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Topic: Grammar and usage 

Language Arts

 Standard 1.  Uses the general skills and strategies of the writing process
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 3.Editing and Publishing: Uses strategies to edit and publish written work (e.g., proofreads using a dictionary and other resources; edits for grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling at a developmentally appropriate level; incorporates illustrations or photos; uses available, appropriate technology to publish work; use legible handwriting, shares finished product)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses strategies appropriate to grades K-2 to edit written work
     2.Uses strategies to publish written work
     3.Proofreads writing using dictionary
     4.Proofreads written work using other resources
     5.Edits written work for grammar appropriate to grades K-2
     6.Edits written work for punctuation appropriate to grades K-2
     7.Edits written work for capitalization appropriate to grades K-2
     8.Edits written work for spelling at developmentally appropriate level appropriate to grades K-2
     9.Incorporates illustrations appropriate to grades K-2
     10.Incorporates photos appropriate to grades K-2
     11.Uses technology to compose work appropriate to grades K-2
     12.Uses technology to publish work appropriate to grades K-2
     13.Shares finished product
   Benchmark 4.Evaluates own and others’ writing (e.g., asks questions and makes comments about writing, helps classmates apply grammatical and mechanical conventions)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Evaluates own writing appropriate to grades K-2
     2.Evaluates others’ writing appropriate to grades K-2
     3.Asks questions about writing
     4.Makes comments about writing
     5.Helps classmates apply grammatical conventions
     6.Helps classmates apply mechanical conventions
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 3.Editing and Publishing: Uses strategies to edit and publish written work (e.g., edits for grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling at a developmentally appropriate level; uses reference materials; excludes extraneous details and inconsistencies; selects presentation format according to purpose; uses available technology to publish work)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses strategies appropriate to grades 3-5 to edit written work
     2.Uses strategies to publish written work appropriate to grades 3-5
     3.Edits written work for grammar appropriate to grades 3-5
     4.Edits written work for punctuation appropriate to grades 3-5
     5.Edits written work for capitalization appropriate to grades 3-5
     6.Edits written work for spelling at developmentally appropriate level appropriate to grades 3-5
     7.Uses reference materials to edit writing
     8.Considers page format
     9.Considers format of paragraphs
     10.Considers format of margins
     11.Considers format of indentations
     12.Considers format of titles
     13.Selects presentation format according to purpose
     14.Incorporates photos appropriate to grades 3-5
     15.Incorporates illustrations appropriate to grades 3-5
     16.Incorporates graphs
     17.Incorporates charts
     18.Uses technology to compose work appropriate to grades 3-5
     19.Uses technology to publish work appropriate to grades 3-5
     20.Excludes extraneous details
     21.Excludes inconsistencies
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 3.Editing and Publishing: Uses a variety of strategies to edit and publish written work (e.g., eliminates slang; edits for grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling at a developmentally appropriate level; proofreads using reference materials, word processor, and other resources; edits for clarity, word choice, and language usage; uses a word processor or other technology to publish written work)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses strategies appropriate to grades 6-8 to edit written work
     2.Uses strategies to publish written work
     3.Eliminates slang in writing
     4.Edits for grammar appropriate to grades 6-8
     5.Edits for punctuation appropriate to grades 6-8
     6.Edits for capitalization appropriate to grades 6-8
     7.Edits for spelling at developmentally appropriate level appropriate to grades 6-8
     8.Proofreads written work using reference materials
     9.Proofreads written work using word processor
     10.Proofreads written work using other resources
     11.Edits writing for clarity
     12.Edits writing for word choice
     13.Edits writing for language usage
     14.Uses word processor to publish written work
     15.Uses technology to publish work appropriate to grades 6-8
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Editing and Publishing: Uses a variety of strategies to edit and publish written work (e.g., uses a checklist to guide proofreading; edits for grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling at a developmentally appropriate level; uses resources to resolve issues of complex or contested usage; refines selected pieces to publish for general and specific audiences; uses available technology, such as publishing software or graphics programs, to publish written work)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses strategies appropriate to grades 9-12 to edit written work
     2.Uses strategies to publish written work
     3.Uses checklist to guide proofreading
     4. Edits for grammar appropriate to 9-12
     5.Edits for punctuation appropriate to 9-12
     6.Edits for capitalization appropriate to 9-12
     7.Edits for spelling at developmentally appropriate level appropriate to 9-12
     8.Uses resources to resolve issues of complex usage
     9.Uses resources to resolve issues of contested usage
     10.Refines selected pieces to publish for general audiences
     11.Refines selected pieces to publish for specific audiences
     12.Uses technology to publish work appropriate to 9-12
     13.Uses publishing software to publish written work
     14.Uses graphics programs to publish written work
