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Topic: Bias, meaning, and perspective 

Thinking and Reasoning

 Standard 2.  Understands and applies basic principles of logic and reasoning
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 11.Understands that once a person believes a general rule, he or she may be more likely to notice things that agree with that rule and not notice things that do not; to avoid this "confirmatory bias," scientific studies sometimes use observers who do not know what the results are supposed to be
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that once a person believes a general rule, he or she may be more likely to notice things that agree with that rule
     2.Understands that once a person believes a general rule, he or she may be less likely to notice things that do not agree with the rule

Arts and Communication

 Standard 2.  Knows and applies appropriate criteria to arts and communication products
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Knows ways in which to evaluate the sincerity and credibility of various media messages and productions (e.g., detect gender and ethnic bias; compare print and non-print versions of the same story, assess facts of news media for completeness, bias, accuracy and relevance; detect emotional appeals and propaganda devices; evaluating ad campaigns for various products)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows ways to evaluate the sincerity of various media messages
     2.Knows ways to evaluate the sincerity of various media productions
     3.Knows ways to evaluate the credibility of various media messages
     4.Knows ways to evaluate the credibility of various media productions
     5.Knows how to detect gender bias in various media messages and productions
     6.Knows how to detect ethnic bias in various media messages and productions
     9.Knows how to assess facts of news media for bias
     12.Knows how to detect emotional appeals in various media messages and productions
     13.Knows how to detect propaganda devices in various media messages and productions
     14.Knows how to evaluate ad campaigns for various products

Behavioral Studies

 Standard 3.  Understands that interactions among learning, inheritance, and physical development affect human behavior
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands that people might ignore evidence that challenges their beliefs and more readily accept evidence that supports them
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that people might ignore evidence that challenges their beliefs
     2.Understands that people might more readily accept evidence that supports their beliefs

