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Topic: Social, political, and economic characteristics of society 

United States History

 Standard 4.  Understands how political, religious, and social institutions emerged in the English colonies
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands characteristics of the social structure of colonial America (e.g., the property rights of single, married, and widowed women; public education in the New England colonies and how it differed from the southern colonies, different patterns of family life; different ideals among diverse religious groups, social classes, and cultures; different roles and status of men and women)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the property rights of single women in colonial America
     2.Understands the property rights of married women in colonial America
     3.Understands the property rights of widowed women in colonial America
     4.Knows about public education in the New England colonies
     5.Knows about public education in the southern colonies
     6.Understands the differences between public education in the New England colonies and the southern colonies
     7.Knows different patterns of family life in colonial America
     8.Understands different ideals among diverse religious groups in colonial America
     9.Understands different ideals among social classes in colonial America
     10.Understands different ideals among diverse cultures in colonial America
     11.Understands the different roles of men and women in colonial America
     12.Understands the different status of men and women in colonial America
 Standard 8.  Understands the institutions and practices of government created during the Revolution and how these elements were revised between 1787 and 1815 to create the foundation of the American political system based on the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the issues that impacted the lives of farmers in western Pennsylvania during the Whiskey Rebellion
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the issues that impacted the lives of farmers in western Pennsylvania (1790’s)
     2.Knows about the Whiskey Rebellion
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 7.Understands the factors that led to the Whiskey Rebellion (e.g., the extent to which the rebellion was a confrontation between the haves and the have-nots; the government's reaction; similarities and differences between grievances of the Whiskey Rebels and those of the Regulators, the Paxton Boys, and the Shaysites)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the extent to which the Whiskey Rebellion was a confrontation between the haves and the have-nots
     2.Knows about the government’s reaction to the Whiskey Rebellion
     3.Understands the similarities between grievances of the Whiskey Rebels and those of the Regulators
     4.Understands the differences between grievances of the Whiskey Rebels and those of the Regulators
     5.Understands the similarities between grievances of the Whiskey Rebels and those of the Paxton Boys
     6.Understands the differences between grievances of the Whiskey Rebels and those of the Paxton Boys
     7.Understands the similarities between grievances of the Whiskey Rebels and those of the Shaysites
     8.Understands the differences between grievances of the Whiskey Rebels and those of the Shaysites
 Standard 10.  Understands how the industrial revolution, increasing immigration, the rapid expansion of slavery, and the westward movement changed American lives and led to regional tensions
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands social and economic elements of urban and rural life in the early and mid-19th centuries (e.g., the impact of the factory system on gender roles and the daily life of men, women, and children; factors that caused rapid urbanization; city life in the 1840s; differences in urban and rural childrens’ lives, life in New England mill towns in the early 1800s, the impact of the canal and railroad on the locations and size of cities after 1820)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the social elements of urban life in the early and mid-19th century
     2.Understands the social elements of rural life in the early and mid-19th century
     3.Understands the economic elements of urban life in the early and mid-19th century
     4.Understands the economic elements of rural life in the early and mid-19th century
     5.Understands the impact of the factory system on gender roles
     6.Understands the impact of the factory system on the daily life of men
     7.Understands the impact of the factory system on the daily life of women
     8.Understands the impact of the factory system on the daily life of children
     9.Understands the factors that caused rapid urbanization in the early and mid-19th century
     10.Understands city life in the 1840’s
     11.Understands differences in urban and rural childrens’ lives in the early and mid-19th century
     12.Understands life in New England mill towns in the early 1800’s
     13.Understands the impact of the canal on the locations of cities after 1820
     14.Understands the impact of the canal on the size of cities after 1820
     15.Understands the impact of the railroad on the locations of cities after 1820

World History

 Standard 10.  Understands how early agrarian civilizations arose in Mesoamerica
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the framework of Olmec society and the influence of Olmec civilization on other civilizations (e.g., the cultural influence of the Olmec on the development of Zapotec and Mayan civilizations; the role of trade in the diffusion of this culture; the political, economic, and social structure of Olmec society and Olmec beliefs, and how this knowledge has been acquired in spite of undeciphered written records)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the framework of Olmec society
