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Topic: Social change and development 

United States History

 Standard 10.  Understands how the industrial revolution, increasing immigration, the rapid expansion of slavery, and the westward movement changed American lives and led to regional tensions
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands influences on urban life in the early and late 19th century (e.g., how rapid urbanization, immigration, and industrialization affected the social fabric of cities; individuals who contributed to the development of free black communities in the cities; the rise of racial hostility)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands influences on urban life in the early 19th century
     2.Understands influences on urban life in the late 19th century
     3.Understands how rapid urbanization affected the social fabric of cities
     4.Understands how immigration affected the social fabric of cities
     5.Understands how industrialization affected the social fabric of cities
     6.Knows about individuals who contributed to the development of free black communities in the cities
     7.Understands the rise of racial hostility
 Standard 15.  Understands how various reconstruction plans succeeded or failed
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands changes in social relations in the South during Reconstruction (e.g., the role of the Freedmen’s Bureau, the impact of emancipation in the South, how former slaves improved their position in society, how people from the North traveled to aid in Reconstruction)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the role of the Freedmen’s Bureau during Reconstruction
     2.Understands the impact of emancipation in the South
     3.Understands how former slaves improved their position in society during Reconstruction
     4.Understands how people from the North traveled to aid in Reconstruction
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands changes in the political and social structure in different regions during Reconstruction (e.g., changes in political and economic positions of African Americans in the North; changes in gender roles and status in the North, South and West; contributions of African Americans who served in state and national offices; personal challenges to Freedmen)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands changes in the political structure in different regions during Reconstruction
     2.Understands changes in the social structure in different regions during Reconstruction
     3.Understands changes in political positions of African Americans in the North during Reconstruction
     4.Understands changes in economic positions of African Americans in the North during Reconstruction
     5.Understands changes in gender roles in the North during Reconstruction
     6.Understands changes in gender roles in the South during Reconstruction
     7.Understands changes in gender roles in the West during Reconstruction
     8.Understands changes in gender status in the North during Reconstruction
     9.Understands changes in gender status in the South during Reconstruction
     10.Understands changes in gender status in the West during Reconstruction
     11.Understands the contributions of African Americans who served in state offices during Reconstruction
     12.Understands the contributions of African Americans who served in national offices during Reconstruction
     13.Understands personal challenges to Freedmen during Reconstruction
 Standard 16.  Understands how the rise of corporations, heavy industry, and mechanized farming transformed American society
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the economic and social changes that occurred in late 19th century American cities (e.g., where industries and transportation expanded; geographic reasons for building factories, commercial centers, and transportation hubs; why different groups moved from the farms to the big cities and how they adjusted; living conditions in the growing cities)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the economic changes that occurred in late 19th century American cities
     2.Understands the social changes that occurred in late 19th century American cities
     3.Understands where industries expanded in late 19th century American cities
     4.Understands where transportation expanded in late 19th century American cities
     5.Understands geographic reasons for building factories in late 19th century American cities
     6.Understands geographic reasons for building commercial centers in late 19th century American cities
     7.Understands geographic reasons for building transportation hubs in late 19th century American cities
     8.Understands why different groups moved from the farms to the big cities in the late 19th century
     9.Understands how groups that moved from the farms to the big cities adjusted in the late 19th century
     10.Knows about the living conditions in the growing cities of late 19th century America
   Benchmark 3.Understands social development and labor patterns in the late 19th century West (e.g., major technological and geographic influences that affected farming, mining, and ranching; conflicts among farmers, ranchers, and miners during settlement; life on the Great Plains and the idea of "frontier")
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands social development in the late 19th century West
     2.Understands labor patterns in the late 19th century West
     3.Understands major technological influences that affected farming in the late 19th century West
     4.Understands major geographic influences that affected farming in the late 19th century West
     5.Understands major technological influences that affected mining in the late 19th century West
