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Topic: Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment 

World History

 Standard 27.  Understands how European society experienced political, economic, and cultural transformations in an age of global intercommunication between 1450 and 1750
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the significance of the Scientific Revolution and the Age of Enlightenment (e.g., the impact of astronomical discoveries from Copernicus to Newton; principal ideas of the Enlightenment, from rationalism to theories of education; the word "revolution" and what is meant by the term "Scientific Revolution"; the lives and achievements of significant figures of the Scientific Revolution; how Diderot's encyclopedia contributed to the Age of Enlightenment)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the significance of the Scientific Revolution
     2.Understands the significance of the Age of Enlightenment
     3.Knows the impact of astronomical discoveries from Copernicus to Newton
     4.Understands principal ideas of the Enlightenment
     5.Understands ideas of rationalism of the Enlightenment
     6.Understands theories of education of the Enlightenment
     7.Understands the word "revolution" and what is meant by the term "Scientific Revolution"
     8.Understands the lives and achievements of significant figures of the Scientific Revolution
     9.Understands how Diderot’s encyclopedia contributed to the Age of Enlightenment
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands early influences on the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment (e.g., connections between the Scientific Revolution and its antecedents, such as Greek rationalism, medieval theology, Muslim science, Renaissance humanism, and new global knowledge; connections between the Enlightenment and its antecedents, such as Roman republicanism, the Renaissance, and the Scientific Revolution)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands early influences on the Scientific Revolution
     2.Understands early influences on the Enlightenment
     3.Understands connections between the Scientific Revolution and Greek rationalism
     4.Understands connections between the Scientific Revolution and medieval theology
     5.Understands connections between the Scientific Revolution and Muslim science
     6.Understands connections between the Scientific Revolution and Renaissance humanism
     7.Understands connections between the Scientific Revolution and new global knowledge
     8.Understands connections between the Enlightenment and Roman republicanism
     9.Understands connections between the Enlightenment and the Renaissance
     10.Understands connections between the Enlightenment and the Scientific Revolution
   Benchmark 6.Understands contributions of the Scientific Revolution to European society (e.g., the importance of discoveries in mathematics, physics, biology, and chemistry to 17th-and 18th-century Europe; the significance of the principles of the scientific method advanced by Francis Bacon and Ren‚ Descartes; the trial of Galileo and arguments and evidence used to prove him "innocent" or "guilty"; the major features of the Scientific Revolution in major fields of endeavor)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the importance of discoveries in mathematics to 17th and 18th century Europe
     2.Understands the importance of discoveries in physics to 17th and 18th century Europe
     3.Understands the importance of discoveries in biology to 17th and 18th century Europe
     4.Understands the importance of discoveries in chemistry to 17th and 18th century Europe
     5.Understands the significance of the principles of the scientific method advanced by Francis Bacon and René Descartes
     6.Understands the trial of Galileo and arguments and evidence used to prove him "innocent" or "guilty"
     7.Knows the major features of the Scientific Revolution in major fields of endeavor
   Benchmark 7.Understands the short and long-term impact of Enlightenment ideas (e.g., how Enlightenment-era thought contributed to the reform of church and state, the reform programs of absolutist monarchs of Central Europe and Russia, the influence of Enlightenment ideas on the development of modern nationalism and democratic thought and institutions)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the short term impact of Enlightenment ideas
     2.Understands the long term impact of Enlightenment ideas
     3.Understands how Enlightenment era thought contributed to the reform of church and state
     4.Understands the reform programs of absolutist monarchs of Central Europe and Russia
     5.Understands the influence of Enlightenment ideas on the development of modern nationalism and democratic thought and institutions
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands influences on the spread of scientific ideas and Enlightenment thought (e.g., the importance of royal societies and other international networks in disseminating scientific ideas and methods; how academies, salons, and popular publishing spread Enlightenment thought; how the salons of aristocratic and bourgeois Parisian women influenced French political affairs, and why men eventually created their own salons; how Chinese humanist philosophy influenced the ideas of major Enlightenment writers and thinkers)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the importance of royal societies and other international networks in disseminating scientific ideas and methods
     2.Understands how academies spread Enlightenment thought
     4.Understands how salons spread Enlightenment thought
     5.Understands how popular publishing spread Enlightenment thought
     7.Knows how the salons of aristocratic and bourgeois Parisian women influenced French political affairs
     8.Understands why men eventually created their own salons
     9.Understands how Chinese humanist philosophy influenced the ideas of major Enlightenment writers and thinkers
   Benchmark 5.Understands features of the conflict between religious beliefs and scientific thought during the Scientific Revolution (e.g., the coexistence of the new scientific rationalism in 17th-and 18th-century Europe with traditional learning and rituals; Galileo's ideas about the solar system, and why he hesitated to apply scriptural passages to science-related problems; the fundamental ideas of Descartes' Discourse on Method, and the methods he used to ascertain the "truth")
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the coexistence of the new scientific rationalism in 17th and 18th century Europe with traditional learning and rituals
     2.Understands Galileo’s ideas about the solar system
     3.Understands why Galileo hesitated to apply scriptural passages to science related problems
     4.Understands the fundamental ideas of Descartes’ Discourse on Method, and the methods he used to ascertain the "truth"
   Benchmark 6.Understands the role of the Enlightenment in shaping European society (e.g., the impact of Europe's growing knowledge of other regions on the development of concepts of universalism, tolerance, and world history; the connection between the Enlightenment and the Scientific Revolution, and arguments supporting the notion that one was dependent upon the other)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the impact of Europe’s growing knowledge of other regions on the development of concepts of universalism, tolerance, and world history
     2.Understands the connection between the Enlightenment and the Scientific Revolution, and arguments supporting the notion that one was dependent upon the other