     5.Understands the political structure of Olmec society
     6.Understands the economic structure of Olmec society
     7.Understands the social structure of Olmec society
 Standard 12.  Understands the Imperial crises and their aftermath in various regions from 300 to 700 CE
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands political and social elements during the decline of the Roman and Han Empires and the rise of the Byzantine Empire (e.g., the strengths and weaknesses of the Eastern and Western Roman Empires and the factors that enabled the Byzantine Empire to continue as Rome fell; how Constantine selectively supported aspects of Western rule with Eastern institutions to create a new, independent, Byzantine state in the 4th century CE; the links between military, social, and economic causes for the decline in the Han and Roman Empires; the impact of barbarian movements on the regions of Europe, China, and India by the end of the 7th century CE; the life of Germanic peoples and society including the status and role of women)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands political elements during the decline of the Roman and Han Empires and the rise of the Byzantine Empire
     2.Understands social elements during the decline of the Roman and Han Empires and the rise of the Byzantine Empire
     6.Understands the links between military, social, and economic causes for the decline in the Han and Roman Empires
     8.Understands the life of Germanic peoples and society including the status and role of women
 Standard 13.  Understands the causes and consequences of the development of Islamic civilization between the 7th and 10th centuries
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Understands political and economic systems of the Byzantine state (e.g., Byzantium's imperial political system compared to that of the Abbasid state; understands patterns of economic, political, and military power in the manufacturing and trading centers of Constantinople and Baghdad )
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands political systems of the Byzantine state
     2.Understands economic systems of the Byzantine state
     3.Understands Byzantium’s imperial political system compared to that of the Abbasid state
     4.Understands patterns of economic power in the manufacturing and trading centers of Constantinople and Baghdad
     5.Understands patterns of military power in the manufacturing and trading centers of Constantinople and Baghdad
     6.Understands patterns of political power in the manufacturing and trading centers of Constantinople and Baghdad
 Standard 19.  Understands the maturation of an interregional system of communication, trade, and cultural exchange during a period of Chinese economic power and Islamic expansion
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the social and economic elements of Song China (e.g., how improved agricultural production and increased trade helped the growth of cities and the merchant class in Song China; the traditional social attitudes of China toward merchants and commercial activity; significant achievements and developments of the Song Dynasty, the rigors and class restrictions of the civil service examination in Song China)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the social elements of Song China
     2.Understands the economic elements of Song China
     4.Knows the traditional social attitudes of China toward merchants and commercial activity
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands religious, social, and political aspects of the Song Dynasty (e.g., the importance of women of gentry families in preserving and transmitting Chinese cultural values; Chinese advancements in alchemy, astronomy, and medicine; the values of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism as reflected in Song art; changes in the social and moral status of women as reflected in the practice of foot binding; the attitudes of typical Chinese gentlemen toward women, family, servants, tenants, and social inferiors; the debate during the Song Dynasty about how the government should respond to rapid social and economic change)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands social aspects of the Song Dynasty
     3.Understands political aspects of the Song Dynasty
     4.Understands the importance of women of gentry families in preserving and transmitting Chinese cultural values
     5.Knows Chinese advancements in alchemy
     12.Knows the attitudes of typical Chinese gentlemen toward women, family, servants, tenants, and social inferiors
     13.Understands the debate during the Song Dynasty about how the government should respond to rapid social and economic change
   Benchmark 6.Understands significant religious and economic aspects of Chinese society between the 10th and 13th centuries (e.g., the impact of economic growth on Chinese society and how it affected the gentry class; how Zhu Xi's basic ideas of Neo-Confucianism affected Chinese society, government, and education)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands significant economic aspects of Chinese society between the 10th and 13th centuries
     3.Understands the impact of economic growth on Chinese society and how it affected the gentry class
     4.Understands how Zhu Xi’s basic ideas of Neo Confucianism affected Chinese society, government, and education
   Benchmark 10.Understands cultural and political aspects of the Turkic Empires (e.g., the way of life of Turkic peoples such as the Seljuks, the origins and growth of the militaristic Seljuk and Ghazanavid Empires)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands cultural aspects of the Turkic Empires
     2.Understands political aspects of the Turkic Empires
     3.Understands the way of life of Turkic peoples such as the Seljuks