 Standard 2.  Uses the stylistic and rhetorical aspects of writing
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 3.Uses a variety of sentence structures to expand and embed ideas (e.g., simple, compound, and complex sentences; parallel structure, such as similar grammatical forms or juxtaposed items)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses a variety of sentence structures to expand ideas
     2.Uses a variety of sentence structures to embed ideas
     3.Uses simple sentences
     4.Uses compound sentences to expand and embed ideas
     5.Uses complex sentences to expand and embed ideas
     6.Uses parallel structure to expand and embed ideas
     7.Uses juxtaposed items to expand and embed ideas
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Uses a variety of sentence structures and lengths (e.g., complex and compound-complex sentences; parallel or repetitive sentence structure)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses a variety of sentence structures
     2.Uses a variety of sentence lengths
     3.Uses complex sentences
     4.Uses compound-complex sentences
     5.Uses parallel sentence structure
     6.Uses repetitive sentence structure
 Standard 3.  Uses grammatical and mechanical conventions in written compositions
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   Benchmark 1.Applies rudimentary rules of grammar
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that there are rules for forming sentences
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 2.Uses complete sentences in written compositions
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the concept of a complete sentence
   Benchmark 3.Uses nouns in written compositions (e.g., singular, plural, possessive)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the concept of a noun
     2.Uses nouns appropriate to grades K-2
     3.Uses singular nouns appropriate to grades K-2
     4.Uses plural nouns appropriate to grades K-2
     5.Uses possessive nouns appropriate to grades K-2
   Benchmark 4.Uses verbs in written compositions (e.g., verbs for a variety of situations, action words)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the concept of a verb
     2.Uses verbs as action words
   Benchmark 5.Uses adjectives in written compositions (e.g., uses descriptive words, uses determiners including articles and demonstratives)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the concept of an adjective
     2.Uses descriptive words in compositions
     3.Uses determiners in compositions
     4.Uses articles in compositions
     5.Uses demonstratives in compositions
   Benchmark 6.Uses adverbs in written compositions (i.e., uses words that answer how, when, where, and why questions)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the concept of an adverb
     2.Uses words that answer where questions
     3.Uses words that answer how questions
     4.Uses words that answer why questions
     5.Uses words that answer when questions
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 2.Uses pronouns in written compositions (e.g., substitutes pronouns for nouns, uses pronoun agreement)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the concept of a pronoun
     2.Understands the concept of pronoun agreement
     3.Substitutes pronouns for nouns
     4.Uses pronoun agreement
   Benchmark 3.Uses nouns in written compositions (e.g., uses plural and singular naming words, forms regular and irregular plurals of nouns, uses common and proper nouns, uses nouns as subjects, uses abstract nouns)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses nouns as subjects
     2.Uses plural nouns appropriate to grades 3-5
     3.Uses singular nouns appropriate to grades 3-5
     4.Forms regular plurals of nouns
     5.Forms irregular plurals of nouns
     6.Uses common nouns in written compositions
     7.Uses proper nouns in written compositions
     8.Uses abstract nouns
   Benchmark 4.Uses verbs in written compositions (e.g., uses a wide variety of action verbs, past and present verb tenses, simple tenses, forms of regular verbs, verbs that agree with the subject)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses verbs that agree with the subject
     2.Uses a variety of action verbs
     3.Uses past verb tenses
     4.Uses present verb tenses
     5.Uses simple tenses
     6.Uses forms of regular verbs
     7.Understands the concept of subject-verb agreement
   Benchmark 5.Uses adjectives in written compositions (e.g., indefinite, numerical and predicate adjectives; uses conventional patterns to order adjectives)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the concept of a predicate adjective
     2.Uses indefinite adjectives
     3.Uses numerical adjectives
     4.Uses predicate adjectives
     5.Understands the concept of an indefinite adjective
     6.Understands the concept of a numerical adjective
     7.Uses conventional patterns to order adjectives
   Benchmark 6.Uses adverbs in written compositions (e.g., to make comparisons)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses adverbs to make comparisons
     2.Understands the concept of a comparative adverb
   Benchmark 7.Links ideas using connecting words (e.g., uses coordinating conjunctions in written compositions)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the concept of a coordinating conjunction
     2.Uses coordinating conjunctions appropriate to grades 3-5
   Benchmark 8.Uses negatives in written compositions (e.g., avoids double negatives)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the concept of a double negative
     2.Avoids double negatives
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 1.Uses pronouns in written compositions (e.g., uses relative, demonstrative, personal [i.e., possessive, subject, object] pronouns; uses pronouns that agree with their antecedent)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses object pronouns in written compositions
     2.Understands the concept of a relative pronoun
     3.Uses relative pronouns in written compositions
     4.Understands the concept of a demonstrative pronoun
     5.Uses demonstrative pronouns in written compositions
