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Topic: State-building in Northeast and West Africa 

World History

 Standard 7.  Understands technological and cultural innovation and change from 1000 to 600 BCE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 6.Understands the importance of maritime trade to the kingdom of Askum (e.g., the goods traded in this kingdom, and the situation that enabled Askum to play a role in long-distance trade)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the goods traded in the kingdom of Askum
     2.Understands the situation that enabled Askum to play a role in long distance trade
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the emergence of states south of the Sahara desert and the influence of metal technology in Sub-Saharan and West Africa (e.g., theories about the spread of iron technology in West and East Africa, whether iron technology was brought to West Africa or developed in this region independently, what archaeological evidence such as Nok terra cotta figures and metal implements illustrate about the society and culture of their West African creators)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the emergence of states south of the Sahara desert
     2.Understands the influence of metal technology in Sub Saharan and West Africa
     3.Understands theories about the spread of iron technology in West and East Africa
     4.Knows theories about whether iron technology was brought to West Africa or developed in this region independently
     5.Understands what archaeological evidence such as Nok terra cotta figures and metal implements illustrate about the society and culture of their West African creators
 Standard 16.  Understands the development of agricultural societies and new states in tropical Africa and Oceania
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands influences on state-building in West Africa (e.g., how the natural environments of West Africa defined agricultural production, and the importance of the Niger River in promoting agriculture, commerce, and state-building; the growth of the Ghana empire; how Islam, labor specialization, regional commerce and the trans-Saharan camel trade promoted urbanization in West Africa; the governing system of the royal court in Ghana, and how the effectiveness of imperial efforts was aided by a belief in the king's divinity)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the natural environments of West Africa defined agricultural production
     2.Understands the importance of the Niger River in promoting agriculture, commerce, and state building
     3.Understands the growth of the Ghana empire
     4.Understands how Islam promoted urbanization in West Africa
     5.Understands how labor specialization promoted urbanization in West Africa
     6.Understands how regional commerce promoted urbanization in West Africa
     7.Understands how the trans Saharan camel trade promoted urbanization in West Africa
     8.Understands the governing system of the royal court in Ghana
     9.Understands how the effectiveness of imperial efforts in Ghana was aided by a belief in the king’s divinity
   Benchmark 3.Understands the role of oral history in understanding West African history (e.g., the griot "keeper of tales" and other sources used to understand history)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the griot "keeper of tales" and other sources used to understand history
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands economic, social, and religious influences on Ghana society (e.g., what archaeological evidence indicates about the development of Jenne-jeno and Kumbi-Saleh into important early commercial cities; the agriculture, trade, standard of living, expansionary tendencies and role of religious ideas in Ghana)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands economic influences on Ghana society
     2.Understands social influences on Ghana society
     3.Understands religious influences on Ghana society
     4.Knows what archaeological evidence indicates about the development of Jenn jeno and Kumbi Saleh into important early commercial cities
     5.Understands the features of agriculture in Ghana
     6.Understands features of trade in Ghana
     7.Understands the standard of living in Ghana
     8.Understands the expansionary tendencies of Ghana society
     9.Understands the role of religious ideas in Ghana
   Benchmark 3.Understands settlement patterns in different regions of Africa (e.g., causes and consequences of the settling of East, Central, and Southern Africa by Bantu-speaking farmers and cattle herders until 1000 CE)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows causes of the settling of East Africa by Bantu speaking farmers and cattle herders until 1000 CE
     2.Knows causes of the settling of Central Africa by Bantu speaking farmers and cattle herders until 1000 CE
     3.Knows causes of the settling of Southern Africa by Bantu speaking farmers and cattle herders until 1000 CE
     4.Knows the consequences of the settling of East Africa by Bantu speaking farmers and cattle herders until 1000 CE
     5.Knows the consequences of the settling of Central Africa by Bantu speaking farmers and cattle herders until 1000 CE
     6.Knows the consequences of the settling of Southern Africa by Bantu speaking farmers and cattle herders until 1000 CE