 Standard 21.  Understands the rise of the Mongol Empire and its consequences for Eurasian peoples from 1200 to 1350
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands political, social, and cultural features of the Mongol Empire (e.g., the chronology and consequences of the Mongol conquests of 1206 to 1279 on China, Southeast Asia, Russia, and Southwest Asia; the relative strengths and weaknesses of the nomadic Mongol lifestyle with regard to social, political, and economic organization, and why the Mongols prevailed; what legend and fact reveal about Mongol conquest and Mongol warriors)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands political features of the Mongol Empire
     2.Understands social cultural features of the Mongol Empire
     3.Understands cultural features of the Mongol Empire
     6.Understands the relative strengths and weaknesses of the nomadic Mongol lifestyle with regard to social, political, and economic organization
 Standard 22.  Understands the growth of states, towns, and trade in Sub-Saharan Africa between the 11th and 15th centuries
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands social and religious features of West Africa (e.g., what art reveals about the societies and rulers of Benin and Ile-Ife, the story of Solomon and Sheba and the role of Sheba in African history)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands social features of West Africa
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the development of the empires of Mali and Songhay (e.g., the importance of Islamic expansion in the political and cultural life of Mali and Songhay; the economic, social, and religious characteristics of the two empires; the observations of Ibn Battua and Leo Africanus in Mali and Songhay; the importance of the Monarch Mansa Musa in Mali)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands the economic characteristics of Mali
     6.Understands the social characteristics of Mali
     7.Understands the economic characteristics of Songhay
     9.Understands the social characteristics of Mali
     11.Understands the importance of the Monarch Mansa Musa in Mali
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the political, social, economic, and religious development of the West African Sudan and the East African coast between the 8th and 13th centuries (e.g., how these areas were affected by outside influences, the role of commerce in their development)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the political development of the West African Sudan and the East African coast between the 8th and 13th centuries
     2.Understands the social development of the West African Sudan and the East African coast between the 8th and 13th centuries
 Standard 23.  Understands patterns of crisis and recovery in Afro-Eurasia between 1300 and 1450
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands major changes in the social, political, and cultural characteristics of European society after the 14th century (e.g., the effect of population decline on European agrarian and commercial economies; causes of and major figures in the Hundred Years War; the causes of peasant rebellions in Europe between 1300 and 1500; how the techniques of painting, sculpting, and architecture changed in this period)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands major changes in the social characteristics of European society after the 14th century
     2.Understands major changes in the political characteristics of European society after the 14th century
     3.Understands major changes in the cultural characteristics of European society after the 14th century
     4.Understands the effect of population decline on European agrarian economies
     5.Understands the effect of population decline on European commercial economies
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands causes for changes in social, political, and religious events in Europe after the 14th century (e.g., how the population decreased after the Great Plague; the effect of the crises in the Catholic Church on its organization, prestige, and power; increased wage levels and what governments did to discourage these increases)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands causes for changes in social events in Europe after the 14th century
     2.Understands causes for changes in political events in Europe after the 14th century
     3.Understands causes for changes in religious events in Europe after the 14th century
     4.Understands how the population decreased after the Great Plague and how this affected European society
     5.Understands the effect of the crises in the Catholic Church on its organization, prestige, and power
     6.Understands increased wage levels and what European governments did to discourage these increases
   Benchmark 3.Understands the "humanism" that emerged in Italy in the 14th and 15th centuries, and how new studies (e.g., Greco-Roman antiquity, critical text analysis) encouraged new forms of literature, philosophy, and education
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the "humanism" that emerged in Italy in the 14th and 15th centuries
     2.Understands how new studies (e.g., Greco Roman antiquity, critical text analysis) encouraged new forms of literature, philosophy, and education
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands religious and political changes in post 14th-century Europe (e.g., the resurgence of centralized monarchies and economically powerful city-states in Western Europe in the 15th century, the elements and consequences of the "Great Western Schism")
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands political changes in post 14th century Europe
     3.Understands the resurgence of centralized monarchies and economically powerful city states in Western Europe in the 15th century
