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Topic: Writing process 

Language Arts

 Standard 1.  Uses the general skills and strategies of the writing process
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 1.Prewriting: Uses prewriting strategies to plan written work (e.g., discusses ideas with peers, draws pictures to generate ideas, writes key thoughts and questions, rehearses ideas, records reactions and observations)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Records observations as a pre-writing strategy
     2.Discusses ideas with peers as a pre-writing strategy
     3.Draws pictures to generate ideas for writing
     4.Writes key thoughts to generate ideas for writing
     5.Writes questions to generate ideas for writing
     6.Rehearses ideas for writing
     7.Records reactions to ideas or topics as a pre-writing strategy
   Benchmark 2.Drafting and Revising: Uses strategies to draft and revise written work (e.g., rereads; rearranges words, sentences, and paragraphs to improve or clarify meaning; varies sentence type; adds descriptive words and details; deletes extraneous information; incorporates suggestions from peers and teachers; sharpens the focus)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses strategies to draft written work appropriate to grades K-2
     2.Uses strategies to revise written work appropriate to grades K-2
     3.Rereads own writing to aid drafting and revision
     4.Rearranges words to improve sequence during drafting and revision
     5.Rearranges sentences to improve sequence during drafting and revision
     6.Rearranges paragraphs to improve sequence during drafting and revision
     7.Rearranges words to clarify meaning during drafting and revision
     8.Rearranges sentences to clarify meaning during drafting and revision
     9.Rearranges paragraphs to clarify meaning during drafting and revision
     10.Varies sentence types during drafting and revision
     11.Adds descriptive words to writing during drafting and revision
     12.Adds descriptive details to writing during drafting and revision
     13.Deletes extraneous information from written work during drafting and revision
     14.Incorporates suggestions from peers into writing during drafting and revision
     15.Incorporates suggestions from teachers into writing during drafting and revision
     16.Sharpens focus of writing during drafting and revision
   Benchmark 3.Editing and Publishing: Uses strategies to edit and publish written work (e.g., proofreads using a dictionary and other resources; edits for grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling at a developmentally appropriate level; incorporates illustrations or photos; uses available, appropriate technology to publish work; use legible handwriting, shares finished product)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses strategies appropriate to grades K-2 to edit written work
     2.Uses strategies to publish written work
     3.Proofreads writing using dictionary
     4.Proofreads written work using other resources
     5.Edits written work for grammar appropriate to grades K-2
     6.Edits written work for punctuation appropriate to grades K-2
     7.Edits written work for capitalization appropriate to grades K-2
     8.Edits written work for spelling at developmentally appropriate level appropriate to grades K-2
     9.Incorporates illustrations appropriate to grades K-2
     10.Incorporates photos appropriate to grades K-2
     11.Uses technology to compose work appropriate to grades K-2
     12.Uses technology to publish work appropriate to grades K-2
     13.Shares finished product
   Benchmark 4.Evaluates own and others’ writing (e.g., asks questions and makes comments about writing, helps classmates apply grammatical and mechanical conventions)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Evaluates own writing appropriate to grades K-2
     2.Evaluates others’ writing appropriate to grades K-2
     3.Asks questions about writing
     4.Makes comments about writing
     5.Helps classmates apply grammatical conventions
     6.Helps classmates apply mechanical conventions
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 1.Prewriting: Uses prewriting strategies to plan written work (e.g., uses graphic organizers, story maps, and webs; groups related ideas; takes notes; brainstorms ideas; organizes information according to type and purpose of writing)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Organizes information according to the purpose of the writing
     2.Uses graphic organizers to plan written work
     3.Uses story maps to plan written work
     4.Uses webs to plan written work
     5.Groups related ideas
     6.Takes notes to plan written work
     7.Brainstorms ideas appropriate to grades 3-5
     8.Organizes information according to the type of writing