     6.Understands major geographic influences that affected mining in the late 19th century West
     7.Understands major technological influences that affected ranching in the late 19th century West
     8.Understands major geographical influences that affected ranching in the late 19th century West
     9.Understands conflicts among farmers, ranchers, and miners during settlement in the late 19th century West
     10.Knows about life on the Great Plains during the late 19th century
     11.Understands the idea of "frontier"
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands influences on the development of the American West (e.g., cross-cultural encounters and conflicts among different racial and ethnic groups; the daily life of women on the western frontier; disputes between farmers, ranchers, and miners over water rights and open ranges)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands cross-cultural encounters among different racial groups in the American West
     2.Understands cross-cultural encounters among different ethnic groups in the American West
     3.Understands cross-cultural conflicts among different racial groups in the American West
     4.Understands cross-cultural conflicts among different ethnic groups in the American West
     5.Understands the daily life of women on the western frontier
     6.Understands the disputes between farmers, ranchers, and miners over water rights in the American West
     7.Understands the disputes between farmers, ranchers, and miners over open ranges in the American West
 Standard 17.  Understands massive immigration after 1870 and how new social patterns, conflicts, and ideas of national unity developed amid growing cultural diversity
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands changes in American life in the late 19th century (e.g., how regional artists and writers portrayed American life, attitudes, and values; reasons for the appeal of new sports, entertainment, and recreational activities; changes in lifestyles)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how regional artists portrayed American life in the late 19th century
     2.Understands how regional writers portrayed American life in the late 19th century
     3.Understands how regional artists portrayed American attitudes in the late 19th century
     4.Understands how regional writers portrayed American attitudes in the late 19th century
     5.Understands how regional artists portrayed American values in the late 19th century
     6.Understands how regional writers portrayed American values in the late 19th century
     7.Understands the reasons for the appeal of new sports in the late 19th century
     8.Understands the reasons for the appeal of new entertainment in the late 19th century
     9.Understands the reasons for the appeal of new recreational activities in the late 19th century
     10.Understands the changes in lifestyles in the late 19th century
 Standard 22.  Understands how the United States changed between the post-World War I years and the eve of the Great Depression
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands changes in the social and cultural life of American society in the 1920s (e.g., art and literature from the social realists to the "Lost Generation," how cultural trends were introduced into mainstream society, reasons for increased leisure time in the 1920s)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands changes in the social life of American society in the 1920s
     2.Understands changes in the cultural life of American society in the 1920s
     3.Understands art from the social realists to the "Lost Generation"
     4.Understands literature from the social realists to the "Lost Generation"
     5.Understands how cultural trends were introduced into mainstream society in the 1920s
     6.Understands reasons for increased leisure time in the 1920s
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the major social issues of 1920s America (e.g., the emergence of the "New Woman" and challenges to Victorian values, the purpose and goals of the "New Klan," the causes and outcome of Prohibition, the ethnic composition of immigrants and fears these changes represented, the "Red Scare," the Sacco and Vanzetti trial)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the emergence of the "New Woman" in 1920s America
     2.Understands challenges to Victorian values in 1920s America
     3.Understands the purpose and goals of the "New Klan" in 1920s America
     4.Understands the causes of Prohibition
     5.Understands the outcome of Prohibition
     6.Understands the ethnic composition of immigrants in 1920s America
     7.Understands the fears of 1920s society
     8.Understands the "Red Scare" in the 1920s
     9.Understands the Sacco trial
     10.Understands the Vanzetti trial
 Standard 25.  Understands the causes and course of World War II, the character of the war at home and abroad, and its reshaping of the U.S. role in world affairs
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 7.Understands how World War II influenced American society (e.g., how the war fostered cultural exchange and promoted nationalism and American identity, the effects on gender roles and the American family)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how World War II fostered cultural exchange
     2.Understands how World War II promoted nationalism
     3.Understands how World War II promoted and American identity
     4.Understands the effects of World War II on gender roles
     5.Understands the effects of World War II on the American family
 Standard 26.  Understands the economic boom and social transformation of post-World War II United States