   Benchmark 8.Understands how economic conditions influenced the political and social climate in post 14th- century Europe (e.g., the impact of climatic change on the European agricultural system and the social and political consequences; how decreasing revenues led to competition between nobles for other sources of income, which increased the occurrence of civil wars)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how economic conditions influenced the political climate in post 14th century Europe
     2.Understands how economic conditions influenced the social climate in post 14th century Europe
     3.Understands the impact of climatic change on the European agricultural system and the social consequences
     4.Understands the impact of climatic change on the European agricultural system and the political consequences
     5.Understands how decreasing revenues led to competition between nobles for other sources of income, which increased the occurrence of civil wars
 Standard 24.  Understands the expansion of states and civilizations in the Americas between 1000 and 1500
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how the Aztec Empire arose in the 14th century (e.g., major aspects of Aztec government, society, religion and culture; the construction of Tenochtitl n, the "Foundation of Heaven")
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands major aspects of Aztec government
     2.Understands major aspects of Aztec society
     4.Understands major aspects of Aztec culture
   Benchmark 2.Understands social and political elements of Incan society (e.g., Incan methods for expansion and unification of their empire, daily life for different people in Incan society, the food plants that formed the basis of Incan as compared with Aztec agriculture)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands social elements of Incan society
     2.Understands political elements of Incan society
     4.Understands daily life for different people in Incan society
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands social and cultural features of Aztec society (e.g., the characteristics of Tenochtitl n that made it a unique city, gender roles in Aztec society and what these indicate about Aztec culture)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands social features of Aztec society
     2.Understands cultural features of Aztec society
   Benchmark 2.Understands cultural and economic elements of North American and Mesoamerican civilizations (e.g., the major characteristics of Toltecs, Anasazi, Pueblo, and North American mound-building peoples; patterns of long-distance trade centered in Mesoamerica)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands cultural elements of North American and Mesoamerican civilizations
     2.Understands economic elements of North American and Mesoamerican civilizations
     3.Knows the major characteristics of Toltecs, Anasazi, Pueblo, and North American mound building peoples
     4.Knows patterns of long distance trade centered in Mesoamerica
   Benchmark 3.Understands major political and social features of Incan society (e.g., the development of Incan social and political institutions, the chronology of Incan imperial expansion from 1230 to 1525 and the difficulties posed by its geographically an climatically diverse territories, the location and major features of Machu Picchu and what this site reveals about Incan civilization)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the development of Incan social institutions
     2.Understands the development of Incan political institutions
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands political, social, and economic features of Aztec society (e.g., the locations and geographic limits of different phases of the Aztec Empire, the role and status of women in Aztec society and how this compares to the Incan and Mayan societies, the complex structure and features of the Aztec city of Tenochtitl n)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands political features of Aztec society
     2.Understands social features of Aztec society
     3.Understands economic features of Aztec society
     5.Understands the role and status of women in Aztec society and how this compares to the Incan and Mayan societies
 Standard 25.  Understands major global trends from 1000 to 1500 CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands economic, political, and cultural differences and similarities between Europe and Asia (e.g., causes and consequences of productive growth, commercialization, urbanization, and technological or scientific innovation in Europe and China; society, economy, and political organization of Europe and Japan, and causes of economic growth, urbanization, and cultural innovation in the two regions)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands economic similarities between Europe and Asia
     2.Understands economic differences between Europe and Asia
     3.Understands political differences between Europe and Asia
     4.Understands political similarities between Europe and Asia
     5.Understands cultural differences between Europe and Asia
     6.Understands cultural similarities between Europe and Asia
     7.Understands causes and consequences of productive growth in Europe and China
     8.Understands causes and consequences of commercialization in Europe and China
     9.Understands causes and consequences of urbanization in Europe and China
     10.Understands causes and consequences of technological or scientific innovation in Europe and China
     11.Understands society of Europe and Japan from 1000 to 1500 CE
     12.Understands the economies of Europe and Japan from 1000 to 1500 CE
     13.Understands the political organization of Europe and Japan from 1000 to 1500 CE
     14.Understands causes of economic growth in Europe and Japan
     15.Understands the causes of urbanization in Europe and Japan
