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Topic: Style, diction, and voice 

Language Arts

 Standard 1.  Uses the general skills and strategies of the writing process
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 2.Drafting and Revising: Uses strategies to draft and revise written work (e.g., rereads; rearranges words, sentences, and paragraphs to improve or clarify meaning; varies sentence type; adds descriptive words and details; deletes extraneous information; incorporates suggestions from peers and teachers; sharpens the focus)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses strategies to draft written work appropriate to grades K-2
     2.Uses strategies to revise written work appropriate to grades K-2
     3.Rereads own writing to aid drafting and revision
     4.Rearranges words to improve sequence during drafting and revision
     5.Rearranges sentences to improve sequence during drafting and revision
     6.Rearranges paragraphs to improve sequence during drafting and revision
     7.Rearranges words to clarify meaning during drafting and revision
     8.Rearranges sentences to clarify meaning during drafting and revision
     9.Rearranges paragraphs to clarify meaning during drafting and revision
     10.Varies sentence types during drafting and revision
     11.Adds descriptive words to writing during drafting and revision
     12.Adds descriptive details to writing during drafting and revision
     13.Deletes extraneous information from written work during drafting and revision
     14.Incorporates suggestions from peers into writing during drafting and revision
     15.Incorporates suggestions from teachers into writing during drafting and revision
     16.Sharpens focus of writing during drafting and revision
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 2.Drafting and Revising: Uses strategies to draft and revise written work (e.g., elaborates on a central idea; writes with attention to audience, word choice, sentence variation; uses paragraphs to develop separate ideas; produces multiple drafts; selects punctuation for effect)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses strategies to draft written work appropriate to grades 3-5
     2.Uses strategies to revise written work appropriate to grades 3-5
     3.Elaborates on a central idea
     4.Writes with attention to audience
     5.Writes with attention to word choice
     6.Writes with attention to sentence variation
     7.Uses paragraphs to develop separate ideas
     8.Produces multiple drafts
     9.Selects punctuation for effect
   Benchmark 5.Uses strategies (e.g., adapts focus, organization, point of view; determines knowledge and interests of audience) to write for different audiences (e.g., self, peers, teachers, adults)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Determines interests of the audience when writing for adults
     2.Uses strategies to write for self
     3.Uses strategies to write for peers
     4.Uses strategies to write for teachers
     5.Uses strategies to write for adults
     6.Adapts focus to write for different audiences
     7.Adapts focus to write for self
     8.Adapts focus to write for peers
     9.Adapts focus to write for teachers
     11.Uses organization to write for different audiences
     12.Uses organization to write for self
     13.Uses organization to write for peers
     14.Uses organization to write for teachers
     15.Uses organization to write for adults
     16.Uses point of view to write for different audiences
     17.Uses point of view to write for self
     18.Uses point of view to write for peers
     19.Uses point of view to write for teachers
     20.Uses point of view to write for adults
     21.Determines knowledge of audience when writing for different audiences
     22.Determines knowledge of audience when writing for peers
     23.Determines knowledge of audience when writing for teachers
     24.Determines knowledge of audience when writing for adults
     25.Determines interests of audience when writing for different audiences
     26.Determines interests of audience when writing for peers
     27.Determines interests of audience when writing for teachers
   Benchmark 6.Uses strategies (e.g., adapts focus, point of view, organization, form) to write for a variety of purposes (e.g., to inform, entertain, explain, describe, record ideas)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses form when writing to record ideas
     2.Uses strategies when writing to inform appropriate to grades 3-5
     3.Uses strategies when writing to entertain appropriate to grades 3-5
     4.Uses strategies when writing to explain appropriate to grades 3-5
     5.Uses strategies when writing to describe
     6.Uses strategies when writing to record ideas
     7.Adapts focus when writing for a variety of purposes
     8.Adapts focus when writing to inform
     9.Adapts focus when writing to entertain
     10.Adapts focus when writing to explain
     11.Adapts focus when writing to describe
     12.Adapts focus when writing to record ideas
     13.Uses point of view to write for a variety of purposes
