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Topic: Writing for audience and purpose 

Language Arts

 Standard 1.  Uses the general skills and strategies of the writing process
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 1.Prewriting: Uses prewriting strategies to plan written work (e.g., uses graphic organizers, story maps, and webs; groups related ideas; takes notes; brainstorms ideas; organizes information according to type and purpose of writing)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Organizes information according to the purpose of the writing
     2.Uses graphic organizers to plan written work
     3.Uses story maps to plan written work
     4.Uses webs to plan written work
     5.Groups related ideas
     6.Takes notes to plan written work
     7.Brainstorms ideas appropriate to grades 3-5
     8.Organizes information according to the type of writing
   Benchmark 2.Drafting and Revising: Uses strategies to draft and revise written work (e.g., elaborates on a central idea; writes with attention to audience, word choice, sentence variation; uses paragraphs to develop separate ideas; produces multiple drafts; selects punctuation for effect)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses strategies to draft written work appropriate to grades 3-5
     2.Uses strategies to revise written work appropriate to grades 3-5
     3.Elaborates on a central idea
     4.Writes with attention to audience
     5.Writes with attention to word choice
     6.Writes with attention to sentence variation
     7.Uses paragraphs to develop separate ideas
     8.Produces multiple drafts
     9.Selects punctuation for effect
   Benchmark 3.Editing and Publishing: Uses strategies to edit and publish written work (e.g., edits for grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling at a developmentally appropriate level; uses reference materials; excludes extraneous details and inconsistencies; selects presentation format according to purpose; uses available technology to publish work)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses strategies appropriate to grades 3-5 to edit written work
     2.Uses strategies to publish written work appropriate to grades 3-5
     3.Edits written work for grammar appropriate to grades 3-5
     4.Edits written work for punctuation appropriate to grades 3-5
     5.Edits written work for capitalization appropriate to grades 3-5
     6.Edits written work for spelling at developmentally appropriate level appropriate to grades 3-5
     7.Uses reference materials to edit writing
     8.Considers page format
     9.Considers format of paragraphs
     10.Considers format of margins
     11.Considers format of indentations
     12.Considers format of titles
     13.Selects presentation format according to purpose
     14.Incorporates photos appropriate to grades 3-5
     15.Incorporates illustrations appropriate to grades 3-5
     16.Incorporates graphs
     17.Incorporates charts
     18.Uses technology to compose work appropriate to grades 3-5
     19.Uses technology to publish work appropriate to grades 3-5
     20.Excludes extraneous details
     21.Excludes inconsistencies
   Benchmark 4.Evaluates own and others’ writing (e.g., determines the best features of a piece of writing, determines how own writing achieves its purposes, asks for feedback, responds to classmates’ writing)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Evaluates own writing appropriate to grades 3-5
     2.Evaluates others’ writing appropriate to grades 3-5
     3.Determines the best features of a piece of writing
     4.Determines how own writing achieves its purposes
     5.Asks for feedback
     6.Responds to classmates’ writing
   Benchmark 5.Uses strategies (e.g., adapts focus, organization, point of view; determines knowledge and interests of audience) to write for different audiences (e.g., self, peers, teachers, adults)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Determines interests of the audience when writing for adults
     2.Uses strategies to write for self
     3.Uses strategies to write for peers
     4.Uses strategies to write for teachers
     5.Uses strategies to write for adults
     6.Adapts focus to write for different audiences
     7.Adapts focus to write for self
     8.Adapts focus to write for peers
     9.Adapts focus to write for teachers
     11.Uses organization to write for different audiences
     12.Uses organization to write for self
     13.Uses organization to write for peers
     14.Uses organization to write for teachers
     15.Uses organization to write for adults
     16.Uses point of view to write for different audiences
     17.Uses point of view to write for self
     18.Uses point of view to write for peers
     19.Uses point of view to write for teachers
     20.Uses point of view to write for adults
     21.Determines knowledge of audience when writing for different audiences
     22.Determines knowledge of audience when writing for peers
     23.Determines knowledge of audience when writing for teachers
     24.Determines knowledge of audience when writing for adults
     25.Determines interests of audience when writing for different audiences
     26.Determines interests of audience when writing for peers
