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Topic: Writing research papers 

Language Arts

 Standard 4.  Gathers and uses information for research purposes
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 1.Researches topics of personal interest (e.g., generate questions about a topic, participates in shared research projects, records observations).
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Identifies topics of personal interest
     2.Generates questions about a topic
     3.Participates in shared research projects
     4.Records observations on a research topic
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 1.Uses a variety of strategies to plan research (e.g., identifies possible topic by brainstorming, listing questions, using idea webs; organizes prior knowledge about a topic; develops a course of action; determines how to locate necessary information)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Determines how to locate necessary information
     2.Identifies possible topics by brainstorming
     3.Identifies possible topics by listing questions
     4.Identifies possible topics by using idea webs
     5.Organizes prior knowledge about topic
     6.Develops a course of action
   Benchmark 7.Uses strategies to gather and record information for research topics (e.g., uses notes, maps, charts, graphs, tables, and other graphic organizers; paraphrases and summarizes information; gathers direct quotes; provides narrative descriptions)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses strategies to gather information for research topics
     2.Uses strategies to record information for research topics
     3.Uses notes to record information appropriate to grades 3-5
     4.Uses maps to record information
     5.Uses charts to record information
     6.Uses graphs to record information
     7.Uses tables to record information
     8.Uses graphic organizers to record information
     9.Paraphrases information
     10.Summarizes information
     11.Gathers direct quotes
     12.Provides narrative descriptions
   Benchmark 8.Uses strategies to compile information into written reports or summaries (e.g., incorporates notes into a finished product; includes simple facts, details, explanations, and examples; draws conclusions from relationships and patterns that emerge from data from different sources; uses appropriate visual aids and media)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses strategies to compile information into written reports
     2.Uses strategies to compile information into written summaries
     3.Incorporates notes into finished product
     4.Includes simple facts in research report
     5.Includes details in research report
     6.Includes explanations in research report
     7.Includes examples in research reports
     8.Draws conclusions from relationships that emerge from data from different sources
     9.Draws conclusions from patterns that emerge from data from different sources
     10.Uses visual aids appropriate to grades 3-5
     11.Uses visual media in oral presentations appropriate to grades 3-5
   Benchmark 9.Cites information sources (e.g., quotes or paraphrases information sources, lists resources used by title)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Lists resources used by title
     2.Quotes information sources
     3.Cites information sources paraphrased in writing
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 3.Organizes information and ideas from multiple sources in systematic ways (e.g., time lines, outlines, notes, graphic representations)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses graphic representations to organize information and ideas
     2.Uses time lines to organize information and ideas from multiple sources
     3.Uses outlines to organize information and ideas from multiple sources
     4.Organizes notes from multiple sources in systematic ways
   Benchmark 4.Writes research papers (e.g., asks research questions, defines a topic, organizes information into major components and examines relationships among these components, addresses different perspectives on a topic, achieves balance between research information and original ideas, integrates a variety of information into a whole, draws conclusions)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Asks research questions to write research papers
     2.Defines a topic for research
     3.Organizes information into major components when writing research papers
     4.Examines critical relationships between and among elements of the research topic
     5.Addresses different perspectives on a research topic
     6.Achieves balance between research information and original ideas
     7.Integrates a variety of research information into a whole
     8.Draws conclusions about research topic
   Benchmark 5.Uses appropriate methods to cite and document reference sources (e.g., footnotes, bibliography)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses a bibliography to document reference sources
     2.Uses footnotes to document reference sources
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Uses appropriate research methodology (e.g., formulates questions and refines topics, develops a plan for research; organizes what is known about a topic; uses appropriate research methods, such as questionnaires, experiments, field studies; collects information to narrow and develop a topic and support a thesis)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Collects information to develop a topic
     2.Formulates research questions
     3.Refines research topics
     4.Develops a plan for research
     5.Organizes what is known about the topic
     6.Uses appropriate research methods
     7.Uses questionnaires for research
     8.Uses experiments for research
     9.Uses field studies for research
     10.Collects information to narrow a topic
     11.Collects information to support a thesis
   Benchmark 5.Synthesizes information from multiple sources to draw conclusions that go beyond those found in any of the individual sources
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Synthesizes information from multiple sources
     2.Draws conclusions that go beyond those found in any individual source
   Benchmark 6.Uses systematic strategies (e.g., anecdotal scripting, annotated bibliographies, graphics, conceptual maps, learning logs, notes, outlines, technology) to organize and record information
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses systematic strategies to organize information
     2.Uses systematic strategies to record information
     3.Uses anecdotal scripting to organize information
     4.Uses anecdotal scripting to record information
     5.Uses annotated bibliographies to organize information
     6.Uses annotated bibliographies to record information
     7.Uses graphics to organize information
     8.Uses graphics to record information
     9.Uses conceptual maps to organize information
     10.Uses conceptual maps to record information
     11.Uses learning logs to organize information
     12.Uses learning logs to record information
     13.Uses notes to organize information
     14.Uses notes to record information appropriate to 9-12
     15.Uses outlines to organize information
     16.Uses outlines to record information
   Benchmark 8.Writes research papers (e.g., includes a thesis statement; synthesizes information into a logical sequence; paraphrases ideas and connects them to other sources and related topics; identifies complexities and discrepancies in information; addresses different perspectives; organizes and converts information into different forms such as charts, graphs, and drawings; integrates quotations and citations into flow of paper; adapts researched material for presentation to different audiences and for different purposes)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Adapts research material for different purposes
     2.Includes a thesis statement in the research paper
     3.Synthesizes information into a logical sequence
     4.Paraphrases ideas
     5.Connects ideas to other sources
     6.Connects ideas to related topics
     7.Identifies complexities in information
     8.Identifies discrepancies in information
     9.Addresses different perspectives
     10.Organizes information into charts
     11.Organizes information into graphs
     12.Organizes information into drawings
     13.Organizes information into different forms
     14.Converts information into different forms
     15.Converts information into graphs
     16.Converts information into charts
     17.Converts information into drawings
     18.Integrates quotations into the flow of the paper
     19.Adapts research material for presentation to different audiences
   Benchmark 9.Use standard format and methodology for documenting reference sources (e.g., credits quotations and paraphrased ideas; understands the meaning and consequences of plagiarism; distinguishes own ideas from others; uses a style sheet method for citing sources, such as the Modern Language Association, American Psychological Association, or Chicago Manual of Style; includes a bibliography of reference material)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses standard format for documenting reference sources
     2.Uses methodology for documenting reference sources
     3.Credits quotes to their sources
     4.Uses paraphrased ideas for documenting reference sources
     5.Understands meaning of plagiarism
     6.Understands consequences of plagiarism
     7.Distinguishes own ideas from others’
     8.Uses style sheet method for citing sources
     9.Uses Modern Language Association format for citing sources
     10.Uses American Psychological Association format for citing sources
     11.Uses Chicago Manual of Style format for citing sources
     12.Includes a bibliography of reference material