     16.Understands causes of cultural innovation in Europe and Japan
 Standard 26.  Understands how the transoceanic interlinking of all major regions of the world between 1450 and 1600 led to global transformations
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands significant social, economic, political, and cultural features of European society (particularly Spain and Portugal) that stimulated exploration and conquest overseas
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands significant social features of European society (particularly Spain and Portugal) that stimulated exploration and conquest overseas
     2.Understands significant economic features of European society (particularly Spain and Portugal) that stimulated exploration and conquest overseas
     3.Understands significant political features of European society (particularly Spain and Portugal) that stimulated exploration and conquest overseas
     4.Understands significant cultural features of European society (particularly Spain and Portugal) that stimulated exploration and conquest overseas
 Standard 27.  Understands how European society experienced political, economic, and cultural transformations in an age of global intercommunication between 1450 and 1750
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the social characteristics of European society from 1450 to 1750 (e.g., how lifestyles were different among varied social classes in early modern Europe, changes in institutions of serfdom, changes in the social status of women)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how lifestyles were different among varied social classes in early modern Europe
     2.Knows changes in institutions of serfdom in early modern Europe
     3.Knows changes in the social status of women in early modern Europe
 Standard 28.  Understands how large territorial empires dominated much of Eurasia between the 16th and 18th centuries
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands cultural, political, and economic factors that influenced the development of the Ottoman Empire (e.g., the development of the Ottoman Empire among diverse religious and ethnic groups, the Christian European view of the Ottoman seizure of Constantinople in 1453, trade routes within the Ottoman Empire and how trade was affected by the development of a sea route around Africa)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands cultural factors that influenced the development of the Ottoman Empire
     2.Understands political factors that influenced the development of the Ottoman Empire
     3.Understands economic factors that influenced the development of the Ottoman Empire
     4.Understands the development of the Ottoman Empire among diverse religious and ethnic groups
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands significant cultural and social features of the Ming Dynasty (e.g., the role of Neo-Confucianism, Buddhism, and Daoism in Ming government and society; how the Ming Dynasty brought cultural unity to China; the imperial examination system in China established under Ming rule)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands significant cultural features of the Ming Dynasty
     2.Understands significant social features of the Ming Dynasty
     3.Understands the role of Neo Confucianism in Ming government and society
     4.Understands the role of Buddhism in Ming government and society
     5.Understands the role of Daoism in Ming government and society
     6.Understands how the Ming Dynasty brought cultural unity to China
   Benchmark 3.Understands the social, economic, and cultural features of the Ottoman Empire (e.g., how Muslim, Orthodox, Catholic, and Jewish peoples interacted in southeastern Europe under Ottoman rule, the role and legal status of women within the Ottoman Empire, sources of revenue and patterns in state spending in the Ottoman Empire)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the social features of the Ottoman Empire
     2.Understands the economic features of the Ottoman Empire
     3.Understands the cultural features of the Ottoman Empire
     4.Understands how Muslim, Orthodox, Catholic, and Jewish peoples interacted in southeastern Europe under Ottoman rule
     5.Understands the role and legal status of women within the Ottoman Empire
     6.Knows sources of revenue and patterns in state spending in the Ottoman Empire
 Standard 30.  Understands transformations in Asian societies in the era of European expansion
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands social and political features of Japanese society under the Tokugawa shogunate (e.g., centralized feudalism in Japan and how Japan achieved political stability, economic growth, and cultural dynamism; the nature of the relationship between Japan and European powers between the 16th and 18th centuries)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands social features of Japanese society under the Tokugawa shogunate
     2.Understands political features of Japanese society under the Tokugawa shogunate
     3.Understands characteristics of centralized feudalism in Japan
     4.Understands how Japan achieved political stability, economic growth, and cultural dynamism
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands political, economic, and social aspects of Chinese society during the era of European expansion (e.g., how the Manchus overthrew the Ming Dynasty and the consequences of this event; demands and consequences of increasing population growth, agricultural output, commerce, and European trading networks in the Manchu Empire; treatment and opportunities open to women in 17th-and 18th-century China)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands political aspects of Chinese society during the era of European expansion
     2.Understands economic aspects of Chinese society during the era of European expansion
