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Topic: Decoding/Word identification 

Language Arts

 Standard 5.  Uses the general skills and strategies of the reading process
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 3.Uses basic elements of phonetic analysis (e.g., common letter/sound relationships, beginning and ending consonants, vowel sounds, blends, word patterns) to decode unknown words
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses common letter/sound relationships to decode unknown words
     2.Uses beginning consonants to decode unknown words
     3.Uses ending consonants to decode unknown words
     4.Uses vowel sounds to decode unknown words
     5.Uses blends to decode unknown words
     6.Uses word patterns to decode unknown words
   Benchmark 4.Uses basic elements of structural analysis (e.g., syllables, basic prefixes, suffixes, inflectional endings, root words, compound words, spelling patterns, contractions) to decode unknown words
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses contractions to decode unknown words
     2.Uses syllables to decode unknown words
     3.Uses basic prefixes to decode unknown words
     4.Uses suffixes to decode unknown words
     5.Uses inflectional endings to decode unknown words
     6.Uses root words to decode unknown words appropriate to K-2
     7.Uses compound words to decode unknown words
     8.Uses spelling patterns to decode unknown words
   Benchmark 5.Uses a picture dictionary to determine word meaning
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the type of information found in a picture dictionary
   Benchmark 6.Understands level-appropriate sight words and vocabulary (e.g., words for persons, places, things, actions, and feelings; words that appeal to the senses; high frequency words such as said, was, and where)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands sight words
     2.Understands level-appropriate vocabulary
     3.Understands words for persons
     4.Understands words for places
     5.Understands words for things
     6.Understands words for actions
     7.Understands words for feelings
     8.Understands words that appeal to the senses
     9.Understands high-frequency words
   Benchmark 8.Reads aloud familiar stories, poems, and passages with fluency and expression (e.g., rhythm, flow, meter, tempo, pitch, tone, intonation)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Reads aloud familiar stories with fluency
     2.Reads aloud familiar poems with fluency
     3.Reads aloud familiar passages with fluency
     4.Reads aloud familiar stories with expression
     5.Reads aloud familiar poems with expression
     6.Reads aloud familiar passages with expression
     7.Reads aloud familiar stories with rhythm
     8.Reads aloud familiar stories with flow
     9.Reads aloud familiar stories with meter
     10.Reads aloud familiar stories with tempo
     11.Reads aloud familiar stories with pitch
     12.Reads aloud familiar stories with tone
     13.Reads aloud familiar stories with intonation
     14.Reads aloud familiar poems with rhythm
     15.Reads aloud familiar poems with flow
     16.Reads aloud familiar poems with meter
     17.Reads aloud familiar poems with tempo
     18.Reads aloud familiar poems with pitch
     19.Reads aloud familiar poems with tone
     20.Reads aloud familiar poems with intonation
     21.Reads aloud familiar passages with rhythm
     22.Reads aloud familiar passages with flow
     23.Reads aloud familiar passages with meter
     24.Reads aloud familiar passages with tempo
     25.Reads aloud familiar passages with pitch
     26.Reads aloud familiar passages with tone
     27.Reads aloud familiar passages with intonation
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 4.Uses phonetic and structural analysis techniques, syntactic structure, and semantic context to decode unknown words (e.g., vowel patterns, complex word families, syllabication, root words, affixes)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses phonetic techniques to decode unknown words
     2.Uses structural analysis techniques to decode unknown words
     3.Uses syntactic structure to decode unknown words
     4.Uses semantic context to decode unknown words
     5.Uses vowel patterns to decode unknown words
     6.Uses complex word families to decode unknown words
     7.Uses syllabication to decode unknown words
     8.Uses root words to decode unknown words appropriate to grades 3-5
     9.Uses affixes to decode unknown words
   Benchmark 5.Use a variety of context clues to decode unknown words (e.g., draws on earlier reading, reads ahead)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Reads ahead to decode unknown words
     2.Draws on earlier reading to decode unknown words
   Benchmark 6.Uses word reference materials (e.g., glossary, dictionary, thesaurus) to determine the meaning, pronunciation, and derivations of unknown words
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses word reference materials to determine the meaning of unknown words
