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Topic: Role of women 

World History

 Standard 6.  Understands major trends in Eurasia and Africa from 4000 to 1000 BCE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the concept of a patriarchal society and the ways in which the legal and customary positions of aristocratic, urban, or peasant women may have changed in early civilizations
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the concept of a patriarchal society
     2.Understands the ways in which the legal and customary positions of aristocratic women may have changed in early civilizations
     3.Understands the ways in which the legal and customary positions of urban women may have changed in early civilizations
     4.Understands the ways in which the legal and customary positions of peasant women may have changed in early civilizations
 Standard 8.  Understands how Aegean civilization emerged and how interrelations developed among peoples of the Eastern Mediterranean and Southwest Asia from 600 to 200 BCE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the political framework of Athenian society (e.g., the influence of Athenian political ideals on public life; major changes made to the Athenian political organization between the initial monarchy and the governments of Solon and Cleisthenes; the role of women in Athenian society, their rights under the law, and possible reasons why Athenian democracy was limited solely to males)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the influence of Athenian political ideals on public life
     2.Knows major changes made to the Athenian political organization between the initial monarchy and the governments of Solon and Cleisthenes
     3.Knows the role of women in Athenian society
     4.Knows the rights of women under the law in Athenian society
     5.Understands possible reasons why Athenian democracy was limited solely to males
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the legacy of Greek thought and government (e.g., the importance of participatory government in Greek city-states for the development of Western political thought and institutions; essential ideas in Plato's Republic and the influence of this work on modern political thought; Athenian ideas and practices related to political freedom, national security, and justice; how the maturing democratic institutions in Greece resulted in greater restrictions on the rights and freedoms of women)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the importance of participatory government in Greek city states for the development of Western political thought and institutions
     2.Knows essential ideas in Plato’s Republic
     3.Understands the influence of Plato’s Republic on modern political thought
     4.Knows Athenian ideas and practices related to political freedom
     5.Knows Athenian ideas and practices related to national security
     6.Knows Athenian ideas and practices related to justice
     7.Understands how the maturing democratic institutions in Greece resulted in greater restrictions on the rights and freedoms of women
   Benchmark 6.Understands the characteristics of religion, gender, and philosophy in the Hellenistic era (e.g., the significance of the interaction of Greek and Jewish traditions for the emergence of Rabbinic Judaism and early Christianity; the changes in the status of women during the Hellenistic era, their new opportunities, and greater restrictions; what different Greek philosophers considered to be a "good life")
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the characteristics of religion in the Hellenistic era
     2.Understands the characteristics of gender in the Hellenistic era
     3.Understands the characteristics of philosophy in the Hellenistic era
     4.Understands the significance of the interaction of Greek and Jewish traditions for the emergence of Rabbinic Judaism and early Christianity
     5.Understands the changes in the status of women during the Hellenistic era, their new opportunities, and greater restrictions
     6.Knows what different Greek philosophers considered to be a "good life"
   Benchmark 7.Understands how Sumerian, Egyptian, and Greek societies saw themselves in relation to their gods and how attitudes towards women are indicated in representations of their goddesses
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how Sumerian societies saw themselves in relation to their gods
     2.Understands how Egyptian societies saw themselves in relation to their gods
     3.Understands how Greek societies saw themselves in relation to their gods
     4.Understands how attitudes towards women are indicated in Sumerian representations of their goddesses
     5.Understands how Egyptian attitudes towards women are indicated in representations of their goddesses
     6.Understands how attitudes towards women are indicated in Greek representations of their goddesses
 Standard 9.  Understand how major religious and large-scale empires arose in the Mediterranean Basin, China, and India from 500 BCE to 300 CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the status and role of women in Roman society
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the status of women in Roman society
     2.Understands the role of women in Roman society
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 8.Understands the role and status of women in the Confucian tradition
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the role of women in the Confucian tradition
     2.Understands the status of women in the Confucian tradition
   Benchmark 9.Understands how art and literature reflect different aspects of Indian society (e.g., how literature such as the Ramayana can reflect the status and role of women in ancient cultures, how Indian art reflects a Persian or Greek influence)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how art reflects different aspects of Indian society
     2.Understands how literature reflects different aspects of Indian society
     3.Understands how literature such as the Ramayana can reflect the status and role of women in ancient cultures
     4.Understands how Indian art reflects a Persian or Greek influence
 Standard 12.  Understands the Imperial crises and their aftermath in various regions from 300 to 700 CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the basis of social relationships in India during the Gupta era (e.g., the social and legal position of women and men, restrictions upon women and their place within the caste system, different social perspectives on the advantages and disadvantages of the caste system)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the social and legal position of women and men in India during the Gupta Empire
     2.Knows restrictions upon women and their place within the caste system in India during the Gupta Empire
     3.Knows different social perspectives on the advantages and disadvantages of the caste system
   Benchmark 6.Understands the changing status of women in early Christian and Buddhist societies
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the changing status of women in early Christian societies
     2.Understands the changing status of women in early Buddhist societies
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands political and social elements during the decline of the Roman and Han Empires and the rise of the Byzantine Empire (e.g., the strengths and weaknesses of the Eastern and Western Roman Empires and the factors that enabled the Byzantine Empire to continue as Rome fell; how Constantine selectively supported aspects of Western rule with Eastern institutions to create a new, independent, Byzantine state in the 4th century CE; the links between military, social, and economic causes for the decline in the Han and Roman Empires; the impact of barbarian movements on the regions of Europe, China, and India by the end of the 7th century CE; the life of Germanic peoples and society including the status and role of women)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands political elements during the decline of the Roman and Han Empires and the rise of the Byzantine Empire
     2.Understands social elements during the decline of the Roman and Han Empires and the rise of the Byzantine Empire
     3.Understands the strengths and weaknesses of the Eastern and Western Roman Empires
