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Topic: Literary style and techniques 

Language Arts

 Standard 1.  Uses the general skills and strategies of the writing process
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 12.Writes in response to literature (e.g., suggests an interpretation; recognizes possible ambiguities, nuances, and complexities in a text; interprets passages of a novel in terms of their significance to the novel as a whole; focuses on the theme of a literary work; explains concepts found in literary works; examines literature from several critical perspectives; understands author’s stylistic devices and effects created; analyzes use of imagery and language)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Analyzes uses of language in literature
     2.Suggests interpretation of literature
     3.Recognizes ambiguities in literature
     4.Recognizes nuances in literature
     5.Recognizes complexities in literature
     6.Interprets passages of novels in terms of significance to the whole novel
     7.Focuses on theme of literary work
     8.Explains concepts found in literary works
     9.Examines literature from several critical perspectives
     10.Understands author’s stylistic devices
     11.Understands effects created by stylistic devices
     12.Analyzes uses of imagery in literature
 Standard 5.  Uses the general skills and strategies of the reading process
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands specific devices an author uses to accomplish his or her purpose (e.g., persuasive techniques, style, word choice, language structure)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands an author uses persuasive techniques to accomplish his or her purpose
     2.Understands an author uses a certain style to accomplish his or her purpose
     3.Understands an author uses word choice to accomplish his or her purpose
     4.Understands an author uses language structure to accomplish his or her purpose
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands writing techniques used to influence the reader and accomplish an author’s purpose (e.g., organizational patterns, figures of speech, tone, literary and technical language, formal and informal language, narrative perspective, rhetoric, refinement of key terms)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands writing techniques used to influence the reader
     2.Understands writing techniques used to accomplish the author’s purpose
     3.Understands how the author uses organizational patterns, such as cause-and-effect or chronological order
     4.Understands how the author uses figures of speech
     5.Understands how the author uses tone
     6.Understands how the author uses literary language
     7.Understands how the author uses technical language
     8.Understands how the author uses formal language
     9.Understands how the author uses informal language
     10.Understands how the author uses narrative perspective
     11.Understands how the author uses rhetoric
     12.Understands how the author refines key terms
 Standard 6.  Uses skills and strategies to read a variety of literary texts
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 7.Understands the ways in which language is used in literary texts (e.g., personification, alliteration, onomatopoeia, simile, metaphor, imagery, hyperbole, rhythm, allusion)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the use of rhythm in literary texts
     2.Understands the use of personification in literary texts
     3.Understands the use of alliteration in literary texts
     4.Understands the use of onomatopoeia in literary texts
     5.Understands the use of simile in literary texts
     6.Understands the use of metaphor in literary texts
     7.Understands the use of imagery in literary texts
     8.Understands the use of hyperbole in literary texts
     9.Understands the use of allusion in literary texts appropriate to grades 3-5
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the use of specific literary devices (e.g., foreshadowing, flashback, progressive and digressive time, suspense)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the use of suspense in literature
     2.Understands the use of foreshadowing in literature
     3.Understands the use of flashback in literature
     4.Understands the use of progressive time in literature
     5.Understands the use of digressive time in literature
   Benchmark 6.Understands the use of language in literary works to convey mood, images, and meaning (e.g., dialect; dialogue; symbolism; irony; rhyme; voice; tone; sound; alliteration; assonance; consonance; onomatopoeia; figurative language such as similes, metaphors, personification, hyperbole, allusion; sentence structure; punctuation)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the use of language in literary works to convey mood
     2.Understands the use of language in literary works to convey images
     3.Understands the use of language in literary works to convey meaning
     4.Understands the use of dialect in literature
     5.Understands the use of dialogue in literature
     6.Understands the use of symbolism in literature
     7.Understands the use of irony in literature
     8.Understands the use of rhyme in literature
     9.Understands the use of voice in literature
     10.Understands the use of tone in literature
     11.Understands the use of sound
     12.Understands the use of alliteration in literature
     13.Understands the use of assonance in literature
     14.Understands the use of consonance in literature
     15.Understands the use of onomatopoeia in literature
     16.Understands the use of figurative language in literature
     17.Understands the use of similes in literature
     18.Understands the use of metaphors in literature
     19.Understands the use of personification in literature
     20.Understands the use of hyperbole in literature
     21.Understands the use of allusion in literature
     22.Understands the use of sentence structure in literature
     23.Understands the use of punctuation in literature
   Benchmark 7.Understands the effects of an author’s style (e.g., word choice, speaker, imagery, genre, perspective) on the reader
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the effects of perspective on the reader
     2.Understands the effects of word choice on the reader
     3.Understands the effects of the speaker on the reader
     4.Understands the effects of imagery on the reader
     5.Understands the effects of the genre on the reader
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Knows archetypes and symbols (e.g., supernatural helpers, banishment from an ideal world, the hero, beneficence of nature, dawn) present in a variety of literary texts (e.g., American literature, world literature, literature based on oral tradition, mythology, film, political speeches)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows archetypes in literature
     2.Knows symbols in literature
     3.Knows that ’supernatural helpers’ are an archetype found in literary texts
     4.Knows that ’banishment from an ideal world’ is an archetypal theme found in a variety of literary texts
     5.Knows that a hero is an archetypal figure found in a variety of literary texts
     6.Knows that ’beneficence of nature’ is an archetypal theme found in literature
     7.Knows that ’dawn’ is a symbol present in literature
     8.Knows archetypes in world literature
     9.Knows archetypes in American literature
     10.Knows archetypes in literature based on oral tradition
     11.Knows archetypes in mythology
     12.Knows archetypes in film
     13.Knows archetypes in political speeches
     14.Knows symbols in American literature
     15.Knows symbols in world literature
     16.Knows symbols in literature based on oral tradition
     17.Knows symbols in mythology
     18.Knows symbols in film
     19.Knows symbols in political speeches
   Benchmark 7.Understands the effects of author’s style and complex literary devices and techniques on the overall quality of a work (e.g., tone; irony; mood; figurative language; allusion; diction; dialogue; symbolism; point of view; voice; understatement and overstatement; time and sequence; narrator; poetic elements, such as sound, imagery, personification)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the effects of an author’s style on the overall quality of a work
     2.Understands the effects of an author’s complex literary devices on the overall quality of a work
     3.Understands the effects of an author’s techniques on the quality of a work
     4.Understands the effects of tone
     5.Understands the effects of irony
     6.Understands the effects of mood
     7.Understands the effects of figurative language
     8.Understands the effects of allusion
     9.Understands the effects of diction in a literary work
     10.Understands the effects of dialogue in a literary work
     11.Understands the effects of symbolism in a literary work
     12.Understands the effects of point of view in a literary work
     13.Understands the effects of voice in a literary work
     14.Understands the effects of understatement in a literary work
     15.Understands the effects of overstatement in a literary work
     17.Understands the use of time in a literary work
     18.Understands the effects of sequence in a literary work
     19.Understands the effects of the narrator in a literary work
     20.Understands the effects of poetic elements in a literary work
     21.Understands the use of sound in a literary work
     22.Understands the effects of imagery in a literary work
     23.Understands the use of personification in a literary work