     27.Determines interests of audience when writing for teachers
   Benchmark 6.Uses strategies (e.g., adapts focus, point of view, organization, form) to write for a variety of purposes (e.g., to inform, entertain, explain, describe, record ideas)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses form when writing to record ideas
     2.Uses strategies when writing to inform appropriate to grades 3-5
     3.Uses strategies when writing to entertain appropriate to grades 3-5
     4.Uses strategies when writing to explain appropriate to grades 3-5
     5.Uses strategies when writing to describe
     6.Uses strategies when writing to record ideas
     7.Adapts focus when writing for a variety of purposes
     8.Adapts focus when writing to inform
     9.Adapts focus when writing to entertain
     10.Adapts focus when writing to explain
     11.Adapts focus when writing to describe
     12.Adapts focus when writing to record ideas
     13.Uses point of view to write for a variety of purposes
     14.Uses point of view when writing to inform
     15.Uses point of view when writing to entertain
     16.Uses point of view when writing to explain
     17.Uses point of view when writing to describe
     18.Uses point of view when writing to record ideas
     19.Uses organization to write for a variety of purposes
     20.Uses organization when writing to inform
     21.Uses organization when writing to entertain
     22.Uses organization when writing to explain
     23.Uses organization when writing to describe
     24.Uses organization when writing to record ideas
     25.Uses form to write for a variety of purposes
     26.Uses form when writing to inform
     27.Uses form when writing to entertain
     28.Uses form when writing to explain
     29.Uses form when writing to describe
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 2.Drafting and Revising: Uses a variety of strategies to draft and revise written work (e.g., analyzes and clarifies meaning, makes structural and syntactical changes, uses an organizational scheme, uses sensory words and figurative language, rethinks and rewrites for different audiences and purposes, checks for a consistent point of view and for transitions between paragraphs, uses direct feedback to revise compositions, eliminates redundancy in writing)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses strategies to draft written work appropriate to grades 6-8
     2.Uses strategies to revise written work appropriate to grades 6-8
     3.Analyzes meaning of own writing during drafting and revision
     4.Clarifies meaning of own writing during drafting and revision
     5.Makes structural changes to own writing during drafting and revision
     6.Makes syntactical changes to own writing during drafting and revision
     7.Uses organizational scheme in own writing during drafting and revision
     8.Uses sensory words
     9.Uses figurative language
     10.Rethinks writing for different audiences during drafting and revision
     11.Rethinks writing for different purposes during drafting and revision
     12.Rewrites writing for different audiences during drafting and revision
     13.Rewrites for different purposes
     14.Checks for consistent point of view during drafting and revision
     15.Checks for transitions between paragraphs during drafting and revision
     16.Uses direct feedback to revise compositions
     17.Eliminates redundancy in writing
   Benchmark 5.Uses content, style, and structure (e.g., formal or informal language, genre, organization) appropriate for specific audiences (e.g., public, private) and purposes (e.g., to entertain, to influence, to inform)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses a written structure appropriate for specific audiences
     2.Uses content appropriate for specific audiences when writing
     3.Uses style appropriate for specific audiences when writing
     4.Uses formal language appropriate for specific audiences when writing
     5.Uses informal language appropriate for specific audiences
     6.Uses genre appropriate for specific audiences
     7.Uses organization appropriate for specific audiences
     8.Uses structure appropriate for specific purposes
     9.Uses content appropriate for specific purposes
     10.Uses style appropriate for specific purposes
     11.Uses formal language appropriate for specific purposes
     12.Uses informal language appropriate for specific purposes
     13.Uses genre appropriate for specific purposes
     14.Uses organization appropriate for specific purposes
     15.Uses structure appropriate for public audiences
     16.Uses structure appropriate for private audiences
     17.Uses content appropriate for public audiences
     18.Uses content appropriate for private audiences
     19.Uses style appropriate for public audiences
     20.Uses style appropriate for private audiences
     21.Uses formal language appropriate for private audiences
     22.Uses formal language appropriate for public audiences
     23.Uses informal language appropriate for public audiences
     24.Uses informal language appropriate for private audiences
     25.Uses genre appropriate for public audiences