     4.Knows the factors that enabled the Byzantine Empire to continue as Rome fell
     5.Understands how Constantine selectively supported aspects of Western rule with Eastern institutions to create a new, independent, Byzantine state in the 4th century CE
     6.Understands the links between military, social, and economic causes for the decline in the Han and Roman Empires
     7.Understands the impact of barbarian movements on the regions of Europe, China, and India by the end of the 7th century CE
     8.Understands the life of Germanic peoples and society including the status and role of women
   Benchmark 5.Understands shifts in the status of women from pagan Roman society to Christian society (e.g., the shifting importance of social class, marital status)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the status women in pagan Roman society
     2.Understands the status of women in Christian society
     3.Understands shifts in the importance of social class of women from pagan Roman to Christian society
     4.Understands shifts in the importance of the marital status of women from pagan Roman to Christian society
 Standard 13.  Understands the causes and consequences of the development of Islamic civilization between the 7th and 10th centuries
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands significant aspects of Islamic civilization (e.g., the emergence of Islamic civilization in Iberia and its economic and cultural achievements, how family life and gender relations were prescribed in Islamic society)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the emergence of Islamic civilization in Iberia
     2.Knows the economic achievements of Islamic civilization of the 7th-10th century
     3.Knows the cultural achievements of Islamic civilization of the 8th-10th century
     4.Understands how family life and gender relations were prescribed in Islamic society
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the social structure of the Abbasid Empire (e.g., the treatment and legal status of non-Muslims and their cultural and social contributions to society; the lives of prominent women and factors that facilitated and mitigated their rise to prominence; the role and status of royal bureaucrats, landowning nobles, peasants, urban artisans, and slaves; what Islamic conversion and adherence meant for social status)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the treatment and legal status of non Muslims in the Abbasid Empire
     2.Knows the cultural and social contributions of non Muslims to society in the Abbasid Empire
     3.Understands features of the lives of prominent women and factors that facilitated and mitigated their rise to prominence in the Abbasid Empire
     4.Knows the role and status of royal bureaucrats in the Abbasid Empire
     5.Knows the role and status of landowning nobles in the Abbasid Empire
     6.Knows the role and status of peasants in the Abbasid Empire
     7.Knows the role and status of urban artisans in the Abbasid Empire
     8.Knows the role and status of slaves in the Abbasid Empire
     9.Understands what Islamic conversion and adherence meant for social status
   Benchmark 7.Understands significant social and cultural changes in Islamic civilization between the 7th and 10th centuries (e.g., the changing position of women in the new Islam, how Muslim mosque architecture physically reflects the relationship between people, spiritual leaders, and God in Islam; the process through which Arabic became a common language in the early Islamic centuries; what branches of. scholarship developed out of the efforts of Muslim leaders and scholars to record the Qur'an and Hadith)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the changing position of women in the new Islam
     2.Understands how Muslim mosque architecture physically reflects the relationship between people, spiritual leaders, and God in Islam
     3.Understands the process through which Arabic became a common language in the early Islamic centuries
     4.Knows what branches of scholarship developed out of the efforts of Muslim leaders and scholars to record the Qur’an and Hadit
 Standard 14.  Understands major developments in East Asia and Southeast Asia in the era of the Tang Dynasty from 600 to 900 CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands characteristics of Japanese society through the imperial period (e.g., aspects of the indigenous development of Japanese society until the 7th century CE; the establishment of the imperial state in Japan and the role of the emperor in government; the political, social, and cultural role of women and their contributions to the court of Heian; how the geography of Japan affected its development and its relations with China and Korea)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands aspects of the indigenous development of Japanese society until the 7th century CE
     2.Understands the establishment of the imperial state in Japan and the role of the emperor in government
     3.Understands the political role of women in the court of Heian
     4.Understands the social role of women in the court of Heian
     5.Understands how the geography of Japan affected its development and its relations with China and Korea
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands social and political characteristics of the reunification of China (e.g., the process of political centralization and economic reforms that marked China's reunification under the Sui and Tang dynasties, the roles of women and family)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands social characteristics of the reunification of China
     2.Understands the process of political centralization that marked China’s reunification under the Sui and Tang dynasties
     3.Understands the economic reforms that marked China’s reunification under the Sui and Tang dynasties
     4.Understands the role of women under the reunification of China
     5.Understands the role of the family under the reunification of China
   Benchmark 4.Understands the importance of women as authors at the Japanese court of the Heian period (e.g., the courtly roles and values reflected in works by female authors, such as the Diary of Muraski Shikibu and The Pillow Book by Sei Shonagon)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the courtly roles reflected in works by female authors, such as the Diary of Muraski Shikibu and The Pillow Book by Sei Shonagon
     2.Understands the values reflected in works by female authors, such as the Diary of Muraski Shikibu and The Pillow Book by Sei Shonagon
 Standard 15.  Understands the political, social, and cultural redefinitions in Europe from 500 to 1000 CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands social class and gender roles in Medieval Europe (e.g., changes in the legal, social, and economic status of peasants in the 9th and 10th centuries; how the political fragmentation of Europe after Charlemagne affected their lives; the responsibilities of women with different social status)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands social class in Medieval Europe
     2.Understands gender roles in Medieval Europe
     3.Knows changes in the legal, social, and economic status of peasants in the 9th and 10th centuries
     4.Understands how the political fragmentation of Europe after Charlemagne affected the lives of peasants
     5.Knows the responsibilities of women with different social status in Medieval Europe
 Standard 17.  Understands the rise of centers of civilization in Mesoamerica and Andean South America in the 1st millennium CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the significant features of Mayan civilization (e.g., locations of Mayan city-states, road systems, and sea routes in Mesoamerica and the influence of the environment on these developments; the role and status of elite women and men in Mayan society as indicated by their portrayal in Mayan monumental architecture; the importance of religion in Mayan society; the structure and purpose of Mayan pyramids; ceremonial games among the Mayans)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the locations of Mayan city states
     2.Knows the road systems and sea routes in Mesoamerica
     3.Understands the influence of the environment on city-states, road systems, and sea routes in MesoAmerica
     4.Understands the role and status of elite women and men in Mayan society as indicated by their portrayal in Mayan monumental architecture