     3.Understands social aspects of Chinese society during the era of European expansion
     4.Knows how the Manchus overthrew the Ming Dynasty and the consequences of this event
     5.Understands demands and consequences of increasing population growth, agricultural output, commerce, and European trading networks in the Manchu Empire
     6.Knows the treatment of and opportunities open to women in 17th and 18th century China
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the cultural, economic, and social structure of China during the period of European commercial expansion (e.g., cultural and economic achievements of the Chinese during the reigns of the Kangzi and Qianlong emperors; the major differences in the trading policies of the Ming and Manchu, the factors that contributed to these changes, and European products desired by the Chinese; aspects of life of the elite in China; the family and its role in Chinese society)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the economic structure of China during the period of European commercial expansion
     3.Understands the social structure of China during the period of European commercial expansion
     5.Knows the economic achievements of the Chinese during the reigns of the Kangzi and Qianlong emperors
     9.Knows aspects of the life of the elite in China
     10.Understands the family and its role in Chinese society
 Standard 32.  Understands the causes and consequences of political revolutions in the late 18th and early 19th centuries
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 7.Understands elements of the Haitian revolution (e.g., the role of Touissant L'Overture, Haiti's social and economic conditions under French rule)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands Haiti’s social conditions under French rule
     3.Understands Haiti’s economic conditions under French rule
 Standard 34.  Understands how Eurasian societies were transformed in an era of global trade and the emergence of European power from 1750 to 1870
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 7.Understands the general political, social, and economic structure of Russia in the 1800s
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the general political structure of Russia in the 1800s
     2.Understands the general social structure of Russia in the 1800s
     3.Understands the general economic structure of Russia in the 1800s
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the social structure of the Ottoman Empire in the early and middle 19th century (e.g., the effects of population growth and European commercial penetration on Ottoman society and government; the roles of janissaries and Jewish and Christian merchants and landowners changed by the middle of the 19th century; the relative presence and the location of diverse religious and ethnic groups within the Ottoman Empire in 1800, and the prevailing Ottoman policy toward religion; the success and reception of the reforms of 1856 in the Hatt-I-Humayun issued by Abdul-Mejid)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the effects of population growth on Ottoman society and government
     2.Understands the effects of European commercial penetration on Ottoman society and government
     3.Understands how the roles of janissaries and Jewish and Christian merchants and landowners changed by the middle of the 19th century
     4.Knows the relative presence and the location of diverse religious and ethnic groups within the Ottoman Empire in 1800
     5.Knows the prevailing Ottoman policy toward religion
     6.Understands the success and reception of the reforms of 1856 in the Hatt I Humayun issued by Abdul Mejid
   Benchmark 11.Understands social conditions and change in Meiji Japan (e.g., the nature of living conditions for factory workers, aspects of education and social change, comparisons between the Meiji restoration and the French and American revolutions, the meaning and significance of various Meiji slogans)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands social conditions in Meiji Japan
     3.Understands the nature of living conditions for factory workers in Meiji Japan
 Standard 35.  Understands patterns of nationalism, state-building, and social reform in Europe and the Americas from 1830 to 1914
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 12.Understands sources that illustrate social conditions and cultural identity in 19th-century Europe (e.g., how primary sources such as diaries reflect the life experiences of middle and working class men and women in 19th-century Europe; the characteristics of popular, diverse 19th-century art styles, such as Romanticism, Realism, and Impressionism; how Europeans shaped their identity through their view of "other" peoples and cultures)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands sources that illustrate social conditions in 19th century Europe
     3.Understands how primary sources such as diaries reflect the life experiences of middle and working class men and women in 19th century Europe
     5.Understands how Europeans shaped their identity through their view of "other" peoples and cultures
 Standard 36.  Understands patterns of global change in the era of Western military and economic dominance from 1800 to 1914
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 6.Understands political and social elements of Chinese society in the late 19th and early 20th centuries (e.g., Chinese efforts to reform government and society after 1895, as well as related causes for revolution in 1911; how the Chinese reacted to the presence and activities of foreigners in their country in the late 1890s)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands political elements of Chinese society in the late 19th and early 20th centuries
     2.Understands social elements of Chinese society in the late 19th and early 20th centuries