     26.Uses genre appropriate for private audiences
     27.Uses organization appropriate for public audiences
     28.Uses organization appropriate for private audiences
     29.Uses structure appropriate to entertain
     30.Uses structure appropriate to influence
     31.Uses structure appropriate to inform
     32.Uses content appropriate to entertain
     33.Uses content appropriate to influence
     34.Uses content appropriate to inform
     35.Uses style appropriate to entertain
     36.Uses style appropriate to influence
     37.Uses style appropriate to inform
     38.Uses formal language appropriate to entertain
     39.Uses formal language appropriate to influence
     40.Uses formal language appropriate to inform
     41.Uses informal language appropriate to entertain
     42.Uses informal language appropriate to influence
     43.Uses informal language appropriate to inform
     44.Uses genre appropriate to entertain
     45.Uses genre appropriate to influence
     46.Uses genre appropriate to inform
     47.Uses organization appropriate to entertain
     48.Uses organization appropriate to influence
     49.Uses organization appropriate to inform
   Benchmark 7.Writes narrative accounts, such as short stories (e.g., engages the reader by establishing a context and otherwise developing reader interest; establishes a situation, plot, persona, point of view, setting, conflict, and resolution; develops complex characters; creates an organizational structure that uses appropriate pacing, transitions to sequence events, and balances and unifies all narrative aspects of the story; uses a range of strategies and literary devices such as dialogue, tension, suspense, figurative language, and specific narrative action such as movement, gestures, and expressions; reveals a specific theme)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Engages the reader in the story by establishing a context
     2.Develops the reader’s interest
     3.Establishes a situation in narrative writing
     4.Establishes a plot in narrative writing
     5.Establishes a persona in narrative writing
     6.Establishes a point of view in narrative writing
     7.Establishes a setting in narrative writing
     8.Establishes a conflict in narrative writing
     9.Establishes a resolution in narrative writing
     10.Develops complex characters in narrative writing
     11.Creates an organizational structure that balances the narrative aspects of the story
     12.Creates an organizational structure that unifies the narrative aspects of the story
     13.Uses dialogue in narrative writing appropriate to grades 6-8
     14.Uses tension in narrative writing appropriate to grades 6-8
     15.Uses suspense in narrative writing appropriate to grades 6-8
     16.Uses figurative language in narrative writing
     17.Uses specific narrative action in narrative writing
     18.Uses movement in narrative writing
     19.Uses gestures in narrative writing
     20.Uses expression in narrative writing
     21.Reveals a specific theme in narrative writing
     22.Creates an organizational structure that uses appropriate pacing
     23.Creates an organizational structure that uses transitions to sequence events
   Benchmark 11.Writes compositions that address problems/solutions (e.g., identifies and defines a problem in a way appropriate to the intended audience, describes at least one solution, presents logical and well-supported reasons)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Presents well-supported reasons
     2.Identifies a problem in a way appropriate to the intended audience
     3.Defines a problem in a way appropriate to the intended audience
     4.Describes solutions to the problem
     5.Presents logical reasons
   Benchmark 13.Writes business letters and letters of request and response (e.g., uses business letter format; states purpose of the letter; relates opinions, problems, requests, or compliments; uses precise vocabulary)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Writes business letters
     2.Writes letters of request
     3.Writes letters of response
     4.Uses a business letter format
     5.States purpose of letter
     6.Relates opinions in letter
     7.Relates problems in letter
     8.Relates requests in letter
     9.Relates compliments in letter
     10.Uses precise vocabulary in letter
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Drafting and Revising: Uses a variety of strategies to draft and revise written work (e.g., highlights individual voice; rethinks content, organization, and style; checks accuracy and depth of information; redrafts for readability and needs of readers; reviews writing to ensure that content and linguistic structures are consistent with purpose)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses strategies to draft written work appropriate to 9-12
     2.Uses strategies to revise written work appropriate to 9-12
     3.Highlights individual voice
     4.Rethinks content
     5.Rethinks organization
     6.Rethinks style
     7.Checks accuracy of information
     8.Checks depth of information
     9.Redrafts for readability
     10.Redrafts for the needs of readers
     11.Reviews writing to ensure content is consistent with purpose
