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Topic: Style and techniques in visual media 

Language Arts

 Standard 9.  Uses viewing skills and strategies to understand and interpret visual media
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 3.Knows how different elements help to establish plot, setting, and character in visual narratives (e.g., action, dialogue, music, clothing, facial expressions)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows different plot elements in visual narratives
     2.Knows literary elements that help establish setting in visual narratives
     3.Knows how different literary elements establish characters in visual narratives
     4.Knows how dialogue helps establish plot, setting, and characters of visual media
     5.Knows how music helps establish plot, setting, and characters of visual media
     6.Knows how clothing helps establish plot, setting, and characters of visual media
     7.Knows how facial expressions help establish plot, setting, and characters of visual media
   Benchmark 4.Knows different features (e.g., facial expressions, body language, gesture, clothing, actions, relationships, dialogue) that affect a viewer’s perceptions of characters in visual media (e.g., qualities that identify a "hero" or a "villain")
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows qualities that identify a hero
     2.Knows qualities that identify a villain
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 2.Understands techniques used to convey messages in visual media (e.g., animation; different tones of voice in audio productions; adjusting messages for different audiences)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how animation conveys messages
     2.Understands how different tones of voice in audio productions convey messages
     3.Understands adjustments made to convey messages to various audiences
   Benchmark 5.Understands techniques used to establish mood in visual media (e.g., use of camera angles and distances to create a specific feeling or point of view, tension heightened by dramatic music, sound effects such as a heartbeat or squeaking chair, use of a deep voice, somber lighting to imply mystery or fear)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands use of camera angles to create feeling in visual media
     2.Understands use of camera angles to create point of view in visual media
     3.Understands use of camera distance to create feeling in visual media
     4.Understands use of camera distance to create point of view in visual media
     5.Understands tension heightened by dramatic music in visual media
     6.Understands sound effects may imply mystery in visual media
     7.Understands sound effects may imply fear in visual media
     8.Understands heartbeat sound effect may imply mystery or fear in visual media
     9.Understands squeaking chair sound effects may imply mystery or fear in visual media
     10.Understands use of deep voice may imply mystery or fear in visual media
     11.Understands somber lighting may imply mystery or fear in visual media
   Benchmark 6.Understands the use and meaning of symbols and images in visual media (e.g., the use of color, such as red to represent emotion, anger, or excitement; the use of expressions, such as smiling to mean happiness; the dependence of symbols on shared social and cultural understandings; symbolic links between product names or logos and products)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands use of symbols in visual media
     2.Understands use of images in visual media
     3.Understands meaning of symbols in visual media
     4.Understands meaning of images in visual media
     5.Understands use of color in visual media
     6.Understands the color red represents emotion in visual media
     7.Understands the color red represents anger in visual media
     8.Understands the color red represents excitement in visual media
     9.Understands use of expressions in visual media
     10.Understands smiling expression means happiness
     11.Understands that symbols depend on shared social understandings
     12.Understands that symbols depend on shared cultural understandings
     13.Understands symbolic links between product names and products
     14.Understands symbolic links between product logos and products
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands how language choice is used to enhance visual media (e.g., language of particular television or film genres, the use of emotional or logical arguments in commercials)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands language choices in television
     2.Understands language choices in film genres
     3.Understands use of emotional arguments in commercials
     4.Understands use of logical arguments in commercials
   Benchmark 6.Understands how symbols, images, sound, and other conventions are used in visual media (e.g., time lapse in films; set elements that identify a particular time period or culture; short cuts used to construct meaning, such as the scream of brakes and a thud to imply a car crash; sound and image used together; the use of close-ups to convey drama or intimacy; the use of long camera shots to establish setting; sequences or groups of images that emphasize specific meaning, differences between visual and print media)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how symbols are used in visual media
     2.Understands how images are used in visual media
     3.Understands how sound is used in visual media
     4.Understands how a variety of conventions are used in visual media
     5.Understands the use of time lapse in films
     6.Understands set elements identify a time period
     7.Understands set elements identify a culture
     8.Understands how short cuts are used to construct meaning
     9.Understands how sound and image are used together
     10.Understands the use of close-ups to convey drama in visual media
     11.Understands the use of close-ups to convey intimacy in visual media