     5.Understands the importance of religion in Mayan society
     6.Understands the structure and purpose of Mayan pyramids
     7.Knows ceremonial games among the Mayans
 Standard 19.  Understands the maturation of an interregional system of communication, trade, and cultural exchange during a period of Chinese economic power and Islamic expansion
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands different elements of Japanese feudal society (e.g., Japanese government during the Kamakura and Ashikaga periods, and whether it was feudalism; the rise of the warrior class in feudal Japan and the values it prescribed; how the economic and social status of women and peasants changed in feudal Japanese society; how art and aesthetic values were cherished in the warrior culture in Japan and what this art reveals about Japanese values; how the Japanese successfully defended themselves against Mongol invasions in the 13th century)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands features of Japanese government during the Kamakura and Ashikaga periods, and whether it was feudalism
     2.Understands the rise of the warrior class in feudal Japan and the values it prescribed
     3.Understands how the economic and social status of women changed in feudal Japanese society
     4.Understands how the economic and social status of peasants changed in feudal Japanese society
     5.Understands how art and aesthetic values were cherished in the warrior culture in Japan and what this art reveals about Japanese values
     6.Knows how the Japanese successfully defended themselves against Mongol invasions in the 13th century
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands religious, social, and political aspects of the Song Dynasty (e.g., the importance of women of gentry families in preserving and transmitting Chinese cultural values; Chinese advancements in alchemy, astronomy, and medicine; the values of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism as reflected in Song art; changes in the social and moral status of women as reflected in the practice of foot binding; the attitudes of typical Chinese gentlemen toward women, family, servants, tenants, and social inferiors; the debate during the Song Dynasty about how the government should respond to rapid social and economic change)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands religious aspects of the Song Dynasty
     2.Understands social aspects of the Song Dynasty
     3.Understands political aspects of the Song Dynasty
     4.Understands the importance of women of gentry families in preserving and transmitting Chinese cultural values
     5.Knows Chinese advancements in alchemy
     6.Knows Chinese advancements in astronomy
     7.Knows Chinese advancements in medicine
     8.Understands the values of Confucianism as reflected in Song art
     9.Understands the values of Taoism as reflected in Song art
     10.Understands the values of Buddhism as reflected in Song art
     11.Understands changes in the social and moral status of women as reflected in the practice of foot binding
     12.Knows the attitudes of typical Chinese gentlemen toward women, family, servants, tenants, and social inferiors
     13.Understands the debate during the Song Dynasty about how the government should respond to rapid social and economic change
   Benchmark 7.Understands different social classes and gender roles in Japanese society (e.g., the influence of Buddhist sects on the samurai class; the role of social class, area, time, and age in determining women's experiences)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands different social classes in Japanese society
     2.Understands different gender roles in Japanese society
     3.Understands the influence of Buddhist sects on the samurai class
     4.Understands the role of social class, area, time, and age in determining women’s experiences in Japanese society
 Standard 20.  Understands the redefinition of European society and culture from 1000 to 1300 CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the lives of different groups of people in Medieval Europe (e.g., life in Jewish communities and what Jews added to the cultural and economic development of Europe; the influence of ideals of chivalry and courtly love on feudal society; how the status of women changed in medieval European life)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands daily life in Jewish communities in medieval Europe
     2.Understands what Jews added to the cultural and economic development of medieval Europe
     3.Understands the influence of ideals of chivalry and courtly love on feudal society
     4.Understands how the status of women changed in medieval European life
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 8.Understands how women influenced medieval politics (e.g., the roles and duties of women in 14th century political and home life; the opportunities available to upper class women and the obstacles they faced)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the roles and duties of women in 14th century political life
     2.Understands the roles and duties of women in 14th century home life
     3.Knows the opportunities available to upper class women in Medieval Europe and the obstacles they faced
   Benchmark 11.Understands how women's experiences in Europe were determined by social class, area, time, and stage of life and how these experiences are reflected in different types of literature (e.g., Treasure of City of Ladies by Catherine of Pisan and Art of Courtly Love)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how women’s experiences in Europe were determined by social class
     2.Understands how women’s experiences in Europe were determined by region
     3.Understands how women’s experiences in Europe were determined by time and stage of life
     4.Understands how women’s experiences in Medieval Europe are reflected in different types of literature (e.g., Treasure of City of Ladies by Christine of Pisan and Art of Courtly Love)
 Standard 22.  Understands the growth of states, towns, and trade in Sub-Saharan Africa between the 11th and 15th centuries
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands social and religious features of West Africa (e.g., what art reveals about the societies and rulers of Benin and Ile-Ife, the story of Solomon and Sheba and the role of Sheba in African history)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands social features of West Africa
     2.Understands religious features of West Africa
     3.Understands what art reveals about the societies and rulers of Benin and Ile-Ife
     4.Knows the story of Solomon and Sheba and the role of Sheba in African history
 Standard 23.  Understands patterns of crisis and recovery in Afro-Eurasia between 1300 and 1450
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 9.Understands the significance of Joan of Arc (e.g., her role in the Hundred Years War; her subsequent trial and execution; the Church's review of her trial 25 years later, and her revered image as a patron saint of France)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows Joan of Arc’s role in the Hundred Years War
     2.Understands Joan of Arc’s trial and execution subsequent to the Hundred Year’s War
     3.Understands the Church’s review of Joan of Arc’s trial 25 years later
     4.Understands Joan of Arc’s revered image as a patron saint of France
 Standard 24.  Understands the expansion of states and civilizations in the Americas between 1000 and 1500
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands social and cultural features of Aztec society (e.g., the characteristics of Tenochtitl n that made it a unique city, gender roles in Aztec society and what these indicate about Aztec culture)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands social features of Aztec society
     2.Understands cultural features of Aztec society
     3.Knows the characteristics of Tenochtitlán that made it a unique city
     4.Understands gender roles in Aztec society and what these indicate about Aztec culture
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands political, social, and economic features of Aztec society (e.g., the locations and geographic limits of different phases of the Aztec Empire, the role and status of women in Aztec society and how this compares to the Incan and Mayan societies, the complex structure and features of the Aztec city of Tenochtitl n)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands political features of Aztec society