   Benchmark 2.Drafting and Revising: Uses strategies to draft and revise written work (e.g., elaborates on a central idea; writes with attention to audience, word choice, sentence variation; uses paragraphs to develop separate ideas; produces multiple drafts; selects punctuation for effect)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses strategies to draft written work appropriate to grades 3-5
     2.Uses strategies to revise written work appropriate to grades 3-5
     3.Elaborates on a central idea
     4.Writes with attention to audience
     5.Writes with attention to word choice
     6.Writes with attention to sentence variation
     7.Uses paragraphs to develop separate ideas
     8.Produces multiple drafts
     9.Selects punctuation for effect
   Benchmark 3.Editing and Publishing: Uses strategies to edit and publish written work (e.g., edits for grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling at a developmentally appropriate level; uses reference materials; excludes extraneous details and inconsistencies; selects presentation format according to purpose; uses available technology to publish work)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses strategies appropriate to grades 3-5 to edit written work
     2.Uses strategies to publish written work appropriate to grades 3-5
     3.Edits written work for grammar appropriate to grades 3-5
     4.Edits written work for punctuation appropriate to grades 3-5
     5.Edits written work for capitalization appropriate to grades 3-5
     6.Edits written work for spelling at developmentally appropriate level appropriate to grades 3-5
     7.Uses reference materials to edit writing
     8.Considers page format
     9.Considers format of paragraphs
     10.Considers format of margins
     11.Considers format of indentations
     12.Considers format of titles
     13.Selects presentation format according to purpose
     14.Incorporates photos appropriate to grades 3-5
     15.Incorporates illustrations appropriate to grades 3-5
     16.Incorporates graphs
     17.Incorporates charts
     18.Uses technology to compose work appropriate to grades 3-5
     19.Uses technology to publish work appropriate to grades 3-5
     20.Excludes extraneous details
     21.Excludes inconsistencies
   Benchmark 4.Evaluates own and others’ writing (e.g., determines the best features of a piece of writing, determines how own writing achieves its purposes, asks for feedback, responds to classmates’ writing)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Evaluates own writing appropriate to grades 3-5
     2.Evaluates others’ writing appropriate to grades 3-5
     3.Determines the best features of a piece of writing
     4.Determines how own writing achieves its purposes
     5.Asks for feedback
     6.Responds to classmates’ writing
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 1.Prewriting: Uses a variety of prewriting strategies (e.g., makes outlines, uses published pieces as writing models, constructs critical standards, brainstorms, builds background knowledge)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Builds background knowledge as a prewriting strategy
     2.Makes outlines as a prewriting strategy
     3.Uses published pieces as writing models as a prewriting strategy
     4.Constructs critical standards as a prewriting strategy
     5.Brainstorms ideas appropriate to grades 6-8 as a prewriting strategy
   Benchmark 2.Drafting and Revising: Uses a variety of strategies to draft and revise written work (e.g., analyzes and clarifies meaning, makes structural and syntactical changes, uses an organizational scheme, uses sensory words and figurative language, rethinks and rewrites for different audiences and purposes, checks for a consistent point of view and for transitions between paragraphs, uses direct feedback to revise compositions, eliminates redundancy in writing)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses strategies to draft written work appropriate to grades 6-8
     2.Uses strategies to revise written work appropriate to grades 6-8
     3.Analyzes meaning of own writing during drafting and revision
     4.Clarifies meaning of own writing during drafting and revision
     5.Makes structural changes to own writing during drafting and revision
     6.Makes syntactical changes to own writing during drafting and revision
     7.Uses organizational scheme in own writing during drafting and revision
     8.Uses sensory words
     9.Uses figurative language
     10.Rethinks writing for different audiences during drafting and revision
     11.Rethinks writing for different purposes during drafting and revision
     12.Rewrites writing for different audiences during drafting and revision
     13.Rewrites for different purposes
     14.Checks for consistent point of view during drafting and revision
     15.Checks for transitions between paragraphs during drafting and revision
     16.Uses direct feedback to revise compositions
     17.Eliminates redundancy in writing