     14.Uses point of view when writing to inform
     15.Uses point of view when writing to entertain
     16.Uses point of view when writing to explain
     17.Uses point of view when writing to describe
     18.Uses point of view when writing to record ideas
     19.Uses organization to write for a variety of purposes
     20.Uses organization when writing to inform
     21.Uses organization when writing to entertain
     22.Uses organization when writing to explain
     23.Uses organization when writing to describe
     24.Uses organization when writing to record ideas
     25.Uses form to write for a variety of purposes
     26.Uses form when writing to inform
     27.Uses form when writing to entertain
     28.Uses form when writing to explain
     29.Uses form when writing to describe
   Benchmark 8.Writes narrative accounts, such as poems and stories (e.g., establishes a context that enables the reader to imagine the event or experience; develops characters, setting, and plot; creates an organizing structure; uses transitions to sequence events; uses concrete sensory details; uses strategies such as dialogue, tension, and suspense; uses an identifiable voice)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses suspense appropriate to grades 3-5
     2.Writes poems
     3.Writes stories appropriate to grades 3-5
     4.Establishes context to enable reader to imagine the event or experience
     5.Develops characters
     6.Develops setting
     7.Develops plot
     8.Creates an organizing structure
     9.Sequences events
     10.Uses transitions to sequence events
     11.Uses concrete sensory details
     12.Uses dialogue in narrative writing appropriate to grades 3-5
     13.Uses tension appropriate to grades 3-5
   Benchmark 10.Writes expressive compositions (e.g., expresses ideas, reflections, and observations; uses an individual, authentic voice; uses narrative strategies, relevant details, and ideas that enable the reader to imagine the world of the event or experience)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses ideas that enable reader to imagine the world of the event or experience
     2.Expresses ideas
     3.Expresses reflections
     4.Expresses observations
     5.Uses an individual, authentic voice
     6.Uses narrative strategies
     7.Uses relevant details
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 2.Drafting and Revising: Uses a variety of strategies to draft and revise written work (e.g., analyzes and clarifies meaning, makes structural and syntactical changes, uses an organizational scheme, uses sensory words and figurative language, rethinks and rewrites for different audiences and purposes, checks for a consistent point of view and for transitions between paragraphs, uses direct feedback to revise compositions, eliminates redundancy in writing)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses strategies to draft written work appropriate to grades 6-8
     2.Uses strategies to revise written work appropriate to grades 6-8
     3.Analyzes meaning of own writing during drafting and revision
     4.Clarifies meaning of own writing during drafting and revision
     5.Makes structural changes to own writing during drafting and revision
     6.Makes syntactical changes to own writing during drafting and revision
     7.Uses organizational scheme in own writing during drafting and revision
     8.Uses sensory words
     9.Uses figurative language
     10.Rethinks writing for different audiences during drafting and revision
     11.Rethinks writing for different purposes during drafting and revision
     12.Rewrites writing for different audiences during drafting and revision
     13.Rewrites for different purposes
     14.Checks for consistent point of view during drafting and revision
     15.Checks for transitions between paragraphs during drafting and revision
     16.Uses direct feedback to revise compositions
     17.Eliminates redundancy in writing
   Benchmark 3.Editing and Publishing: Uses a variety of strategies to edit and publish written work (e.g., eliminates slang; edits for grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling at a developmentally appropriate level; proofreads using reference materials, word processor, and other resources; edits for clarity, word choice, and language usage; uses a word processor or other technology to publish written work)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses strategies appropriate to grades 6-8 to edit written work
     2.Uses strategies to publish written work
     3.Eliminates slang in writing
     4.Edits for grammar appropriate to grades 6-8
     5.Edits for punctuation appropriate to grades 6-8
     6.Edits for capitalization appropriate to grades 6-8
     7.Edits for spelling at developmentally appropriate level appropriate to grades 6-8
     8.Proofreads written work using reference materials
     9.Proofreads written work using word processor
     10.Proofreads written work using other resources
     11.Edits writing for clarity
     12.Edits writing for word choice
     13.Edits writing for language usage