     2.Understands social features of Aztec society
     3.Understands economic features of Aztec society
     4.Knows the locations and geographic limits of different phases of the Aztec Empire
     5.Understands the role and status of women in Aztec society and how this compares to the Incan and Mayan societies
     6.Understands the complex structure and features of the Aztec city of Tenochtitlán
   Benchmark 3.Understands gender roles in Caribbean, Mesoamerican, and Andean societies and how these are reflected in images, myths, and individual qualities of their gods
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands gender roles in Caribbean, Mesoamerican, and Andean societies
     2.Understands how gender roles of the Caribbean, Mesoamerican, and Andean societies are reflected in images, myths, and individual qualities of their gods
 Standard 27.  Understands how European society experienced political, economic, and cultural transformations in an age of global intercommunication between 1450 and 1750
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the social characteristics of European society from 1450 to 1750 (e.g., how lifestyles were different among varied social classes in early modern Europe, changes in institutions of serfdom, changes in the social status of women)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how lifestyles were different among varied social classes in early modern Europe
     2.Knows changes in institutions of serfdom in early modern Europe
     3.Knows changes in the social status of women in early modern Europe
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands significant social and cultural changes that took place during the Renaissance (e.g., advances in printing press technology, the connections between the Italian Renaissance and the development of Humanist ideals in Europe north of the Alps, positive and negative changes in the status of women during the Renaissance and Reformation, the legacy of Renaissance architecture, changes in European art and architecture between the Middle Ages and the High Renaissance)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands significant social changes that took place during the Renaissance
     2.Understands significant cultural changes that took place during the Renaissance
     3.Understands the significance of advances in printing press technology
     4.Understands the connections between the Italian Renaissance and the development of Humanist ideals in Europe north of the Alps
     5.Knows positive and negative changes in the status of women during the Renaissance and Reformation
     6.Understands the legacy of Renaissance architecture
     7.Understands changes in European art and architecture between the Middle Ages and the High Renaissance
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands influences on the spread of scientific ideas and Enlightenment thought (e.g., the importance of royal societies and other international networks in disseminating scientific ideas and methods; how academies, salons, and popular publishing spread Enlightenment thought; how the salons of aristocratic and bourgeois Parisian women influenced French political affairs, and why men eventually created their own salons; how Chinese humanist philosophy influenced the ideas of major Enlightenment writers and thinkers)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the importance of royal societies and other international networks in disseminating scientific ideas and methods
     2.Understands how academies spread Enlightenment thought
     4.Understands how salons spread Enlightenment thought
     5.Understands how popular publishing spread Enlightenment thought
     7.Knows how the salons of aristocratic and bourgeois Parisian women influenced French political affairs
     8.Understands why men eventually created their own salons
     9.Understands how Chinese humanist philosophy influenced the ideas of major Enlightenment writers and thinkers
   Benchmark 7.Understands significant individuals and ideologies that emerged during the Renaissance and Reformation (e.g., the basic arguments in The Prince by Machiavelli; works of Renaissance writers and elements of Humanism in these works; individuals and factors that contributed to the revival of Greco-Roman art, architecture, and scholarship; differing ideas on women's roles in the Protestant household; social oppression and conflict in Europe during the Renaissance, as contrasted with humanist principles of the time)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows significant individuals that emerged during the Renaissance
     2.Knows significant individuals that emerged during the Reformation
     3.Knows significant ideologies that emerged during the Renaissance
     4.Knows significant ideologies that emerged during the Reformation
     5.Knows the basic arguments in The Prince by Machiavelli
     6.Knows works of Renaissance writers and elements of Humanism in these works
     7.Knows individuals and factors that contributed to the revival of Greco Roman art, architecture, and scholarship
     8.Knows differing ideas on women’s roles in the Protestant household
     9.Understands social oppression and conflict in Europe during the Renaissance, as contrasted with humanist principles of the time
 Standard 28.  Understands how large territorial empires dominated much of Eurasia between the 16th and 18th centuries
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the social, economic, and cultural features of the Ottoman Empire (e.g., how Muslim, Orthodox, Catholic, and Jewish peoples interacted in southeastern Europe under Ottoman rule, the role and legal status of women within the Ottoman Empire, sources of revenue and patterns in state spending in the Ottoman Empire)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the social features of the Ottoman Empire
     2.Understands the economic features of the Ottoman Empire
     3.Understands the cultural features of the Ottoman Empire
     4.Understands how Muslim, Orthodox, Catholic, and Jewish peoples interacted in southeastern Europe under Ottoman rule
     5.Understands the role and legal status of women within the Ottoman Empire
     6.Knows sources of revenue and patterns in state spending in the Ottoman Empire
 Standard 29.  Understands the economic, political, and cultural interrelations among peoples of Africa, Europe, and the Americas between 1500 and 1750
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Knows reasons for the emergence of social hierarchies based on race and gender in both the Iberian Empire and the British colonies in the Americas
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows reasons for the emergence of social hierarchies based on race in the Iberian Empire
     2.Knows reasons for the emergence of social hierarchies based on race in the British colonies in the Americas
     3.Knows reasons for the emergence of social hierarchies based on gender in the Iberian Empire
     4.Knows reasons for the emergence of social hierarchies based on gender in the British colonies in the Americas
 Standard 30.  Understands transformations in Asian societies in the era of European expansion
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands political, economic, and social aspects of Chinese society during the era of European expansion (e.g., how the Manchus overthrew the Ming Dynasty and the consequences of this event; demands and consequences of increasing population growth, agricultural output, commerce, and European trading networks in the Manchu Empire; treatment and opportunities open to women in 17th-and 18th-century China)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands political aspects of Chinese society during the era of European expansion
     2.Understands economic aspects of Chinese society during the era of European expansion
     3.Understands social aspects of Chinese society during the era of European expansion
     4.Knows how the Manchus overthrew the Ming Dynasty and the consequences of this event
     5.Understands demands and consequences of increasing population growth, agricultural output, commerce, and European trading networks in the Manchu Empire