   Benchmark 3.Editing and Publishing: Uses a variety of strategies to edit and publish written work (e.g., eliminates slang; edits for grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling at a developmentally appropriate level; proofreads using reference materials, word processor, and other resources; edits for clarity, word choice, and language usage; uses a word processor or other technology to publish written work)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses strategies appropriate to grades 6-8 to edit written work
     2.Uses strategies to publish written work
     3.Eliminates slang in writing
     4.Edits for grammar appropriate to grades 6-8
     5.Edits for punctuation appropriate to grades 6-8
     6.Edits for capitalization appropriate to grades 6-8
     7.Edits for spelling at developmentally appropriate level appropriate to grades 6-8
     8.Proofreads written work using reference materials
     9.Proofreads written work using word processor
     10.Proofreads written work using other resources
     11.Edits writing for clarity
     12.Edits writing for word choice
     13.Edits writing for language usage
     14.Uses word processor to publish written work
     15.Uses technology to publish work appropriate to grades 6-8
   Benchmark 4.Evaluates own and others’ writing (e.g., applies criteria generated by self and others, uses self-assessment to set and achieve goals as a writer, participates in peer response groups)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Evaluates own writing appropriate to grades 6-8
     2.Evaluates others’ writing appropriate to grades 6-8
     3.Applies writing criteria generated by self
     4.Applies writing criteria generated by others
     5.Uses self-assessment to set and achieve goals as writer
     7.Participates in peer response writing groups
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Prewriting: Uses a variety of prewriting strategies (e.g., develops a focus, plans a sequence of ideas, uses structured overviews, uses speed writing, creates diagrams)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Creates diagrams
     2.Develops a focus
     3.Plans a sequence of ideas
     4.Uses structured overviews
     5.Uses speed writing
   Benchmark 2.Drafting and Revising: Uses a variety of strategies to draft and revise written work (e.g., highlights individual voice; rethinks content, organization, and style; checks accuracy and depth of information; redrafts for readability and needs of readers; reviews writing to ensure that content and linguistic structures are consistent with purpose)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses strategies to draft written work appropriate to 9-12
     2.Uses strategies to revise written work appropriate to 9-12
     3.Highlights individual voice
     4.Rethinks content
     5.Rethinks organization
     6.Rethinks style
     7.Checks accuracy of information
     8.Checks depth of information
     9.Redrafts for readability
     10.Redrafts for the needs of readers
     11.Reviews writing to ensure content is consistent with purpose
     12.Reviews writing to ensure linguistic structures are consistent with purpose
   Benchmark 3.Editing and Publishing: Uses a variety of strategies to edit and publish written work (e.g., uses a checklist to guide proofreading; edits for grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling at a developmentally appropriate level; uses resources to resolve issues of complex or contested usage; refines selected pieces to publish for general and specific audiences; uses available technology, such as publishing software or graphics programs, to publish written work)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses strategies appropriate to grades 9-12 to edit written work
     2.Uses strategies to publish written work
     3.Uses checklist to guide proofreading
     4. Edits for grammar appropriate to 9-12
     5.Edits for punctuation appropriate to 9-12
     6.Edits for capitalization appropriate to 9-12
     7.Edits for spelling at developmentally appropriate level appropriate to 9-12
     8.Uses resources to resolve issues of complex usage
     9.Uses resources to resolve issues of contested usage
     10.Refines selected pieces to publish for general audiences
     11.Refines selected pieces to publish for specific audiences
     12.Uses technology to publish work appropriate to 9-12
     13.Uses publishing software to publish written work
     14.Uses graphics programs to publish written work
   Benchmark 4.Evaluates own and others’ writing (e.g., accumulates a body of written work to determine strengths and weaknesses as a writer, makes suggestions to improve writing, responds productively to reviews of own work)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Evaluates own writing appropriate to 9-12
     2.Evaluates others’ writing appropriate to 9-12
     3.Accumulates a body of written work to determine strengths as a writer
     4.Accumulates a body of written work to determine weaknesses as a writer
     5.Makes suggestions to improve writing
     6.Responds productively to reviews of own work