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Topic: Language in daily use 

Language Arts

 Standard 8.  Uses listening and speaking strategies for different purposes
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   Benchmark 1.Speaks clearly enough to be understood by unfamiliar adults and uses appropriate levels of volume, tone, and inflection
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Speaks clearly and audibly
     2.Uses expressive language skills
     3.Uses appropriate voice level when speaking
     4.Uses appropriate tone when speaking
     5.Uses appropriate inflection when speaking
     6.Knows that different voice levels are appropriate for different situations
     7.Knows that different tones of voice are appropriate for different situations
   Benchmark 2.Uses new vocabulary to describe feelings, thoughts, experiences, and observations
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses descriptive words
     2.Uses new vocabulary to describe feelings
     3.Uses new vocabulary to describe thoughts
     4.Uses new vocabulary to describe experiences
     5.Uses new vocabulary to describe observations
   Benchmark 3.Speaks expressively (e.g., uses different voices for various characters)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Speaks with appropriate expression
   Benchmark 4.Uses descriptive language (e.g., color words; size words, such as bigger, smaller; shape words)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses comparative words
     2.Uses words that describe color
     3.Uses words that describe size
     4.Uses words that describe shape
   Benchmark 5.Tells stories based on personal experience or make-believe
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Tells a simple personal narrative
     2.Retells or creates a story using the special language of storybooks (e.g., "Once upon a time")
   Benchmark 6.Asks questions to obtain information
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Ask relevant questions
   Benchmark 7.Answers simple questions
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Answers questions appropriately
   Benchmark 8.Follows conversation rules (e.g., taking turns, making relevant comments; staying on topic) when talking with peers and adults
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Talks about one topic for several turns with a peer or adult
     2.Knows that it is appropriate to take turns while talking
     3.Knows a variety of rules related to having a conversation
     4.Understands that following certain rules makes it easier to have a conversation
   Benchmark 12.Understands messages in conversations (e.g. responds differently based on purpose of messages in conversation; attends and responds to conversations)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Responds appropriately in conversation
     2.Adapts language to meet different social and situational needs
   Benchmark 13.Follows one- and two-step directions
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands spoken directions
     2.Follows one-step spoken directions
     3.Follows two-step spoken directions
   Benchmark 14.Understands basic conversational vocabulary
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands a varied listening and speaking vocabulary
   Benchmark 19.Listens to a variety of fiction, nonfiction, poetry, drama, rhymes, and songs
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Listens to fiction
     2.Listens to nonfiction
     3.Listens to poetry
     4.Listens to drama
     5.Listens to rhymes
     6.Listens to songs
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 8.Knows differences between language used at home and language used in school
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows ways in which language is used at home
     2.Knows ways in which language is used at school
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 15.Knows specific ways in which language is used in real-life situations (e.g., buying something from a shopkeeper, requesting something from a parent, arguing with a sibling, talking to a friend)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that language is used differently in different situations
     2.Knows language that might be used to request something from parent
     3.Knows language that might be used to argue with sibling
     4.Knows language that might be used to talk with a friend
     5.Knows language that might be used in commercial transactions
   Benchmark 16.Understands that language reflects different regions and cultures (e.g., sayings; expressions; usage; oral traditions and customs; historical, geographical, and societal influences on language)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands sayings that reflect different regions or cultures
     2.Understands expressions that reflect different regions or cultures
     3.Understands different language usage in different regions and cultures
     4.Understands oral traditions
     5.Understands oral customs
     6.Understands historical influences on language
     7.Understands geographical influence on language
     8.Understands societal influences on language
     9.Understands that language reflects different regions
     10.Understands that language reflects different cultures
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 9.Understands the ways in which language differs across a variety of social situations (e.g., formal and informal speech in different social situations, use of jargon by sports commentators to make listeners feel like insiders)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the use of formal speech in different social situations
     2.Understands the use of informal speech in different social situations
     3.Understands the use of jargon by sport commentators to make listeners feel like insiders
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 9.Understands influences on language use (e.g., political beliefs, positions of social power, culture)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the influence of political beliefs on language use
     2.Understands the influence of positions of social power on language use
     3.Understands cultural influences on language use
   Benchmark 10.Understands how style and content of spoken language varies in different contexts (e.g., style of different radio news programs, everyday language compared to language in television soap operas, tones of news bulletins on "serious" and youth-oriented stations) and how this influences interpretation of these texts
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how style of spoken language varies in different contexts
     2.Understands how context of spoken language varies in different contexts
     3.Understands style of different radio news programs
     4.Understands everyday language compared to language in television soap operas
     5.Understands tones of news bulletins on "serious" stations
     6.Understands tones of news bulletins on youth-oriented stations
     7.Understands how style influences interpretation of spoken texts
     8.Understands how content influences interpretation of spoken texts