Geography

 Standard 1.  Understands the characteristics and uses of maps, globes, and other geographic tools and technologies
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the advantages and disadvantages of using maps from different sources and different points of view (e.g., maps developed by the media, business, government, industry and military to show how a recently closed military installation can be utilized for civilian purposes)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the advantages of using maps from different sources
     2.Understands the advantages of using maps from different points of view
     3.Understands the disadvantages of using maps from different sources
     4.Understands the disadvantages of using maps from different points of view
     5.Understands the advantages and disadvantages of using maps developed by the media
     6.Understands the advantages and disadvantages of using maps developed by businesses
     7.Understands the advantages and disadvantages of using maps developed by the government
     11.Understands the advantages and disadvantages of using maps developed by industries
 Standard 2.  Knows the location of places, geographic features, and patterns of the environment
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 2.Knows how mental maps can reflect attitudes and perceptions of places (e.g., how personal interests emphasize some details at the expense of others)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how mental maps can reflect one’s attitudes of places
     2.Knows how mental maps can reflect one’s perceptions of places
     3.Knows that in mental maps, personal interests may emphasize some details at the expense of others
   Benchmark 4.Knows the factors that influence spatial perception (e.g., culture, education, age, gender, occupation, experience)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that one’s culture may influence their spatial perception
     2.Knows that one’s education may influence their spatial perception
     3.Knows that one’s age may influence their spatial perception
     4.Knows that one’s gender may influence their spatial perception
     5.Knows that one’s occupation may influence their spatial perception
     6.Knows that one’s experience may influence their spatial perception
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Knows the ways in which mental maps influence human decisions about location, settlement, and public policy (e.g., locating houses in areas with scenic views; decisions to migrate based on newspaper and magazine advertisements, or television programs and movies)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the ways in which mental maps influence human decisions about location
     2.Knows the ways in which mental maps influence human decisions about settlement
     3.Knows the ways in which mental maps influence human decisions about public policy
     4.Knows the ways in which mental maps influence human decisions about location, such as locating houses in areas with scenic views
     5.Knows the ways in which mental maps influence human decisions about settlement, such as decisions to migrate based on newspaper, magazine advertisements, television programs, and movies
   Benchmark 4.Knows common factors that affect mental maps (e.g., how differences in life experiences, age, and gender influence people's housing preferences or their view of public transportation in a city; Eurocentric, Americentric, or Sinocentric mental maps of the world)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how differences in life experiences influence people’s housing preferences
     2.Knows how differences in gender influence people’s housing preferences
     3.Knows how differences in age influence people’s housing preferences
     4.Knows how differences in life experiences influence people’s view of public transportation in a city
     5.Knows how differences in gender influence people’s view of public transportation in a city
     6.Knows how differences in age influence people’s view of public transportation in a city
     7.Knows how Eurocentric views influence mental maps of the world
     8.Knows how Americentric views influence mental maps of the world
     9.Knows how Sinocentric views influence mental maps of the world
 Standard 3.  Understands the characteristics and uses of spatial organization of Earth's surface
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands how characteristics such as age, sex, employment, and income level affect the way people perceive and use space (e.g., school-age children traveling to and from school, employed people commuting by public transit, high-income people traveling long distances for vacations)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how age affects the way people perceive space
     2.Understands how age affects the way people use space
     3.Understands how gender affects the way people perceive space
     4.Understands how gender affects the way people use space
     5.Understands how employment affects the way people perceive space
     6.Understands how employment affects the way people use space
     7.Understands how income level affects the way people perceive space
     8.Understands how income level affects the way people use space
     9.Understands how school-age children traveling to and from school may perceive space
     10.Understands how school-age children traveling to and from school may use space
     11.Understands how employed people commuting by public transit may perceive space
     12.Understands how employed people commuting by public transit may use space
     13.Understands how high-income people traveling long distances for vacations may perceive space
     14.Understands how high-income people traveling long distances for vacations may use space
 Standard 6.  Understands that culture and experience influence people's perceptions of places and regions
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 1.Understands ways in which people view and relate to places and regions differently (e.g., how children, mothers, joggers, and city park workers view a park)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands ways in which people view places differently
     2.Understands ways in which people relate to places differently
     3.Understands ways in which people view regions differently
     4.Understands ways in which people relate to regions differently
     5.Understands how children may view a park differently than other people
     6.Understands how mothers may view a park differently than other people
     7.Understands how joggers may view a park differently than other people
     8.Understands how city park workers may view a park differently than other people
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 2.Knows how technology affects the ways in which culture groups perceive and use places and regions (e.g., impact of technology such as air conditioning and irrigation on the human use of arid lands; changes in perception of environment by culture groups, such as the snowmobile's impact on the lives of Inuit people or the swamp buggy's impact on tourist travel in the Everglades)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how technology affects the ways in which culture groups perceive places
     2.Knows how technology affects the ways in which culture groups use places
     3.Knows how technology affects the ways in which culture groups perceive regions
     4.Knows how technology affects the ways in which culture groups use regions
   Benchmark 3.Knows the ways in which culture influences the perception of places and regions (e.g., religion and other belief systems, language and tradition; perceptions of "beautiful" or "valuable")
