies of water
     6.Knows how acid rain, resulting from air pollution, affects the forests
     7.Knows how the depletion of the atmosphere’s ozone layer, through the use of chemicals, may affect the health of humans
 Standard 14.  Understands how human actions modify the physical environment
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the role of humans in decreasing the diversity of flora and fauna in a region (e.g., the impact of acid rain on rivers and forests in southern Ontario, the effects of toxic dumping on ocean ecosystems, the effects of overfishing along the coast of northeastern North America or the Philippine archipelago)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the role of humans in decreasing the diversity of flora in a region
     2.Understands the role of humans in decreasing the diversity of fauna in a region
     3.Understands the impact of acid rain on rivers and forests in southern Ontario
     4.Understands how toxic dumping affects ocean ecosystems
     5.Understands the effects of overfishing along the coast of northeastern North America
     6.Understands the effects of overfishing on the Philippine archipelago