     14.Uses word processor to publish written work
     15.Uses technology to publish work appropriate to grades 6-8
   Benchmark 5.Uses content, style, and structure (e.g., formal or informal language, genre, organization) appropriate for specific audiences (e.g., public, private) and purposes (e.g., to entertain, to influence, to inform)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses a written structure appropriate for specific audiences
     2.Uses content appropriate for specific audiences when writing
     3.Uses style appropriate for specific audiences when writing
     4.Uses formal language appropriate for specific audiences when writing
     5.Uses informal language appropriate for specific audiences
     6.Uses genre appropriate for specific audiences
     7.Uses organization appropriate for specific audiences
     8.Uses structure appropriate for specific purposes
     9.Uses content appropriate for specific purposes
     10.Uses style appropriate for specific purposes
     11.Uses formal language appropriate for specific purposes
     12.Uses informal language appropriate for specific purposes
     13.Uses genre appropriate for specific purposes
     14.Uses organization appropriate for specific purposes
     15.Uses structure appropriate for public audiences
     16.Uses structure appropriate for private audiences
     17.Uses content appropriate for public audiences
     18.Uses content appropriate for private audiences
     19.Uses style appropriate for public audiences
     20.Uses style appropriate for private audiences
     21.Uses formal language appropriate for private audiences
     22.Uses formal language appropriate for public audiences
     23.Uses informal language appropriate for public audiences
     24.Uses informal language appropriate for private audiences
     25.Uses genre appropriate for public audiences
     26.Uses genre appropriate for private audiences
     27.Uses organization appropriate for public audiences
     28.Uses organization appropriate for private audiences
     29.Uses structure appropriate to entertain
     30.Uses structure appropriate to influence
     31.Uses structure appropriate to inform
     32.Uses content appropriate to entertain
     33.Uses content appropriate to influence
     34.Uses content appropriate to inform
     35.Uses style appropriate to entertain
     36.Uses style appropriate to influence
     37.Uses style appropriate to inform
     38.Uses formal language appropriate to entertain
     39.Uses formal language appropriate to influence
     40.Uses formal language appropriate to inform
     41.Uses informal language appropriate to entertain
     42.Uses informal language appropriate to influence
     43.Uses informal language appropriate to inform
     44.Uses genre appropriate to entertain
     45.Uses genre appropriate to influence
     46.Uses genre appropriate to inform
     47.Uses organization appropriate to entertain
     48.Uses organization appropriate to influence
     49.Uses organization appropriate to inform
   Benchmark 13.Writes business letters and letters of request and response (e.g., uses business letter format; states purpose of the letter; relates opinions, problems, requests, or compliments; uses precise vocabulary)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Writes business letters
     2.Writes letters of request
     3.Writes letters of response
     4.Uses a business letter format
     5.States purpose of letter
     6.Relates opinions in letter
     7.Relates problems in letter
     8.Relates requests in letter
     9.Relates compliments in letter
     10.Uses precise vocabulary in letter
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Drafting and Revising: Uses a variety of strategies to draft and revise written work (e.g., highlights individual voice; rethinks content, organization, and style; checks accuracy and depth of information; redrafts for readability and needs of readers; reviews writing to ensure that content and linguistic structures are consistent with purpose)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses strategies to draft written work appropriate to 9-12
     2.Uses strategies to revise written work appropriate to 9-12
     3.Highlights individual voice
     4.Rethinks content
     5.Rethinks organization
     6.Rethinks style
     7.Checks accuracy of information
     8.Checks depth of information
     9.Redrafts for readability
     10.Redrafts for the needs of readers
     11.Reviews writing to ensure content is consistent with purpose
     12.Reviews writing to ensure linguistic structures are consistent with purpose
   Benchmark 7.Writes expository compositions (e.g., synthesizes and organizes information from first- and second-hand sources, including books, magazines, computer data banks, and the community; uses a variety of techniques to develop the main idea [names, describes, or differentiates parts; compares or contrasts; uses cause-and-effect reasoning; examines the history of a subject; cites an anecdote to provide an example; illustrates through a scenario; provides interesting facts about the subject]; distinguishes relative importance of facts, data, and ideas; uses domain-specific vocabulary, such as appropriate technical terms and notations; provides concluding statement that articulates implications or significance of the topic)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Synthesizes information from first-hand sources