     6.Knows the treatment of and opportunities open to women in 17th and 18th century China
   Benchmark 4.Understands features in the development of Korean and Japanese culture (e.g., why Korea was called the "Hermit Kingdom" before 1800, the role and status of women in Tokugawa Japan, the roots and development of 17th-century Japanese art forms)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands features in the development of Korean culture
     2.Understands features in the development of Japanese culture
     3.Understands why Korea was called the "Hermit Kingdom" before 1800
     4.Understands the role and status of women in Tokugawa Japan
     5.Understands the roots and development of 17th century Japanese art forms
   Benchmark 5.Understands the spread of Confucianism in various Asian cultures (e.g., how the rising popularity of Confucianism among the elites in Korea and Japan contributed to changes in the roles of women; how Confucianism was influenced by government and society in China, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the rising popularity of Confucianism among the elites in Korea and Japan contributed to changes in the roles of women
     2.Understands how Confucianism was influenced by government and society in China
     3.Understands how Confucianism was influenced by government and society in Japan
     4.Understands how Confucianism was influenced by government and society in Korea
     5.Understands how Confucianism was influenced by government and society in Vietnam
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 6.Understands how art, literature, and architecture reflect features of different cultures and religions (e.g., the influence of new currents in both Confucianism and Chinese art, architecture, and literature on cultural life in Korea, Vietnam, and Japan in the 17th and 18th centuries; the role of women in the Bhati movement of the 16th century, as reflected in the poetry of Mirabai; the Islamic and Hindu influences in the poetry of Kabir)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the influence of new currents in both Confucianism and Chinese art, architecture, and literature on cultural life in Korea, Vietnam, and Japan in the 17th and 18th centuries
     2.Understands the role of women in the Bhati movement of the 16th century, as reflected in the poetry of Mirabai
     3.Understands the Islamic and Hindu influences in the poetry of Kabir
 Standard 32.  Understands the causes and consequences of political revolutions in the late 18th and early 19th centuries
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands how the French Revolution changed social conditions in France (e.g., how the revolution changed political and religious institutions, social relations, education, family life, and the legal and political position of women; how territorial changes were made in Europe between 1789 and 1815 and their consequences for diverse social groups such as clergy, nobility, peasantry, bourgeoisie, and sans-culottes)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the French Revolution changed political institutions
     2.Understands how the French Revolution changed religious institutions
     3.Understands how the French Revolution changed social relations
     4.Understands how the French Revolution changed education
     5.Understands how the French Revolution changed family life
     6.Understands how the French Revolution changed the legal and political position of women
     7.Understands how territorial changes were made in Europe between 1789 and 1815
     8.Understands the consequences of territorial changes in Europe between 1789 and 1815 for diverse social groups such as clergy, nobility, peasantry, bourgeoisie, and sans culottes
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the status of women and other social classes during and following the Latin American independence movements (e.g., the political roles of Creole elites, the Catholic Church, and mestizo, mulatto, and Indian populations; social and racial divisions in most of Latin America; how independence changed the status of women in Latin America and affected mestizo, mulatto, and Indian populations; roles played by prominent women before the wars of independence in Latin America)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the status of women during and following the Latin American independence movements
     2.Understands the status of various social classes during and following the Latin American independence movements
     3.Knows the political roles of Creole elites, the Catholic Church, and mestizo, mulatto, and Indian populations
     4.Understands social and racial divisions in most of Latin America
     5.Understands how independence changed the status of women in Latin America
     6.Understands how independence affected mestizo, mulatto, and Indian populations
     7.Knows roles played by prominent women before the wars of independence in Latin America
   Benchmark 4.Understands the political beliefs and writings that emerged during the French Revolution (e.g., characteristics and actions of radical, liberal, moderate, conservative, and reactionary thinking; the ideas in the "Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen" and Olympe de Gouge's "Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Female Citizen"; the implications of the "Code Napoleon" for Protestant and Catholic Clergy, property owners, workers, and women)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the political beliefs that emerged during the French Revolution
     2.Knows the political writings that emerged during the French Revolution
     3.Knows characteristics and actions of radical thinkers during the French Revolution
     4.Knows characteristics and actions of liberal thinkers during the French Revolution
     5.Knows characteristics and actions of moderate thinkers during the French Revolution
     6.Knows characteristics and actions of conservative thinkers during the French Revolution
     7.Knows the ideas in the "Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen"
     8.Knows the ideas in Olympe de Gouge’s "Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Female Citizen"
     9.Understands the implications of the "Code Napoleon" for Protestant and Catholic Clergy, property owners, workers, and women
 Standard 33.  Understands the causes and consequences of the agricultural and industrial revolutions from 1700 to 1850
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the impact of the industrial revolution in Europe and the Atlantic Basin (e.g., connections between population growth, industrialization, and urbanization; the quality of life in early 19-century cities; the effects of urbanization on the development of class distinctions, family life, and the daily working lives of men, women, and children; advances made in communication and transportation; effects upon the political and economic status of women)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands connections between population growth, industrialization, and urbanization
     2.Understands the quality of life in early 19 century cities
     3.Understands the effects of urbanization on the development of class distinctions
     4.Understands the effects of urbanization on family life
     5.Understands the effects of urbanization on the daily working lives of men, women, and children
     6.Knows advances made in communication and transportation during the industrial revolution
     7.Understands the effects of the industrial revolution upon the political and economic status of women
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 8.Understands significant individuals in the abolition movement (e.g., prominent women from the abolitionist movement in America and their major accomplishments, including Harriet Tubman, Sojourner Truth, the Grimké sisters, Lucretia Mott; the story of Olaudah Equiana [Gustavus Vasa], his experience during the "middle passage," and his efforts to bring an end to the slave trade)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows prominent women from the abolitionist movement in America and their major accomplishments, including Harriet Tubman, Sojourner Truth, the Grimké sisters, Lucretia Mott
     2.Knows the story of Olaudah Equiana (Gustavus Vasa), his experience during the "middle passage," and his efforts to bring an end to the slave trade