     2.Uses word reference materials to determine the pronunciation of unknown words
     3.Uses word reference materials to determine derivations of unknown words
     4.Uses glossaries to determine the meaning of unknown words
     5.Uses dictionaries to determine the meaning of unknown words
     6.Uses dictionaries to determine the pronunciation of unknown words
   Benchmark 7.Understands level-appropriate reading vocabulary (e.g., synonyms, antonyms, homophones, multi-meaning words)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands reading vocabulary
     2.Understands synonyms appropriate to grades 3-5
     3.Understands antonyms appropriate to 3-5
     4.Understands homophones
     5.Understands multi-meaning words
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 2.Uses word origins and derivations to understand word meaning (e.g., Latin and Greek roots and affixes, meanings of foreign words frequently used in the English language, historical influences on English word meanings)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses word origins to understand word meaning
     2.Uses word derivations to understand word meaning
     3.Uses Latin roots to understand word meaning
     4.Uses Latin affixes to understand word meaning
     5.Uses Greek roots to understand word meaning
     6.Uses Greek affixes to understand word meaning
     7.Understands the meaning of foreign words used in the English language
     8.Understands historical influences on English word meanings
     9.Knows the meaning of a variety of Latin roots and affixes
     10.Knows the meaning of a variety of Greek roots and affixes
   Benchmark 3.Uses a variety of strategies to extend reading vocabulary (e.g., uses analogies, idioms, similes, metaphors to infer the meaning of literal and figurative phrases;uses context clues, such as word function and placement; uses definition, restatement, example, comparison and contrast to verify word meanings; identifies shades of meaning; knows denotative and connotative meanings; knows vocabulary related to different content areas and current events; uses rhyming dictionaries, classification books, etymological dictionaries)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses etymological dictionaries
     2.Uses knowledge of analogies to infer the meaning of phrases
     3.Uses knowledge of idioms to infer the meaning of phrases
     4.Uses knowledge of similes to infer the meaning of phrases
     5.Uses knowledge of metaphors to infer the meaning of phrases
     6.Uses context clues to verify word meanings
     7.Uses definition to verify word meanings
     8.Uses restatement to verify word meanings
     9.Uses examples to verify word meanings
     10.Uses comparison to verify word meanings
     11.Uses contrast to verify word meanings
     12.Identifies shades of meaning
     13.Knows denotative meanings of words
     14.Knows connotative meanings of words
     15.Knows vocabulary related to different content areas
     16.Knows vocabulary related to different current events
     17.Uses rhyming dictionaries to extend reading vocabulary
     18.Uses classification books to extend reading vocabulary
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Uses context to understand figurative, idiomatic, and technical meanings of terms
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses context to understand figurative meanings of terms
     2.Uses context to understand idiomatic meanings of terms
     3.Uses context to understand technical meanings of terms
   Benchmark 2.Extends general and specialized reading vocabulary (e.g., interprets the meaning of codes, symbols, abbreviations, and acronyms; uses Latin, Greek, Anglo-Saxon roots and affixes to infer meaning; understands subject-area terminology; understands word relationships, such as analogies or synonyms and antonyms; uses cognates; understands allusions to mythology and other literature; understands connotative and denotative meanings)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Extends general reading vocabulary
     2.Extends specialized reading vocabulary
     3.Interprets meaning of codes
     4.Interprets meaning of symbols
     5.Interprets meaning of abbreviations
     6.Interprets meaning of acronyms
     7.Uses Latin roots to infer meaning
     8.Uses Latin affixes to infer meaning
     9.Uses Greek roots to infer meaning
     10.Uses Greek affixes to infer meaning
     11.Uses Anglo-Saxon roots to infer meaning
     12.Uses Anglo-Saxon affixes to infer meaning
     13.Understands subject-area terminology
     14.Understands word relationships
     15.Understands analogies
     16.Understands synonyms appropriate to 9-12
     17.Understands antonyms appropriate to 9-12
     18.Uses cognates to understand vocabulary
     19.Understands allusions to mythology
     20.Understands allusions to other literature
     21.Understands connotative meanings
     22.Understands denotative meanings