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Topic: Story/Literary elements 

Language Arts

 Standard 1.  Uses the general skills and strategies of the writing process
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 12.Writes in response to literature (e.g., suggests an interpretation; recognizes possible ambiguities, nuances, and complexities in a text; interprets passages of a novel in terms of their significance to the novel as a whole; focuses on the theme of a literary work; explains concepts found in literary works; examines literature from several critical perspectives; understands author’s stylistic devices and effects created; analyzes use of imagery and language)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Analyzes uses of language in literature
     2.Suggests interpretation of literature
     3.Recognizes ambiguities in literature
     4.Recognizes nuances in literature
     5.Recognizes complexities in literature
     6.Interprets passages of novels in terms of significance to the whole novel
     7.Focuses on theme of literary work
     8.Explains concepts found in literary works
     9.Examines literature from several critical perspectives
     10.Understands author’s stylistic devices
     11.Understands effects created by stylistic devices
     12.Analyzes uses of imagery in literature
 Standard 6.  Uses skills and strategies to read a variety of literary texts
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   Benchmark 1.Knows the sequence of events (e.g., beginning, middle, and end) in a story
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that a story has a beginning, middle, and end
   Benchmark 2.Knows the elements that compose a story (e.g., characters, plot, events, setting)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that a story contains characters
     2.Knows that a story has a plot
     3.Knows that a story contains a series of events
     4.Knows that a story is set in a particular location
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 2.Knows setting, main characters, main events, sequence, narrator, and problems in stories
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the setting in a story
     2.Knows the main characters in a story
     3.Knows the main events in a story
     4.Understands the sequence of a story
     5.Knows the narrator of a story
     6.Knows the problems in a story
   Benchmark 3.Knows the main ideas or theme of a story, drama, or poem
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the main ideas of a story
     2.Knows the theme of a story
     3.Knows the main ideas of a drama
     4.Knows the theme of a drama
     5.Knows the main ideas of a poem
     6.Knows the theme of a poem
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the basic concept of plot (e.g., main problem, conflict, resolution, cause-and-effect)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands cause-and-effect in the plot of a story
     2.Understands the main problem in the plot of a story
     3.Understands conflict in the plot of a story
     4.Understands the concept of resolution in the plot of a story
   Benchmark 4.Understands similarities and differences within and among literary works from various genre and cultures (e.g., in terms of settings, character types, events, point of view; role of natural phenomena)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands similarities among literary works from various genres
     2.Understands differences among literary works from various genres
     3.Understands similarities within literary works from a particular culture
     4.Understands similarities among literary works from various cultures
     5.Understands differences within literary works from a particular culture
     6.Understands differences among literary works from various cultures
     7.Understands similarities in literary works in terms of events
     8.Understands similarities in literary works in terms of character types
     9.Understands similarities in literary works in terms of point of views
     10.Understands similarities in literary works in terms of settings
     11.Understands similarities in literary works in terms of role of natural phenomena
     12.Understands differences in literary works in terms of settings
     13.Understands differences in literary works in terms of character types
     14.Understands differences in literary works in terms of events
     15.Understands differences in literary works in terms of point of views
     16.Understands differences in literary works in terms of role of natural phenomena
   Benchmark 5.Understands elements of character development in literary works (e.g., differences between main and minor characters; character’s point of view; stereotypical characters as opposed to fully developed characters; changes that characters undergo; the importance of a character’s actions, motives, and appearance to plot and theme)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the importance of a character’s appearance to plot and theme
     2.Understands differences between main and minor characters
     3.Understands changes that characters undergo
     4.Understands the importance of characters’ actions to the plot and theme
     5.Understands the importance of characters’ motives to the plot and theme
     6.Identifies stereotypical characters in literary works
     7.Understands character’s point of view
   Benchmark 6.Knows themes that recur across literary works
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the concept of a recurring theme
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands complex elements of plot development (e.g., cause-and-effect relationships; use of subplots, parallel episodes, and climax; development of conflict and resolution)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands resolution in the development of plot
     2.Understands cause-and-effect relationships in the development of a plot
     3.Understands the use of subplots
     4.Understands the use of parallel episodes in the development of a plot
     5.Understands climax in the development of a plot
