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Topic: Role of women 

United States History

 Standard 7.  Understands the impact of the American Revolution on politics, economy, and society
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the social, political, and economic effects of the American revolutionary victory on different groups (e.g., rural farmers, wealthy merchants, enslaved and free African Americans, abolitionists, women who contributed to the war effort)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the social effects of the American revolutionary victory on different groups
     2.Understands the political effects of the American revolutionary victory on different groups
     3.Understands the economic effects of the American revolutionary victory on different groups
     4.Understands the social effects of the American revolutionary victory on rural farmers
     5.Understands the social effects of the American revolutionary victory on wealthy merchants
     6.Understands the social effects of the American revolutionary victory on enslaved African Americans
     7.Understands the social effects of the American revolutionary victory on free African Americans
     8.Understands the social effects of the American revolutionary victory on abolitionists
     9.Understands the social effects of the American revolutionary victory on women who contributed to the war effort
     10.Understands the political effects of the American revolutionary victory on rural farmers
     11.Understands the political effects of the American revolutionary victory on wealthy merchants
     12.Understands the political effects of the American revolutionary victory on enslaved African Americans
     13.Understands the political effects of the American revolutionary victory on free African Americans
     14.Understands the political effects of the American revolutionary victory on abolitionists
     15.Understands the political effects of the American revolutionary victory on women who contributed to the war effort
     16.Understands the economic effects of the American revolutionary victory on rural farmers
     17.Understands the economic effects of the American revolutionary victory on wealthy merchants
     18.Understands the economic effects of the American revolutionary victory on enslaved African Americans
     19.Understands the economic effects of the American revolutionary victory on free African Americans
     20.Understands the economic effects of the American revolutionary victory on abolitionists
     21.Understands the economic effects of the American revolutionary victory on women who contributed to the war effort
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands how the ideals of the American Revolution influenced the goals of various groups of people during and after the war (e.g., African Americans, Native Americans, Loyalists, women, young people)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the ideals of the American Revolution influenced the goals of African Americans during the war
     2.Understands how the ideals of the American Revolution influenced the goals of African Americans after the war
     3.Understands how the ideals of the American Revolution influenced the goals of Native Americans during the war
     4.Understands how the ideals of the American Revolution influenced the goals of Native Americans after the war
     5.Understands how the ideals of the American Revolution influenced the goals of Loyalists during the war
     6.Understands how the ideals of the American Revolution influenced the goals of Loyalists after the war
     7.Understands how the ideals of the American Revolution influenced the goals of women during the war
     8.Understands how the ideals of the American Revolution influenced the goals of women after the war
     9.Understands how the ideals of the American Revolution influenced the goals of young people during the war
     10.Understands how the ideals of the American Revolution influenced the goals of young people after the war
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the goals of different groups of people after the Revolution (e.g., the importance of African American leaders and institutions in shaping free black communities in the North, the influence of the American victory in advancing or retarding goals of different groups, the degree to which women were able to enter the public realm after 1776)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the importance of African American leaders in shaping free black communities in the North
     2.Understands the importance of African American institutions in shaping free black communities in the North
     3.Understands the influence of the American victory in advancing goals of certain groups
     4.Understands the influence of the American victory in retarding goals of certain groups
     5.Understands the degree to which women were able to enter the public realm after 1776
 Standard 10.  Understands how the industrial revolution, increasing immigration, the rapid expansion of slavery, and the westward movement changed American lives and led to regional tensions
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands social and economic elements of urban and rural life in the early and mid-19th centuries (e.g., the impact of the factory system on gender roles and the daily life of men, women, and children; factors that caused rapid urbanization; city life in the 1840s; differences in urban and rural childrens’ lives, life in New England mill towns in the early 1800s, the impact of the canal and railroad on the locations and size of cities after 1820)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the social elements of urban life in the early and mid-19th century
     2.Understands the social elements of rural life in the early and mid-19th century
     3.Understands the economic elements of urban life in the early and mid-19th century
     4.Understands the economic elements of rural life in the early and mid-19th century
     5.Understands the impact of the factory system on gender roles
     6.Understands the impact of the factory system on the daily life of men