     6.Understands the concept of a personal pronoun
     7.Uses personal pronouns in written compositions
     8.Understands the concept of a possessive pronoun
     9.Uses possessive pronouns in written compositions
     10.Understands the concept of a subject pronoun
     11.Uses subject pronouns in written compositions
     12.Understands the concept of an object pronoun
     13.Uses pronouns that agree with their antecedents
   Benchmark 2.Uses nouns in written compositions (e.g., forms possessives of nouns; forms irregular plural nouns)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Forms irregular plural nouns
     2.Forms possessives of nouns
   Benchmark 3.Uses verbs in written compositions (e.g., uses linking and auxiliary verbs, verb phrases, active and passive voice, appropriate mood [e.g., indicative, conditional, subjunctive, imperative, interrogative], and correct forms of regular and irregular verbs)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses correct forms of irregular verbs
     2.Understands the concept of a linking verb
     3.Uses linking verbs
     4.Understands the concept of an auxiliary verb
     5.Uses auxiliary verbs
     6.Understands the concept of a verb phrase
     7.Uses verb phrases
     8.Uses correct forms of regular verbs
     9.Uses active voice
     10.Uses passive voice
     11.Uses appropriate verb mood
     12.Uses indicative mood
     13.Uses conditional mood
     14.Uses subjunctive mood
     15.Uses imperative mood
     16.Uses interrogative mood
   Benchmark 4.Uses adjectives in written compositions (e.g., pronominal, positive, comparative, superlative)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses superlative adjectives in written compositions
     2.Understands the concept of a pronominal adjective
     3.Uses pronominal adjectives in written compositions
     4.Understands the concept of a positive adjective
     5.Uses positive adjectives in written compositions
     6.Understands the concept of a comparative adjective
     7.Uses comparative adjectives in written compositions
     8.Understands the concept of an superlative adjective
   Benchmark 5.Uses adverbs in written compositions (e.g., chooses between forms of adverbs such as positive, comparative, superlative degrees)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Chooses between forms of adverbs
     2.Use positive adverbs in written compositions
     3.Use comparative adverbs in written compositions
     4.Use superlative adverbs in written compositions
   Benchmark 6.Uses prepositions and coordinating conjunctions in written compositions (e.g., uses prepositional phrases, combines and embeds ideas using conjunctions)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the concept of a preposition
     2.Uses prepositions in written compositions
     3.Uses coordinating conjunctions in written compositions
     4.Understands the concept of a prepositional phrase
     5.Uses prepositional phrases
     6.Combines ideas using conjunctions
     7.Embeds ideas using conjunctions
   Benchmark 7.Uses interjections in written compositions
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the concept of an interjection
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Uses pronouns in written compositions (e.g., reflexive, indefinite, interrogative, compound personal)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses compound personal pronouns
     2.Understands the concept of a reflexive pronoun
     3.Uses reflexive pronouns
     4.Understands the concept of an indefinite pronoun
     5.Uses indefinite pronouns
     6.Understands the concept of an interrogative pronoun
     7.Uses interrogative pronouns
     8.Understands the concept of a compound personal pronoun
   Benchmark 2.Uses nouns in written compositions (e.g., collective nouns, compound nouns, noun clauses, noun phrases)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the concept of a collective noun
     2.Uses collective nouns
     3.Understands the concept of a compound noun
     4.Uses compound nouns
     5.Understands the concept of a noun clause
     6.Uses noun clauses
     7.Understands the concept of a noun phrase
     8.Uses noun phrases
   Benchmark 3.Uses verbs in written compositions (e.g., present perfect, past perfect, and future perfect verb tenses; progressive verb forms, compound verbs)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses compound verbs
     2.Understands present perfect verb tense
     3.Uses present perfect verb tense
     4.Understands past perfect verb tense
     5.Uses past perfect verb tense
     6.Understands future perfect verb tenses
     7.Uses future perfect verb tense
     8.Understands progressive verb form
     9.Uses progressive verb forms
     10.Understands the concept of compound verbs
   Benchmark 4.Uses adjectives in written compositions (e.g., adjective clauses, adjective phrases; relocates adjectives following nouns they modify)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Relocates adjectives following nouns they modify
     2.Understands the concept of an adjective clause
     3.Uses adjective clauses
     4.Understands the concept of an adjective phrase
     5.Uses adjective phrases
   Benchmark 5.Uses adverbs in written compositions (e.g., adverb clauses, adverb phrases)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the concept of an adverb clause
     2.Uses adverb clauses
     3.Understands the concept of an adverb phrase
     4.Uses adverb phrases
   Benchmark 6.Uses conjunctions (e.g., correlative and subordinating conjunctions, conjunctive adverbs) to connect or introduce independent and dependent clauses in written compositions
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the concept of a correlative conjunction
     2.Uses correlative conjunctions
     3.Understands the concept of a subordinating conjunction
     4.Uses subordinating conjunctions
     5.Understands the concept of a conjunctive adverb
     6.Uses conjunctive adverbs
   Benchmark 10.Uses commonly confused terms in written compositions (e.g., affect and effect)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows terms that are frequently misused in writing