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands influences on American society during the post-World War II years (e.g., the effects of the G.I. Bill, the influence of popular culture and the mass media)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the effects of the G.I. Bill
     2.Understands the influence of popular culture during the post-World War II years
     3.Understands the influence of mass media during the post-World War II years
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the immediate social, political, and economic impacts on America after World War II (e.g., the economic and political effects of demobilization and reconversion; the growth and impact of opportunities in the service, white collar, and professional sectors in government and business; the growth of the middle class)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the immediate social impacts of World War II on America
     2.Understands the immediate political impacts of World War II on America
     3.Understands the immediate economic impacts of World War II on America
     4.Understands the economic effects of demobilization
     5.Understands the economic effects of reconversion
     6.Understands the political effects of demobilization
     7.Understands the political effects of reconversion
     8.Understands the growth of opportunities in the service sectors in government after World War II
     9.Understands the growth of opportunities in the service sectors in business after World War II
     10.Understands the growth of opportunities in the white collar sectors in government after World War II
     11.Understands the growth of opportunities in the white collar sectors in business after World War II
     12.Understands the growth of opportunities in the professional sectors in government after World War II
     13.Understands the growth of opportunities in the professional sectors in business after World War II
     14.Understands the growth of the middle class after World War II
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands social, religious, cultural, and economic changes at the onset of the Cold War era (e.g., the causes and results of new governmental spending on educational programs, the expansion of suburbanization and the impact of the "crabgrass frontier," the role of religion, the impact of the GI Bill on higher education, how the Cold War influenced the lives and roles of women, how artists and writers portrayed the effects of alienation on the individual and society after 1945)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands social changes at the onset of the Cold War era
     2.Understands religious changes at the onset of the Cold War era
     3.Understands cultural changes at the onset of the Cold War era
     4.Understands economic changes at the onset of the Cold War era
     5.Understands the causes and results of new governmental spending on educational programs
     6.Understands the impact of the GI Bill on higher education
     7.Understands how the Cold War influenced the lives and roles of women
     8.Knows how artists and writers portrayed the effects of alienation on the individual and society after 1945
 Standard 31.  Understands economic, social, and cultural developments in the contemporary United States
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Understands major contemporary social issues and the groups involved (e.g., the current debate over affirmative action and to what degree affirmative action policies have reached their goals; the evolution of government support for the rights of the disabled; the emergence of the Gay Liberation Movement and civil rights of gay Americans; continuing debates over multiculturalism, bilingual education, and group identity and rights vs. individual rights and identity; successes and failures of the modern feminist movement)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows about major contemporary social issues
     2.Knows the groups involved in major contemporary social issues
     3.Knows about the current debate over affirmative action
     4.Knows to what extent affirmative action policies have reached their goals
     5.Knows about the evolution of government support for the rights of the disabled
     6.Knows about the Gay Liberation Movement and the progress of civil rights of gay Americans
     7.Knows sides of the debates over multiculturalism
     8.Knows sides of the debates over bilingual education
     9.Knows about the tension between group rights and identity and individual rights and identity

World History

 Standard 4.  Understands how agrarian societies spread and new states emerged in the third and second millennia BCE
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Understands evidence of social and cultural development of Chinese civilization in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BCE (e.g., evidence that the Chinese had developed urbanization, sophisticated social cooperation, and written language before 1700 BCE; the physical evidence that highlights possible cultural contact between China and other centers of civilization in antiquity)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Knows evidence that the Chinese had developed sophisticated social cooperation before 1700 BCE
   Benchmark 6.Understands the impact of various technologies (e.g., the wheel, pottery, the sail, weaving, bronze casting, the plow) upon social organization and the political and economic power of the groups that used them
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the impact of various technologies (e.g., the wheel, pottery, the sail, weaving, bronze casting, the plow) upon social organization
 Standard 6.  Understands major trends in Eurasia and Africa from 4000 to 1000 BCE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the concept of a patriarchal society and the ways in which the legal and customary positions of aristocratic, urban, or peasant women may have changed in early civilizations