 Standard 34.  Understands how Eurasian societies were transformed in an era of global trade and the emergence of European power from 1750 to 1870
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands changes in social and political elements of the Ottoman Empire during the 18th and 19th centuries (e.g., reasons for the empire's retreat from the Balkans and Black Sea region; the lives of different members of Ottoman society such as the janissary, attendees of the Palace School, the role of women)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands changes in social elements of the Ottoman Empire during the 18th and 19th centuries
     2.Understands changes in political elements of the Ottoman Empire during the 18th and 19th centuries
     3.Knows reasons for the Ottoman Empire’s retreat from the Balkans and Black Sea region
     4.Understands the lives of different members of Ottoman society such as the janissary, attendees of the Palace School, the role of women
 Standard 35.  Understands patterns of nationalism, state-building, and social reform in Europe and the Americas from 1830 to 1914
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the status of different groups in 19th-century Europe (e.g., the changing roles and status of European Jews and the rise of new forms of anti-Semitism; the goals of the women's movement in the 19th century, and the essential ideas outlined by Mary Wollstonecraft in Vindication of the Rights of Women; support for and opposition to women's suffrage in the late 19th century)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the changing roles and status of European Jews in the 19th century
     2.Understands the rise of new forms of anti Semitism in 19th century
     3.Knows the goals of the women’s movement in the 19th century
     4.Knows the essential ideas outlined by Mary Wollstonecraft in Vindication of the Rights of Women
     5.Understands support for and opposition to women’s suffrage in the late 19th century
   Benchmark 7.Understands how political and economic change influenced Latin American society in the 19th century (e.g., Latin America's growing dependence on the global market economy, as well as the effects of international trade and investment on the power of landowners and the urban middle class; the consequences of economic development, elite domination, and the abolition of slavery for peasants, indigenous populations, and immigrant laborers in Latin America; the impact of the expansion of secular education upon women's legal and political rights; the roles and perspectives of the caudillo, military official, landowner, urban bourgeoisie, or church official in post-independence Latin America; attitudes toward nationalism and cultural identity in 19th-century Latin America)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how political change influenced Latin American society in the 19th century
     2.Understands how economic change influenced Latin American society in the 19th century
     3.Understands Latin America’s growing dependence on the global market economy, as well as the effects of international trade and investment on the power of landowners and the urban middle class
     4.Understands the consequences of economic development, elite domination, and the abolition of slavery for peasants, indigenous populations, and immigrant laborers in Latin America
     5.Understands the impact of the expansion of secular education upon women’s legal and political rights
     6.Understands the roles and perspectives of the caudillo, military official, landowner, urban bourgeoisie, or church official in post independence Latin America
     7.Understands attitudes toward nationalism and cultural identity in 19th century Latin America
 Standard 37.  Understand major global trends from 1750 to 1914
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands industrialization and its social impact in Great Britain, France, Germany, the United States, Russia, Japan, and other countries (e.g., conditions for rural families, the roles of women and children, the daily lives of working class men and women)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands industrialization and its social impact in Great Britain
     2.Understands industrialization and its social impact in France
     3.Understands industrialization and its social impact in Germany
     4.Understands industrialization and its social impact in the United States
     5.Understands industrialization and its social impact in Russia
     6.Understands industrialization and its social impact in Japan
     7.Understands the impact of industrialization on conditions for rural families in different countries
     8.Understands the impact of industrialization on the roles of women and children in different countries
     9.Understands the impact of industrialization on the daily lives of working class men and women
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the process of educational reform in various Muslim regions during the 19th century (e.g., the new institutions that were established, the effect of this reform on women, those areas that wholly embraced Western values, and those that rejected them)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the new educational institutions that were established in various Muslim regions in the 19th century
     2.Understands the effect of educational reforms on women in Muslim regions in the 19th century
     3.Knows those areas that wholly embraced Western educational values, and those that rejected them
 Standard 39.  Understands the causes and global consequences of World War I
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands Lenin's ideology and policies and their impact on Russia after the Revolution of 1917 (e.g., Lenin's political ideology and how the Bolsheviks adapted Marxist ideas to conditions particular to Russia; why Lenin declined to follow Marxist economic philosophy; the platforms and promises of Kerenksy and Lenin in 1917, the impact of war upon Kerensky's program, and the importance of Lenin's promise, "land, bread, peace"; how statistics on women in the labor force and education contradict Lenin's statements concerning women's equality)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands Lenin’s political ideology
     2.Understands Lenin’s policies
     3.Understands the impact of Lenin’s ideology and policies on Russia after the Revolution of 1917
     4.Understands how the Bolsheviks adapted Marxist ideas to conditions particular to Russia
     5.Understands why Lenin declined to follow Marxist economic philosophy
     6.Understands the platforms and promises of Kerenksy in 1917
     7.Understands the platforms and promises of Lenin in 1917
     8.Understands the impact of war upon Kerensky’s program
     9.Understands the importance of Lenin’s promise, "land, bread, peace"
     10.Understands how statistics on women in the labor force contradicted Lenin’s statements concerning women’s equality
     11.Understands how statistics on women in education contradicted Lenin’s statements concerning women’s equality
   Benchmark 8.Understands the human cost and social impact of World War I (e.g., what sources, such as letters and books, illustrate about the mental and physical costs of the war to soldiers around the world; how the casualty figures for World War I compare to other wars, and reasons for the high casualty rate; the changes in women's roles during the Great War)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the human cost of World War I
     2.Understands the social impact of World War I
     3.Understands what sources illustrate about the mental costs of the war around the world
     4.Knows about letters that illustrate the cost of the war to soldiers around the world
     5.Knows about books that illustrate the cost of the war to soldiers around the world
     6.Understands how the casualty figures for World War I compare to other wars
     7.Understands the reasons for the high casualty rate
     8.Understands the changes in women’s roles during the Great War
 Standard 41.  Understands the causes and global consequences of World War II
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the impact of World War II on civilian populations and soldiers (e.g., the roles of women and children during the war and how they differed in Allied and Axis countries, the hardships of the war on soldiers from both sides)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the impact of World War II on civilian populations
