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Topic: Unification of the Mediterranean basin under Roman rule 

World History

 Standard 9.  Understand how major religious and large-scale empires arose in the Mediterranean Basin, China, and India from 500 BCE to 300 CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the origins and social framework of Roman society (e.g., the geographic location of different ethnic groups on the Italian peninsula in the late 6th century BCE and their influences on early Roman society and culture, how legends of the founding of Rome describe ancient Rome and reflect the beliefs and values of its citizens, what life was like for the common people living in Rome and Pompeii)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the origins of Roman society
     2.Understands the social framework of Roman society
     3.Knows the geographic location of different ethnic groups on the Italian peninsula in the late 6th century BCE
     4.Understands the influence of different ethnic groups on the Italian peninsula on early Roman society and culture
     5.Knows how legends of the founding of Rome describe ancient Rome
     6.Knows how legends of the founding of Rome reflect the beliefs and values of its citizens
     7.Understands what life was like for the common people living in Rome and Pompeii
   Benchmark 2.Understands shifts in the political and social framework of Roman society (e.g., political and social institutions of the Roman Republic and reasons for its transformation from Republic to Empire; how values changed from the early Republic to the last years of the Empire as reflected through the lives of such Romans as Cincinnatus, Scipio Africanus, Tiberius Gracchus, Cicero, Julius Caesar, Augustus, Nero, Marcus Aurelius, and Constantine)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands shifts in the political framework of Roman society
     2.Understands shifts in the social framework of Roman society
     3.Knows political institutions of the Roman Republic
     4.Knows social institutions of the Roman Republic
     5.Knows reasons for the transformation of the Roman Republic from Republic to Empire
     6.Understands how values changed from the early Republic to the last years of the Empire as reflected through the lives of such Romans as Cincinnatus, Scipio Africanus, Tiberius Gracchus, Cicero, Julius Caesar, Augustus, Nero, Marcus Aurelius, and Constantine
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the significant individuals and achievements of Roman society (e.g., the major legal, artistic, architectural, technological, and literary achievements of the Roman Republic; the influence of Hellenistic cultural traditions; the accomplishments of different, famous Roman citizens [Cincinnatus, the Gracchi, Cicero, Constantine, Nero, Marcus Aurelius])
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the significant individuals of Roman society
     2.Understands the achievements of Roman society
     3.Knows the major legal achievements of the Roman Republic
     4.Knows the major artistic achievements of the Roman Republic
     5.Knows the major architectural achievements of the Roman Republic
     6.Knows the major technological achievements of the Roman Republic
     7.Knows the major literary achievements of the Roman Republic
     8.Understands the influence of Hellenistic cultural traditions on Roman culture
     9.Knows the accomplishments of different, famous Roman citizens (Cincinnatus, the Gracchi, Cicero, Constantine, Nero, Marcus Aurelius)
   Benchmark 2.Understands influences on the economic and political framework of Roman society (e.g., how Roman unity contributed to the growth of trade among lands of the Mediterranean basin; the importance of Roman commercial connections with Sub-Saharan Africa, India, and East Asia; the history of the Punic Wars and the consequences of the wars for Rome; the major phases of Roman expansion, including the Roman occupation of Britain)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands influences on the economic framework of Roman society
     2.Understands influences on the political framework of Roman society
     3.Understands how Roman unity contributed to the growth of trade among lands of the Mediterranean basin
     4.Understands the importance of Roman commercial connections with Sub Saharan Africa, India, and East Asia
     5.Knows the history of the Punic Wars and the consequences of the wars for Rome
     6.Knows the major phases of Roman expansion, including the Roman occupation of Britain
   Benchmark 5.Understands the status and role of women in Roman society
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the status of women in Roman society
     2.Understands the role of women in Roman society
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands shifts in the political framework of Roman society (e.g., major phases in the empire's expansion through the 1st century CE; how imperial rule over a vast area transformed Roman society, economy, and culture; the causes and consequences of the transition from Republic to Empire under Augustus in Rome; how Rome governed its provinces from the late Republic to the Empire; how innovations in ancient military technology affected patterns of warfare and empire building)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows major phases in the Roman Empire’s expansion through the 1st century CE
     2.Understands how imperial rule over a vast area transformed Roman society
     3.Understands how imperial rule over a vast area transformed the Roman economy
     4.Understands how imperial rule over a vast area transformed Roman culture
     5.Understands the causes and consequences of the transition from Republic to Empire under Augustus in Rome
     6.Understands how Rome governed its provinces from the late Republic to the Empire
     7.Understands how innovations in ancient military technology affected patterns of warfare
     8.Understands how innovations in ancient military technology affected empire building
   Benchmark 6.Understands the political, commercial, and cultural uses of Latin and Greek as universal languages of the Roman Empire
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the political uses of Latin and Greek as universal languages of the Roman Empire
     2.Understands the commercial uses of Latin and Greek as universal languages of the Roman Empire
     3.Understands the cultural uses of Latin and Greek as universal languages of the Roman Empire
   Benchmark 7.Understands the political legacy of Roman society (e.g., influences of the Roman Constitution on the modern U.S. political system)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands influences of the Roman Constitution on the modern U.S. political system