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the ways in which the legal and customary positions of aristocratic women may have changed in early civilizations
     3.Understands the ways in which the legal and customary positions of urban women may have changed in early civilizations
     4.Understands the ways in which the legal and customary positions of peasant women may have changed in early civilizations
 Standard 9.  Understand how major religious and large-scale empires arose in the Mediterranean Basin, China, and India from 500 BCE to 300 CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands shifts in the political and social framework of Roman society (e.g., political and social institutions of the Roman Republic and reasons for its transformation from Republic to Empire; how values changed from the early Republic to the last years of the Empire as reflected through the lives of such Romans as Cincinnatus, Scipio Africanus, Tiberius Gracchus, Cicero, Julius Caesar, Augustus, Nero, Marcus Aurelius, and Constantine)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands shifts in the social framework of Roman society
     4.Knows social institutions of the Roman Republic
     6.Understands how values changed from the early Republic to the last years of the Empire as reflected through the lives of such Romans as Cincinnatus, Scipio Africanus, Tiberius Gracchus, Cicero, Julius Caesar, Augustus, Nero, Marcus Aurelius, and Constantine
 Standard 19.  Understands the maturation of an interregional system of communication, trade, and cultural exchange during a period of Chinese economic power and Islamic expansion
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands religious, social, and political aspects of the Song Dynasty (e.g., the importance of women of gentry families in preserving and transmitting Chinese cultural values; Chinese advancements in alchemy, astronomy, and medicine; the values of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism as reflected in Song art; changes in the social and moral status of women as reflected in the practice of foot binding; the attitudes of typical Chinese gentlemen toward women, family, servants, tenants, and social inferiors; the debate during the Song Dynasty about how the government should respond to rapid social and economic change)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     11.Understands changes in the social and moral status of women as reflected in the practice of foot binding
     13.Understands the debate during the Song Dynasty about how the government should respond to rapid social and economic change
 Standard 28.  Understands how large territorial empires dominated much of Eurasia between the 16th and 18th centuries
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands features of class structure and sources of social change in China (e.g., the effects of American crops and silver on demographic, economic, and social change in China; the stratification of Chinese society under Ming rule)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands sources of social change in China
     5.Understands the effects of American crops and silver on social change in China
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands influences on the Chinese economy and social structure (e.g., the effects of commercialization on social relations among gentry elites, urban merchants, and peasants; how the Chinese central government controlled various aspects of peoples' lives)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands influences on the Chinese social structure under the Ming Dynasty
     3.Understands the effects of commercialization on social relations among gentry elites, urban merchants, and peasants
 Standard 32.  Understands the causes and consequences of political revolutions in the late 18th and early 19th centuries
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands how the French Revolution changed social conditions in France (e.g., how the revolution changed political and religious institutions, social relations, education, family life, and the legal and political position of women; how territorial changes were made in Europe between 1789 and 1815 and their consequences for diverse social groups such as clergy, nobility, peasantry, bourgeoisie, and sans-culottes)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands how the French Revolution changed social relations
     4.Understands how the French Revolution changed education
     5.Understands how the French Revolution changed family life
     8.Understands the consequences of territorial changes in Europe between 1789 and 1815 for diverse social groups such as clergy, nobility, peasantry, bourgeoisie, and sans culottes
 Standard 34.  Understands how Eurasian societies were transformed in an era of global trade and the emergence of European power from 1750 to 1870
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands changes in social and political elements of the Ottoman Empire during the 18th and 19th centuries (e.g., reasons for the empire's retreat from the Balkans and Black Sea region; the lives of different members of Ottoman society such as the janissary, attendees of the Palace School, the role of women)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands changes in social elements of the Ottoman Empire during the 18th and 19th centuries
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the economic and social consequences of rapid population growth in China between the 17th and 19th centuries
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the social consequences of rapid population growth in China between the 17th and 19th centuries