     12.Understands the use of long camera shots to establish setting in visual media
     13.Understands sequences of images emphasize specific meaning in visual media
     14.Understands groups of images emphasize specific meaning in visual media
     15.Understands differences between visual and print media
   Benchmark 9.Understands techniques used in visual media to influence or appeal to a particular audience (e.g., production techniques, such as designing a news program as entertainment; persuasive techniques, such as exaggerated claims, portrayal of appealing lifestyles, bandwagon, glittering generalities; subliminal messages; narrative style)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands techniques used in visual media to influence and appeal to particular audiences
     2.Understands production techniques used in visual media
     3.Understands why news program may be designed as entertainment
     4.Understands persuasive techniques used in visual media
     5.Understands the use of exaggerated claims to influence an audience
     6.Understands the portrayal of appealing lifestyles to influence an audience
     7.Understands the use of bandwagon to influence an audience
     8.Understands the use of glittering generalities to influence an audience
     9.Understands the use of subliminal messages to influence an audience
     11.Understands the use of narrative style to influence an audience
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands that the rules and expectations about genres can be manipulated for particular effects or purposes (e.g., combining or altering conventions of different genres, such as presenting news as entertainment; blurring of genres, such as drama-documentaries)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands rules about genres can be manipulated for effects
     2.Understands rules about genres can be manipulated for purposes
     3.Understands expectations about genres can be manipulated for effects
     4.Understands expectations about genres can be manipulated for purposes
     5.Understands combining conventions of genres
     6.Understands altering conventions of genres
     7.Understands presenting news as entertainment
     8.Understands blurring of genres
     9.Understands drama documentaries
   Benchmark 7.Understands how images and sound convey messages in visual media (e.g., special effects, camera angles, symbols, color, line, texture, shape, headlines, photographs, reaction shots, sequencing of images, sound effects, music, dialogue, narrative, lighting)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how images convey messages in visual media
     2.Understands how sounds convey messages in visual media
     3.Understands special effects
     4.Understands camera angles
     5.Understands color
     6.Understands line
     7.Understands texture
     8.Understands shape
     9.Understands headlines
     10.Understands photographs
     11.Understands reaction shots
     12.Understands sequencing of images
     13.Understands sound effects
     14.Understands music
     15.Understands dialogue
     16.Understands narrative
     17.Understands lighting
   Benchmark 8.Understands effects of style and language choice in visual media (e.g., use of long-shots to signify both real and metaphoric isolation; rapid editing in a television commercial; juxtaposition of text and color in a billboard; words in headlines intended to attract attention)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands effects of style choice in visual media
     2.Understands effects of language choice in visual media
     3.Understands use of long shots to signify real isolation
     4.Understands use of long shots to signify metaphoric isolation
     5.Understands rapid editing in television commercial
     6.Understands juxtaposition of text in a billboard
     7.Understands juxtaposition of color in a billboard
     8.Understands words in headlines intended to attract attention
   Benchmark 9.Understands how literary forms can be represented in visual narratives (e.g., allegory, parable, analogy, satire, narrative style, characterization, irony)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands irony
     2.Understands allegory
     3.Understands parable
     4.Understands analogy
     5.Understands satire
     6.Understands the use of narrative style to influence an audience
     7.Understands characterization
   Benchmark 11.Understands how editing shapes meaning in visual media (e.g., omission of alternative perspectives; filtered or implied viewpoints; emphasis of specific ideas, images, or information in order to serve particular interests; the careful construction of seemingly straightforward texts)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands construction of straightforward texts
     2.Understands omission of alternative perspectives
     3.Understands filtered viewpoints
     4.Understands implied viewpoints
     5.Understands emphasis on specific ideas to serve interests
     6.Understands emphasis on specific images to serve interest
     7.Understands emphasis on specific information to serve interests
 Standard 10.  Understands the characteristics and components of the media
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 6.Understands the ways in which image-makers carefully construct meaning (e.g., idea and word choice by authors, images created by photographers, television programs created by groups of people, photos or cutlines chosen in newspapers)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how an author’s idea choices construct meaning
     2.Understands how an author’s word choices construct meaning
     3.Understands how images created by photographers construct meaning
     4.Understands how television programs created by groups of people construct meaning
     5.Understands how photos are chosen for newspapers to construct meaning
     6.Understands how cut lines are chosen for newspapers to construct meaning