     2.Understands the impact of World War II on soldiers
     3.Knows the roles of women and children during the war in Allied countries
     4.Knows the roles of women and children during the war in Axis countries
     5.Understands the hardships of the war on soldiers from both sides
 Standard 43.  Understands how post-World War II reconstruction occurred, new international power relations took shape, and colonial empires broke up
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the position of women in developing countries (e.g., as compared to their position in industrialized countries, how change has occurred in different societies)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the position of women in developing countries as compared to their position in industrialized countries
     2.Understands how change has occurred in the position of women in different societies
 Standard 44.  Understands the search for community, stability, and peace in an interdependent world
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 4.Understands how feminist movements and social conditions have affected the lives of women around the world, and the extent of women's progress toward social equality, economic opportunity, and political rights in various countries
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how feminist movements and social conditions have affected the lives of women around the world
     2.Understands the extent of women’s progress toward social equality in various countries
     3.Understands the extent of women’s progress toward economic opportunity in various countries
     4.Understands the extent of women’s progress toward political rights in various countries
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 12.Understands gender roles across the globe (e.g., conflicts in the perception of gender roles in various religions, especially the role of women; how the legal status of women varies around the world in Muslim societies, and how the status of women from different classes has changed in the past century)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows conflicts in the perception of gender roles in various religions, especially the role of women
     2.Understands how the legal status of women varies around the world in Muslim societies

United States History

 Standard 7.  Understands the impact of the American Revolution on politics, economy, and society
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the social, political, and economic effects of the American revolutionary victory on different groups (e.g., rural farmers, wealthy merchants, enslaved and free African Americans, abolitionists, women who contributed to the war effort)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     9.Understands the social effects of the American revolutionary victory on women who contributed to the war effort
     15.Understands the political effects of the American revolutionary victory on women who contributed to the war effort
     21.Understands the economic effects of the American revolutionary victory on women who contributed to the war effort
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands how the ideals of the American Revolution influenced the goals of various groups of people during and after the war (e.g., African Americans, Native Americans, Loyalists, women, young people)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     7.Understands how the ideals of the American Revolution influenced the goals of women during the war
     8.Understands how the ideals of the American Revolution influenced the goals of women after the war
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the goals of different groups of people after the Revolution (e.g., the importance of African American leaders and institutions in shaping free black communities in the North, the influence of the American victory in advancing or retarding goals of different groups, the degree to which women were able to enter the public realm after 1776)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     5.Understands the degree to which women were able to enter the public realm after 1776
 Standard 10.  Understands how the industrial revolution, increasing immigration, the rapid expansion of slavery, and the westward movement changed American lives and led to regional tensions
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands social and economic elements of urban and rural life in the early and mid-19th centuries (e.g., the impact of the factory system on gender roles and the daily life of men, women, and children; factors that caused rapid urbanization; city life in the 1840s; differences in urban and rural childrens’ lives, life in New England mill towns in the early 1800s, the impact of the canal and railroad on the locations and size of cities after 1820)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     5.Understands the impact of the factory system on gender roles
     7.Understands the impact of the factory system on the daily life of women
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands significant religious, cultural, and social changes in the American West (e.g., the degree to which political democracy influenced social and political conditions on the frontier, cultural characteristics of diverse groups, the impact of the Second Great Awakening and religious revivals on Mormon migration to the West, the lives of women in the West)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     9.Understands the lives of women in the West
 Standard 12.  Understands the sources and character of cultural, religious, and social reform movements in the antebellum period
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the role of women in the reform movements in antebellum America (e.g., the contributions of individuals of different racial and social groups, the types of reforms women sought, how fashion became a part of the movement for women’s rights)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the contributions of individuals of different social groups in the reform movements in antebellum America
     3.Understands the types of reforms women sought in the reform movements in antebellum America
     4.Understands how fashion became a part of the movement for women’s rights
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands how women influenced reform movements and American society during the antebellum period (e.g., the Seneca Falls "Declaration of Sentiments" of 1848, the leadership role women played in major reform movements, how the public at large viewed these women)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how women influenced reform movements during the antebellum period
     2.Understands how women influenced American society during the antebellum period
     3.Knows about the Seneca Falls "Declaration of Sentiments" of 1848
     4.Understands the leadership role women played in major reform movements during the antebellum period
     5.Understands how the public at large viewed the women involved in reform during the antebellum period
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Understands changing gender roles in the antebellum period (e.g., men and women's occupations, legal rights, and social status in the North, South and West; how gender roles were influenced by class, ethnic, racial, and religious lines)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows about men’s occupations during the antebellum period
     2.Knows about women’s occupations during the antebellum period
     3.Understands how gender roles were influenced by class lines during the antebellum period
     4.Understands how gender roles were influenced by ethnic lines during the antebellum period
     5.Understands how gender roles were influenced by racial lines during the antebellum period
     6.Understands how gender roles were influenced by religious lines during the antebellum period
   Benchmark 6.Understands the ideas associated with women's rights during the antebellum period (e.g., the goals and ideas of the antebellum women's movement for equality compared to 20th-century feminism, how the Seneca Falls "Declaration of Sentiments" relates to the ideas of the Declaration of Independence, the connection between the evangelical movement and the idea of southern woman, and the extent to which southern women endorsed the "Declaration of Sentiments")