     6.Understands conflict in the development of a plot
   Benchmark 4.Understands elements of character development (e.g., character traits and motivations; stereotypes; relationships between character and plot development; development of characters through their words, speech patterns, thoughts, actions, narrator’s description, and interaction with other characters; how motivations are revealed)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1. Understands how characters’ motivations are revealed
     2. Understands characters’ traits
     3. Understands characters’ motivations
     4.Understands stereotypes of characters
     5.Understands relationships between character and plot development
     6.Understands how characters are developed through thoughts
     7.Understands how characters are developed through speech patterns
     8.Understands how characters are developed through actions
     9. Understands how characters are developed through narrator’s description
     10.Understands how characters are developed through interactions with other characters
   Benchmark 8.Understands point of view in a literary text (e.g., first and third person, limited and omniscient, subjective and objective)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands objective point of view in a literary text
     2.Understands first person point of view in a literary text
     3.Understands third person point of view in a literary text
     4.Understands limited point of view in a literary text
     5.Understands omniscient point of view in a literary text
     6.Understands subjective point of view in a literary text
   Benchmark 9.Understands inferred and recurring themes in literary works (e.g., bravery, loyalty, friendship, good v. evil; historical, cultural, and social themes)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands inferred themes in literature
     2.Understands recurring themes in literature
     3.Understands bravery themes in literature
     4.Understands loyalty themes in literature
     5.Understands friendship themes in literature
     6.Understands good vs. evil themes in literature
     7.Understands historical themes in literature
     8.Understands cultural themes in literature
     9.Understands social themes in literature
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Analyzes the use of complex elements of plot in specific literary works (e.g., time frame, cause-and-effect relationships, conflicts, resolution)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Analyzes resolution
     2.Analyzes time frame
     3.Analyzes cause-and-effect relationships
     4.Analyzes conflicts
   Benchmark 4.Analyzes the simple and complex actions (e.g., internal/external conflicts) between main and subordinate characters in literary works containing complex character structures
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Analyzes simple actions between characters
     2.Analyzes complex actions between characters
     3.Analyzes internal/external conflicts
     4.Analyzes internal/external conflicts between main and subordinate characters
   Benchmark 6.Understands how themes are used across literary works and genres (e.g., universal themes in literature of different cultures, such as death and rebirth, initiation, love and duty; major themes in American literature; authors associated with major themes of specific eras; themes that authors draw on and transform from influential literary works)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how themes are used across literary work
     2.Understands how themes are used across genres
     3.Understands universal themes of different cultures
     4.Understands death as a theme
     5.Understands rebirth as a theme
     6.Understands initiation as a theme
     7.Understands love as a theme
     8.Understands duty as a theme
     9.Understands themes in American literature
     10.Understands authors associated with themes of specific eras
     11.Understands themes that authors draw on and transform from influential literary works
 Standard 8.  Uses listening and speaking strategies for different purposes
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   Benchmark 10.Retells a story with attention to the sequence of main events
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that stories have a beginning, middle, and end
 Standard 9.  Uses viewing skills and strategies to understand and interpret visual media
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 3.Knows how different elements help to establish plot, setting, and character in visual narratives (e.g., action, dialogue, music, clothing, facial expressions)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows different plot elements in visual narratives
     2.Knows literary elements that help establish setting in visual narratives
     3.Knows how different literary elements establish characters in visual narratives
     4.Knows how dialogue helps establish plot, setting, and characters of visual media
     5.Knows how music helps establish plot, setting, and characters of visual media
     6.Knows how clothing helps establish plot, setting, and characters of visual media
     7.Knows how facial expressions help establish plot, setting, and characters of visual media
   Benchmark 4.Knows different features (e.g., facial expressions, body language, gesture, clothing, actions, relationships, dialogue) that affect a viewer’s perceptions of characters in visual media (e.g., qualities that identify a "hero" or a "villain")
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows qualities that identify a hero
     2.Knows qualities that identify a villain
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 9.Understands how literary forms can be represented in visual narratives (e.g., allegory, parable, analogy, satire, narrative style, characterization, irony)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands irony
     2.Understands allegory
     3.Understands parable
     4.Understands analogy
     5.Understands satire
     6.Understands the use of narrative style to influence an audience
     7.Understands characterization