Standards Database Logo
Home | Browse | Search | Purpose | History | Process | Acknowledgment| Reference

 


 


Topic: Paragraph development 

Language Arts

 Standard 1.  Uses the general skills and strategies of the writing process
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 2.Drafting and Revising: Uses strategies to draft and revise written work (e.g., elaborates on a central idea; writes with attention to audience, word choice, sentence variation; uses paragraphs to develop separate ideas; produces multiple drafts; selects punctuation for effect)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses strategies to draft written work appropriate to grades 3-5
     2.Uses strategies to revise written work appropriate to grades 3-5
     3.Elaborates on a central idea
     4.Writes with attention to audience
     5.Writes with attention to word choice
     6.Writes with attention to sentence variation
     7.Uses paragraphs to develop separate ideas
     8.Produces multiple drafts
     9.Selects punctuation for effect
   Benchmark 3.Editing and Publishing: Uses strategies to edit and publish written work (e.g., edits for grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling at a developmentally appropriate level; uses reference materials; excludes extraneous details and inconsistencies; selects presentation format according to purpose; uses available technology to publish work)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses strategies appropriate to grades 3-5 to edit written work
     2.Uses strategies to publish written work appropriate to grades 3-5
     3.Edits written work for grammar appropriate to grades 3-5
     4.Edits written work for punctuation appropriate to grades 3-5
     5.Edits written work for capitalization appropriate to grades 3-5
     6.Edits written work for spelling at developmentally appropriate level appropriate to grades 3-5
     7.Uses reference materials to edit writing
     8.Considers page format
     9.Considers format of paragraphs
     10.Considers format of margins
     11.Considers format of indentations
     12.Considers format of titles
     13.Selects presentation format according to purpose
     14.Incorporates photos appropriate to grades 3-5
     15.Incorporates illustrations appropriate to grades 3-5
     16.Incorporates graphs
     17.Incorporates charts
     18.Uses technology to compose work appropriate to grades 3-5
     19.Uses technology to publish work appropriate to grades 3-5
     20.Excludes extraneous details
     21.Excludes inconsistencies
   Benchmark 7.Writes expository compositions (e.g., identifies and stays on the topic; develops the topic with simple facts, concrete details, examples, definitions, quotations, and explanations; uses domain-specific or content area vocabulary; excludes extraneous and inappropriate information; uses logical organizing structures such as cause-and-effect, chronology, similarities and differences; uses several sources of information; provides a concluding statement)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Identifies the topic for writing
     2.Stays on the topic in writing
     3.Develops the topic with simple facts
     4.Develops the topic with details
     5.Develops the topic with examples
     6.Develops the topic with definitions
     7.Develops the topic with quotations
     8.Develops the topic with explanations
     9.Excludes extraneous information
     10.Excludes inappropriate information
     11.Uses informational structures
     12.Uses cause-and-effect structures to organize ideas in oral presentations
     13.Uses chronology to structure writing
     14.Uses similarities to structure writing
     15.Uses differences to structure writing
     16.Uses several sources of information
     17.Provides a concluding statement
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 2.Drafting and Revising: Uses a variety of strategies to draft and revise written work (e.g., analyzes and clarifies meaning, makes structural and syntactical changes, uses an organizational scheme, uses sensory words and figurative language, rethinks and rewrites for different audiences and purposes, checks for a consistent point of view and for transitions between paragraphs, uses direct feedback to revise compositions, eliminates redundancy in writing)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses strategies to draft written work appropriate to grades 6-8
     2.Uses strategies to revise written work appropriate to grades 6-8
     3.Analyzes meaning of own writing during drafting and revision
     4.Clarifies meaning of own writing during drafting and revision
     5.Makes structural changes to own writing during drafting and revision
     6.Makes syntactical changes to own writing during drafting and revision
     7.Uses organizational scheme in own writing during drafting and revision
     8.Uses sensory words
     9.Uses figurative language
     10.Rethinks writing for different audiences during drafting and revision
     11.Rethinks writing for different purposes during drafting and revision
     12.Rewrites writing for different audiences during drafting and revision
     13.Rewrites for different purposes
     14.Checks for consistent point of view during drafting and revision
     15.Checks for transitions between paragraphs during drafting and revision
     16.Uses direct feedback to revise compositions
     17.Eliminates redundancy in writing
   Benchmark 6.Writes expository compositions (e.g., states a thesis or purpose; presents information that reflects knowledge about the topic of the report; organizes and presents information in a logical manner, including an introduction and conclusion; uses own words to develop ideas; uses common expository structures and features, such as compare-contrast or problem-solution)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.States a thesis in expository writing
     2.States a purpose for expository writing
     3.Presents information that reflects knowledge about the topic of the report
     4.Organizes information in a logical manner in expository writing
     5.Presents information in a logical manner in expository writing
     6.Includes an introduction in expository writing
     7.Includes a conclusion in expository writing
     8.Uses own words to develop ideas in expository writing
     9.Uses common expository structures
     10.Uses common expository features
     11.Uses a compare-contrast structure in expository writing
     12.Uses a problem-solution structure in expository writing
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 7.Writes expository compositions (e.g., synthesizes and organizes information from first- and second-hand sources, including books, magazines, computer data banks, and the community; uses a variety of techniques to develop the main idea [names, describes, or differentiates parts; compares or contrasts; uses cause-and-effect reasoning; examines the history of a subject; cites an anecdote to provide an example; illustrates through a scenario; provides interesting facts about the subject]; distinguishes relative importance of facts, data, and ideas; uses domain-specific vocabulary, such as appropriate technical terms and notations; provides concluding statement that articulates implications or significance of the topic)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Synthesizes information from first-hand sources