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the goals of the antebellum women’s movement for equality compared to 20th-century feminism
     2.Understands the ideas of the antebellum women’s movement for equality compared to 20th-century feminism
     3.Understands how the Seneca Falls "Declaration of Sentiments" relates to the ideas of the Declaration of Independence
     4.Understands the connection between the evangelical movement and the idea of southern woman
     5.Understands the extent to which southern women endorsed the "Declaration of Sentiments"
 Standard 14.  Understands the course and character of the Civil War and its effects on the American people
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the impact of the Civil War on social and gender issues (e.g., the roles of women on the home front and on the battlefield; the human and material costs of the war; the degree to which the war united the nation; how it changed the lives of women, men, and children)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the impact of the Civil War on gender issues
     3.Understands the roles of women on the Civil War home front
     4.Understands the roles of women on the battlefield
     8.Understands how the Civil War changed the lives of women
 Standard 16.  Understands how the rise of corporations, heavy industry, and mechanized farming transformed American society
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands influences on the development of the American West (e.g., cross-cultural encounters and conflicts among different racial and ethnic groups; the daily life of women on the western frontier; disputes between farmers, ranchers, and miners over water rights and open ranges)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     5.Understands the daily life of women on the western frontier
 Standard 18.  Understands the rise of the American labor movement and how political issues reflected social and economic changes
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands influences on the workforce during the late 19th century (e.g., gender, race, ethnicity, and skill; how big business and the impersonal nature of factory work affected workers; inroads made by women in male-dominated jobs; legal status of women; the type of work children performed; occupations in which children were employed; dangers they faced during the workday)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the influence of gender on the workforce during the late 19th century
     8.Understands how the legal status of women influenced the workforce during the late 19th century
 Standard 20.  Understands how Progressives and others addressed problems of industrial capitalism, urbanization, and political corruption
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands issues and perspectives of different groups during the Progressive era (e.g., African Americans and their alternative programs; women, Native Americans, organized workers)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands women’s groups during the Progressive era
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands how the Progressive movement influenced different groups in American society (e.g., counter-Progressive programs of labor organizations compared to social democratic programs in industrial Europe, the response of mainstream Progressives to women’s issues, the changing perception of Native American assimilation under Progressivism, the founding of the NAACP, how African American women contributed to the movement, how the International Ladies Garment Workers Union provided alternatives, the success of the Progressive movement to groups outside the mainstream)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the response of mainstream Progressives to women’s issues
     5.Understands how African American women contributed to the Progressive Movement
     6.Understands how the International Ladies Garment Workers Union provided alternatives
 Standard 22.  Understands how the United States changed between the post-World War I years and the eve of the Great Depression
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 6.Understands how women's lives changed after World War I (e.g., their contributions in schools, hospitals, settlement houses, and social agencies; how the spread of electrification and household appliances improved the life of homemakers)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands women’s contributions in schools after World War I
     2.Understands women’s contributions in hospitals after World War I
     3.Understands women’s contributions in settlement houses after World War I
     4.Understands women’s contributions in social agencies after World War I
     5.Understands how the spread of electrification improved the life of homemakers
     6.Understands how the spread of household appliances improved the life of homemakers
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands changing attitudes toward women in the post-World War I era (e.g., changing values and new ideas regarding employment opportunities, appearance standards, leisure activities, and political participation)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands changing values regarding employment opportunities in the post-World War I era
     2.Understands new ideas regarding employment opportunities in the post-World War I era
     3.Understands changing values regarding appearance standards of women in the post-World War I era
     4.Understands new ideas regarding appearance standards of women in the post-World War I era
     5.Understands changing values regarding the leisure activities of women in the post-World War I era
     6.Understands new ideas regarding the leisure activities of women in the post-World War I era
     7.Understands changing values regarding the political participation of women in the post-World War I era
     8.Understands new ideas regarding the political participation of women in the post-World War I era
 Standard 24.  Understands how the New Deal addressed the Great Depression, transformed American federalism, and initiated the welfare state
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the influences on and impact of the New Deal (e.g., how legislation and policies affected American workers and the labor movement, the condition of working men and women in the United States in the 1930s, how the New Deal affected the lives of local families, how women contributed to New Deal programs)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the impact of the New Deal
     8.Understands the condition of working women in the United States in the 1930s
     10.Understands how women contributed to New Deal programs
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 7.Understands the contributions of Eleanor Roosevelt to the New Deal (e.g., specific efforts the First Lady made in response to the crisis)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands specific efforts Eleanor Roosevelt made in response to the depression
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands how the New Deal influenced the civil and political rights of diverse groups (e.g., the involvement of women and minorities in the New Deal and its impact upon them, FDR's commitment to advancing the civil and political rights of African Americans, how African Americans planted the seeds of a civil rights revolution during the 1930s, how the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 affected Native Americans, the role of John Collier in securing a "new deal" for Native Americans)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the New Deal influenced the civil rights of diverse groups
     2.Understands how the New Deal influenced the political rights of diverse groups
     3.Understands the involvement of women in the New Deal
     5.Understands the impact of the New Deal on women
 Standard 26.  Understands the economic boom and social transformation of post-World War II United States
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands how American society changed after World War II (e.g., reasons for the "return to domesticity" and the effect on family life and women’s careers)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands the effect of societal changes on women’s careers after World War II