     2.Synthesizes information from second-hand sources
     3.Organizes information from first-hand sources
     4.Organizes information from second-hand sources
     5.Synthesizes information from books
     6.Synthesizes information from magazines
     7.Synthesizes information from computer data bank
     8.Synthesizes information from community
     9.Organizes information from books
     10.Organizes information from magazines
     11.Organizes information from computer data banks
     12.Organizes information from community
     13.Uses techniques to develop the main idea
     14.Names parts to develop main idea
     15.Describes parts to develop main idea
     16.Differentiates parts to develop main idea
     17.Compares to develop main idea
     18.Contrasts to develop main idea
     19.Uses cause-and-effect reasoning to develop main idea
     20.Examines the history of a subject to develop the main idea
     21.Cites anecdotes to provide an example
     22.Illustrates through scenario
     23.Provides interesting facts about subject
     24.Distinguishes relative importance of facts
     25.Distinguishes relative importance of data
     26.Distinguishes relative importance of ideas
     27.Uses domain-specific vocabulary
     28.Uses appropriate technical terms
     29.Uses appropriate notations
     30.Provides a concluding statement that articulates implications or significance of a topic
   Benchmark 8.Writes fictional, biographical, autobiographical, and observational narrative compositions (e.g., establishes a fluent progression of experiences or events; evaluates the significance of the incident; provides a specific setting for scenes and incidents; provides supporting descriptive detail [specific names for people, objects, and places; visual details of scenes, objects, and places; descriptions of sounds, smells, specific actions, movements, and gestures; the interior monologue or feelings of the characters]; paces the actions to accommodate time or mood changes; creates a unifying theme or tone; uses literary devices to enhance style and tone; provides a conclusion that reflects upon the progression and resolution of the narrative)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Writes fictional compositions
     2.Writes biographical compositions
     3.Writes autobiographical compositions
     4.Writes observational narrative compositions
     5.Establishes a fluent progression of experiences or events
     6.Evaluates the significance of an incident
     7.Provides a specific setting for scenes
     8.Provides a specific setting for incidents
     9.Provides supporting descriptive detail
     10.Provides specific names for people
     11.Provides specific names for objects
     12.Provides specific names for places
     13.Provides visual details of scenes
     14.Provides visual details of objects
     15.Provides visual details of places
     16.Provides descriptions of sounds
     17.Provides descriptions of smells
     18.Provides descriptions of specific actions
     19.Provides descriptions of movements
     20.Provides descriptions of gestures
     21.Provides interior monologue of characters
     22.Provides feelings of characters
     23.Paces actions to accommodate time changes
     24.Paces actions to accommodate mood changes
     25.Creates unifying theme
     26.Creates unifying tone
     27.Uses literary devices to enhance style
     28.Uses literary devices to enhance tone
     29.Provides a concluding statement that reflects upon the progression and resolution of the narrative
   Benchmark 10.Writes descriptive compositions (e.g., uses concrete details to provide a perspective on the subject being described; uses supporting detail [concrete images, shifting perspectives and vantage points, sensory detail, and factual descriptions of appearance])
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses factual descriptions of appearance
     2.Uses concrete details to provide perspective on the subject being described
     3.Uses supporting detail
     4.Uses concrete images
     5.Uses shifting perspectives
     6.Uses vantage points
     7.Uses sensory detail
   Benchmark 13.Uses appropriate strategies (e.g., organizational pattern, format, language, tone) to write personal and business correspondence (e.g., informal letters, memos, job application letters, resumes)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses strategies to write personal correspondence
     2.Uses strategies to write business correspondence
     3.Uses organizational patterns to write personal correspondence
     4.Uses format to write personal correspondence
     5.Uses appropriate language to write personal correspondence
     6.Uses appropriate tone to write personal correspondence