     2.Synthesizes information from second-hand sources
     3.Organizes information from first-hand sources
     4.Organizes information from second-hand sources
     5.Synthesizes information from books
     6.Synthesizes information from magazines
     7.Synthesizes information from computer data bank
     8.Synthesizes information from community
     9.Organizes information from books
     10.Organizes information from magazines
     11.Organizes information from computer data banks
     12.Organizes information from community
     13.Uses techniques to develop the main idea
     14.Names parts to develop main idea
     15.Describes parts to develop main idea
     16.Differentiates parts to develop main idea
     17.Compares to develop main idea
     18.Contrasts to develop main idea
     19.Uses cause-and-effect reasoning to develop main idea
     20.Examines the history of a subject to develop the main idea
     21.Cites anecdotes to provide an example
     22.Illustrates through scenario
     23.Provides interesting facts about subject
     24.Distinguishes relative importance of facts
     25.Distinguishes relative importance of data
     26.Distinguishes relative importance of ideas
     27.Uses domain-specific vocabulary
     28.Uses appropriate technical terms
     29.Uses appropriate notations
     30.Provides a concluding statement that articulates implications or significance of a topic
   Benchmark 8.Writes fictional, biographical, autobiographical, and observational narrative compositions (e.g., establishes a fluent progression of experiences or events; evaluates the significance of the incident; provides a specific setting for scenes and incidents; provides supporting descriptive detail [specific names for people, objects, and places; visual details of scenes, objects, and places; descriptions of sounds, smells, specific actions, movements, and gestures; the interior monologue or feelings of the characters]; paces the actions to accommodate time or mood changes; creates a unifying theme or tone; uses literary devices to enhance style and tone; provides a conclusion that reflects upon the progression and resolution of the narrative)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Writes fictional compositions
     2.Writes biographical compositions
     3.Writes autobiographical compositions
     4.Writes observational narrative compositions
     5.Establishes a fluent progression of experiences or events
     6.Evaluates the significance of an incident
     7.Provides a specific setting for scenes
     8.Provides a specific setting for incidents
     9.Provides supporting descriptive detail
     10.Provides specific names for people
     11.Provides specific names for objects
     12.Provides specific names for places
     13.Provides visual details of scenes
     14.Provides visual details of objects
     15.Provides visual details of places
     16.Provides descriptions of sounds
     17.Provides descriptions of smells
     18.Provides descriptions of specific actions
     19.Provides descriptions of movements
     20.Provides descriptions of gestures
     21.Provides interior monologue of characters
     22.Provides feelings of characters
     23.Paces actions to accommodate time changes
     24.Paces actions to accommodate mood changes
     25.Creates unifying theme
     26.Creates unifying tone
     27.Uses literary devices to enhance style
     28.Uses literary devices to enhance tone
     29.Provides a concluding statement that reflects upon the progression and resolution of the narrative
   Benchmark 10.Writes descriptive compositions (e.g., uses concrete details to provide a perspective on the subject being described; uses supporting detail [concrete images, shifting perspectives and vantage points, sensory detail, and factual descriptions of appearance])
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses factual descriptions of appearance
     2.Uses concrete details to provide perspective on the subject being described
     3.Uses supporting detail
     4.Uses concrete images
     5.Uses shifting perspectives
     6.Uses vantage points
     7.Uses sensory detail
 Standard 2.  Uses the stylistic and rhetorical aspects of writing
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 2.Uses paragraph form in writing (e.g., indents the first word of a paragraph, uses topic sentences, recognizes a paragraph as a group of sentences about one main idea, uses an introductory and concluding paragraph, writes several related paragraphs)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Writes several related paragraphs
     2.Indents the first word of a paragraph
     3.Uses topic sentences
     4.Recognizes a paragraph as a group of sentences about one main idea
     5.Uses an introductory paragraph
     6.Uses a concluding paragraph
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 2.Uses paragraph form in writing (e.g., arranges sentences in sequential order, uses supporting and follow-up sentences, establishes coherence within and among paragraphs)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Establishes coherence among paragraphs
     2.Arranges sentences in sequential order in a paragraph
     3.Uses supporting sentences in paragraph
     4.Uses follow-up sentences in paragraph
     5.Establishes coherence within paragraph
   Benchmark 4.Uses explicit transitional devices
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the purpose of transitional devices
     2.Writes with transitional devices
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Uses paragraph form in writing (e.g., arranges paragraphs into a logical progression, uses clincher or closing sentences)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Arranges paragraphs into a logical progression
     2.Uses clincher sentences
     3.Uses closing sentences
   Benchmark 4.Uses a variety of transitional devices (e.g., phrases, clauses, sentences, paragraphs) to link sections of text and clarify relationships among complex ideas
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses transitional phrases to link sections of text
     2.Uses transitional phrases to clarify relationships among complex ideas
     3.Uses transitional clauses to link sections of text
     4.Uses transitional clauses to clarify relationships among complex ideas
     5.Uses transitional sentences to link sections of text
     6.Uses transitional sentences to clarify relationships among complex ideas
     7.Uses transitional paragraphs to link sections of text
     8.Uses transitional paragraphs to clarify relationships among complex ideas