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands events that shaped the social structure of Russia in the 19th century (e.g., relations between the Russian peasantry and land-owning aristocracy, and the persistence of serfdom; the czarist reform movements of the 1820s and how they appealed to different social sectors; Czar Nicholas I's positions on the creation of a constitution, freedom of the press, the Decembrist uprising, the Polish rebellion, and the process of Russification)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands the czarist reform movements of the 1820s and how they appealed to different social sectors
   Benchmark 11.Understands social conditions and change in Meiji Japan (e.g., the nature of living conditions for factory workers, aspects of education and social change, comparisons between the Meiji restoration and the French and American revolutions, the meaning and significance of various Meiji slogans)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands social change in Meiji Japan
     4.Understands aspects of education and social change in Meiji Japan
 Standard 35.  Understands patterns of nationalism, state-building, and social reform in Europe and the Americas from 1830 to 1914
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the political and social changes in 19th-century Latin America (e.g., where democracy failed and succeeded in Latin American nations after independence was achieved, how geography possibly influenced nation-building in Latin America, the class system in Latin America and its racial core)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the social changes in 19th century Latin America
     6.Understands the class system in Latin America and its racial core
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands movements and ideas that contributed to social change in 19th-century North America and Europe (e.g., the leading ideas of Karl Marx and the impact of Marxist beliefs and programs on politics, industry, and labor relations in Europe; the origins of women's suffrage in North America and Europe, leading figures on both continents, and their success until World War I)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands movements and ideas that contributed to social change in 19th century North America
     2.Understands movements and ideas that contributed to social change in 19th century Europe
     3.Knows the leading ideas of Karl Marx
     4.Understands the impact of Marxist beliefs and programs on politics, industry, and labor relations in Europe
     5.Knows the origins of women’s suffrage in North America
     6.Knows the origins of women’s suffrage in Europe
     7.Knows leading figures in the women’s suffrage movement in North America
     8.Knows leading figures in the women’s suffrage movement in Europe
     9.Understands the success of the women’s suffrage movement in North America until World War I
     10.Understands the success of the women’s suffrage movement in Europe until World War I
   Benchmark 4.Understands influences on the government structure in Latin America and Mexico (e.g., the effects of foreign intervention and liberal government policies on social and economic change in Mexico; the advent of the caudillo ruler in Latin America, his supporters, and the methods by which he maintained power)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands the effects of foreign intervention on social and economic change in Mexico
     4.Understands the effects of liberal government policies on social and economic change in Mexico
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands factors that led to social and political change in 19th-century Europe (e.g., the interconnections between labor movements, various forms of socialism, and political or social changes in Europe; the influence of industrialization, democratization, and nationalism on popular 19th-century reform movements; the extent to which Britain, France, and Italy become broadly liberal and democratic societies in the 19th century; the broad beneficial and detrimental effects of the industrial revolution on specific European countries)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands factors that led to social change in 19th century Europe
     3.Understands the interconnections between labor movements, various forms of socialism, and political or social changes in Europe
     4.Understands the influence of industrialization, democratization, and nationalism on popular 19th century reform movements
     5.Understands the extent to which Britain became a broadly liberal and democratic society in the 19th century
     6.Understands the extent to which France became a broadly liberal and democratic society in the 19th century
     7.Understands the extent to which Italy became a broadly liberal and democratic society in the 19th century
     8.Understands the broad beneficial and detrimental effects of the industrial revolution on specific European countries
 Standard 44.  Understands the search for community, stability, and peace in an interdependent world
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 14.Understands how specific countries have implemented social and cultural changes (e.g., the different manifestations of China's contingency quest for a "new culture" throughout the 20th century, and what the Cultural Revolution meant for Chinese people in the late 1960s; models for family life, the economy, and social and political institutions suggested by modern Muslim intellectuals)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how specific countries have implemented social changes
     5.Knows models for family life, the economy, and social and political institutions suggested by modern Muslim intellectuals