     12.Reviews writing to ensure linguistic structures are consistent with purpose
   Benchmark 3.Editing and Publishing: Uses a variety of strategies to edit and publish written work (e.g., uses a checklist to guide proofreading; edits for grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling at a developmentally appropriate level; uses resources to resolve issues of complex or contested usage; refines selected pieces to publish for general and specific audiences; uses available technology, such as publishing software or graphics programs, to publish written work)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses strategies appropriate to grades 9-12 to edit written work
     2.Uses strategies to publish written work
     3.Uses checklist to guide proofreading
     4. Edits for grammar appropriate to 9-12
     5.Edits for punctuation appropriate to 9-12
     6.Edits for capitalization appropriate to 9-12
     7.Edits for spelling at developmentally appropriate level appropriate to 9-12
     8.Uses resources to resolve issues of complex usage
     9.Uses resources to resolve issues of contested usage
     10.Refines selected pieces to publish for general audiences
     11.Refines selected pieces to publish for specific audiences
     12.Uses technology to publish work appropriate to 9-12
     13.Uses publishing software to publish written work
     14.Uses graphics programs to publish written work
   Benchmark 5.Uses strategies to address writing to different audiences (e.g., includes explanations and definitions according to the audience’s background, age, or knowledge of the topic, adjusts formality of style, considers interests of potential readers)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Considers the interests of potential readers
     2.Includes explanations according to the audience’s background
     3.Includes explanations according to the audience’s age
     4.Includes explanations according to the audience’s knowledge on the topic
     5.Includes definitions according to the audience’s background
     6.Includes definitions according to the audience’s age
     7.Includes definitions according to the audience’s knowledge on the topic
     8.Adjusts the formality of style depending on the audience
   Benchmark 6.Uses strategies to adapt writing for different purposes (e.g., to explain, inform, analyze, entertain, reflect, persuade)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses strategies when writing to persuade
     2.Uses strategies when writing to explain appropriate to 9-12
     3.Uses strategies when writing to inform appropriate to 9-12
     4.Uses strategies when writing to analyze
     5.Uses strategies when writing to entertain appropriate to 9-12
     6.Uses strategies when writing to reflect
 Standard 2.  Uses the stylistic and rhetorical aspects of writing
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Uses precise and descriptive language that clarifies and enhances ideas and supports different purposes (e.g., to stimulate the imagination of the reader, to translate concepts into simpler or more easily understood terms, to achieve a specific tone, to explain concepts in literature)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses precise language that clarifies and enhances ideas
     2.Uses descriptive language that clarifies and enhances ideas
     3.Uses language appropriate to different purposes
     4.Uses language that stimulates the imagination of the reader
     5.Uses appropriate language to translate concepts into simpler or more easily understood terms
     6.Uses language to achieve a specific tone
     7.Uses appropriate language to explain concepts in literature
 Standard 4.  Gathers and uses information for research purposes
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 8.Writes research papers (e.g., includes a thesis statement; synthesizes information into a logical sequence; paraphrases ideas and connects them to other sources and related topics; identifies complexities and discrepancies in information; addresses different perspectives; organizes and converts information into different forms such as charts, graphs, and drawings; integrates quotations and citations into flow of paper; adapts researched material for presentation to different audiences and for different purposes)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Adapts research material for different purposes
     2.Includes a thesis statement in the research paper
     3.Synthesizes information into a logical sequence
     4.Paraphrases ideas
     5.Connects ideas to other sources
     6.Connects ideas to related topics
     7.Identifies complexities in information
     8.Identifies discrepancies in information
     9.Addresses different perspectives
     10.Organizes information into charts
     11.Organizes information into graphs
     12.Organizes information into drawings
     13.Organizes information into different forms
     14.Converts information into different forms
     15.Converts information into graphs
     16.Converts information into charts
     17.Converts information into drawings
     18.Integrates quotations into the flow of the paper
     19.Adapts research material for presentation to different audiences