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the ways in which culture influences the perception of places
     2.Knows the ways in which culture influences the perception of regions
     3.Knows how religion and other belief systems influence the perception of places
     4.Knows how religion and other belief systems influence the perception of regions
     5.Knows how language influences the perception of places
     6.Knows how language influences the perception of regions
     7.Knows how traditions influence the perception of places
     8.Knows how traditions influence the perception of regions
     9.Knows ways that culture influences the perception of "beauty"
     10.Knows ways that culture influences the perception of "value"
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands why places and regions are important to individual human identity and as symbols for unifying or fragmenting society (e.g., sense of belonging, attachment, or rootedness; symbolic meaning of places such as Jerusalem as a holy city for Muslims, Christians, and Jews)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands why places are important to individual human identity
     2.Understands why places are important as symbols for unifying society
     3.Understands why places are important as symbols for fragmenting society
     4.Understands why regions are important to individual human identity
     5.Understands why regions are important as symbols for unifying society
     6.Understands why regions are important as symbols for fragmenting society
     7.Understands the symbolic meaning of Jerusalem as a holy city for Muslims
     8.Understands the symbolic meaning of Jerusalem as a holy city for Christians
     9.Understands the symbolic meaning of Jerusalem as a holy city for Jews
     10.Understands that humans may have a sense of belonging to specific places
     11.Understands that humans may have a sense of attachment to specific places
     12.Understands that humans may have a sense of rootedness to specific places
     13.Understands that humans may have a sense of belonging to specific regions
     14.Understands that humans may have a sense of attachment to specific regions
     15.Understands that humans may have a sense of rootedness to specific regions
   Benchmark 2.Understands how individuals view places and regions on the basis of their stage of life, sex, social class, ethnicity, values, and belief systems (e.g., perceptions of distance, impressions about what makes a place secure, views of public housing or wealthy urban neighborhoods)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how individuals view places on the basis of their stage of life
     2.Understands how individuals view places on the basis of their gender
     3.Understands how individuals view places on the basis of their social class
     4.Understands how individuals view places on the basis of their ethnicity
     5.Understands how individuals view places on the basis of their belief systems
     6.Understands how individuals view regions on the basis of their stage of life
     7.Understands how individuals view regions on the basis of their gender
     8.Understands how individuals view regions on the basis of their social class
     9.Understands how individuals view regions on the basis of their ethnicity
     10.Understands how individuals view regions on the basis of their belief systems
     11.Understands how individuals perceive distance differently
     12.Understands individual impressions about what makes a place secure based on personal experience
     13.Understands that individuals view public housing differently
     14.Understands that individuals view wealthy urban neighborhoods differently
   Benchmark 3.Knows ways in which people's changing views of places and regions reflect cultural change (e.g., rural settings becoming attractive as recreation areas to people living in densely populated cities, old mining ghost towns becoming tourist and gambling centers)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows ways in which people’s changing views of places reflect cultural change
     2.Knows ways in which people’s changing views of regions reflect cultural change
     3.Knows that rural settings have become attractive as recreation areas to people living in densely populated cities
     4.Knows that some old mining ghost towns have become tourist and gambling centers
 Standard 16.  Understands the changes that occur in the meaning, use, distribution and importance of resources
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the reasons for conflicting viewpoints regarding how resources should be used (e.g., attitudes toward electric cars, water-rationing, urban public transportation, use of fossil fuels, excessive timber cutting in old growth forests, buffalo in the western United States, soil conservation in semiarid areas)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the conflicting attitudes towards electric cars
     2.Understands the conflicting attitudes towards water-rationing
     3.Understands the conflicting attitudes towards urban public transportation
     4.Understands the conflicting attitudes towards the use of fossil fuels
     5.Understands the conflicting attitudes towards excessive timber cutting in old growth forests
     6.Understands the conflicting attitudes towards buffalo in the western United States
     7.Understands the conflicting attitudes towards soil conservation in semiarid areas
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands programs and positions related to the use of resources on a local to global scale (e.g., community regulations for water usage during drought periods; local recycling programs for glass, metal, plastic, and paper products; different points of view regarding uses of the Malaysian rain forests)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands positions related to the use of resources on a local to global scale
     5.Knows different points of view regarding uses of the Malaysian rain forests
 Standard 18.  Understands global development and environmental issues
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 3.Knows how differences in perception affect people's interpretations of the world (e.g., how different groups of people perceive the same place, environment, or event; how children raised in different societies have different views regarding personal life, education, and aspirations)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how different groups of people perceive the same place
     2.Knows how different groups of people perceive the same environment
     3.Knows how different groups of people perceive the same event
     4.Knows how children raised in different societies have different views regarding personal life
     5.Knows how children raised in different societies have different views regarding personal education
     6.Knows how children raised in different societies have different views regarding personal aspirations
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands why different points of view exist regarding contemporary geographic issues (e.g., a forester and a conservationist debating the use of a national forest, a man and a woman discussing gender-based divisions of labor in a developing nation)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands why a forester and a conservationist might have different point of view when debating the use of a national forest
     2.Understands why a man and a woman might have different point of view when discussing gender-based divisions of labor in a developing nation
     3.Knows there are different points of view regarding contemporary geographic issues