     7.Uses organizational pattern to write business correspondence
     8.Uses format to write business correspondence
     9.Uses appropriate language to write business correspondence
     10.Uses appropriate tone to write business correspondence
     11.Writes informal letters
     12.Writes memos
     13.Writes job application letters
     14.Writes resumes
 Standard 2.  Uses the stylistic and rhetorical aspects of writing
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 1.Uses descriptive words to convey basic ideas
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows a variety of descriptive words
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 1.Uses descriptive and precise language that clarifies and enhances ideas (e.g., concrete words and phrases, common figures of speech, sensory details)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses descriptive language to clarify ideas appropriate to grades 3-5
     2.Uses descriptive language to enhance ideas appropriate to grades 3-5
     3.Uses common figures of speech
     4.Uses sensory words
   Benchmark 3.Uses a variety of sentence structures in writing (e.g., expands basic sentence patterns, uses exclamatory and imperative sentences)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Expands basic sentence patterns
     2.Understands the concept of an exclamatory sentence
     3.Understands the concept of an imperative sentence
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 1.Uses descriptive language that clarifies and enhances ideas (e.g., establishes tone and mood, uses figurative language, uses sensory images and comparisons, uses a thesaurus to choose effective wording)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses descriptive language to clarify ideas appropriate to grades 6-8
     2.Uses descriptive language to enhance ideas appropriate to grades 6-8
     3.Establishes tone
     4.Establishes mood
     5.Uses figurative language
     6.Uses sensory images
     7.Uses comparisons
     8.Uses a thesaurus to choose effective wording
   Benchmark 3.Uses a variety of sentence structures to expand and embed ideas (e.g., simple, compound, and complex sentences; parallel structure, such as similar grammatical forms or juxtaposed items)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses a variety of sentence structures to expand ideas
     2.Uses a variety of sentence structures to embed ideas
     3.Uses simple sentences
     4.Uses compound sentences to expand and embed ideas
     5.Uses complex sentences to expand and embed ideas
     6.Uses parallel structure to expand and embed ideas
     7.Uses juxtaposed items to expand and embed ideas
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Uses precise and descriptive language that clarifies and enhances ideas and supports different purposes (e.g., to stimulate the imagination of the reader, to translate concepts into simpler or more easily understood terms, to achieve a specific tone, to explain concepts in literature)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses precise language that clarifies and enhances ideas
     2.Uses descriptive language that clarifies and enhances ideas
     3.Uses language appropriate to different purposes
     4.Uses language that stimulates the imagination of the reader
     5.Uses appropriate language to translate concepts into simpler or more easily understood terms
     6.Uses language to achieve a specific tone
     7.Uses appropriate language to explain concepts in literature
   Benchmark 3.Uses a variety of sentence structures and lengths (e.g., complex and compound-complex sentences; parallel or repetitive sentence structure)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses a variety of sentence structures
     2.Uses a variety of sentence lengths
     3.Uses complex sentences
     4.Uses compound-complex sentences
     5.Uses parallel sentence structure
     6.Uses repetitive sentence structure
   Benchmark 7.Conveys individual voice, tone, and point of view in writing.
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses a variety of techniques to convey personal style
     2.Uses a variety of techniques to convey voice
     3.Uses the writing technique of stream of consciousness
     4.Uses the writing technique of multiple viewpoints
  Level 7 (Grade 13-13)
   Benchmark 1.Uses idioms in oral and written communication that are appropriate to context and properly formed, as when prepositions follow verbs (e.g., long for, appeal to).
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses properly formed idioms.
     2.Uses idioms in the appropriate context.
     3.Uses prepositional idioms that follow verbs.
   Benchmark 2.Uses a consistent style (e.g., select words or phrases that are consistent with the tone, mood, and purpose of composition) throughout writing.
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Selects words or phrases that are consistent with the tone of the writing
     2.Selects words or phrases that consistent with the mood of the writing
     3.Selects words or phrases that are consistent with the purpose of the writing