     7.Understands the impact of the factory system on the daily life of women
     8.Understands the impact of the factory system on the daily life of children
     9.Understands the factors that caused rapid urbanization in the early and mid-19th century
     10.Understands city life in the 1840’s
     11.Understands differences in urban and rural childrens’ lives in the early and mid-19th century
     12.Understands life in New England mill towns in the early 1800’s
     13.Understands the impact of the canal on the locations of cities after 1820
     14.Understands the impact of the canal on the size of cities after 1820
     15.Understands the impact of the railroad on the locations of cities after 1820
     16.Understands the impact of the railroad on the size of cities after 1820
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands significant religious, cultural, and social changes in the American West (e.g., the degree to which political democracy influenced social and political conditions on the frontier, cultural characteristics of diverse groups, the impact of the Second Great Awakening and religious revivals on Mormon migration to the West, the lives of women in the West)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands significant religious changes in the American West
     2.Understands significant cultural changes in the American West
     3.Understands significant social changes in the American West
     4.Understands the degree to which political democracy influenced social conditions on the frontier
     5.Understands the degree to which political democracy influenced political conditions on the frontier
     6.Understands cultural characteristics of diverse groups in the American West
     7.Understands the impact of the Second Great Awakening on Mormon migration to the West
     8.Understands the impact of religious revivals on Mormon migration to the West
     9.Understands the lives of women in the West
 Standard 12.  Understands the sources and character of cultural, religious, and social reform movements in the antebellum period
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the role of women in the reform movements in antebellum America (e.g., the contributions of individuals of different racial and social groups, the types of reforms women sought, how fashion became a part of the movement for women’s rights)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the contributions of individuals of different racial groups in the reform movements in antebellum America
     2.Understands the contributions of individuals of different social groups in the reform movements in antebellum America
     3.Understands the types of reforms women sought in the reform movements in antebellum America
     4.Understands how fashion became a part of the movement for women’s rights
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands how women influenced reform movements and American society during the antebellum period (e.g., the Seneca Falls "Declaration of Sentiments" of 1848, the leadership role women played in major reform movements, how the public at large viewed these women)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how women influenced reform movements during the antebellum period
     2.Understands how women influenced American society during the antebellum period
     3.Knows about the Seneca Falls "Declaration of Sentiments" of 1848
     4.Understands the leadership role women played in major reform movements during the antebellum period
     5.Understands how the public at large viewed the women involved in reform during the antebellum period
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Understands changing gender roles in the antebellum period (e.g., men and women's occupations, legal rights, and social status in the North, South and West; how gender roles were influenced by class, ethnic, racial, and religious lines)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows about men’s occupations during the antebellum period
     2.Knows about women’s occupations during the antebellum period
     3.Understands how gender roles were influenced by class lines during the antebellum period
     4.Understands how gender roles were influenced by ethnic lines during the antebellum period
     5.Understands how gender roles were influenced by racial lines during the antebellum period
     6.Understands how gender roles were influenced by religious lines during the antebellum period
   Benchmark 6.Understands the ideas associated with women's rights during the antebellum period (e.g., the goals and ideas of the antebellum women's movement for equality compared to 20th-century feminism, how the Seneca Falls "Declaration of Sentiments" relates to the ideas of the Declaration of Independence, the connection between the evangelical movement and the idea of southern woman, and the extent to which southern women endorsed the "Declaration of Sentiments")
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the goals of the antebellum women’s movement for equality compared to 20th-century feminism
     2.Understands the ideas of the antebellum women’s movement for equality compared to 20th-century feminism
     3.Understands how the Seneca Falls "Declaration of Sentiments" relates to the ideas of the Declaration of Independence
     4.Understands the connection between the evangelical movement and the idea of southern woman
     5.Understands the extent to which southern women endorsed the "Declaration of Sentiments"
 Standard 14.  Understands the course and character of the Civil War and its effects on the American people
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the impact of the Civil War on social and gender issues (e.g., the roles of women on the home front and on the battlefield; the human and material costs of the war; the degree to which the war united the nation; how it changed the lives of women, men, and children)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the impact of the Civil War on social issues
     2.Understands the impact of the Civil War on gender issues
     3.Understands the roles of women on the Civil War home front
     4.Understands the roles of women on the battlefield
     5.Understands the human costs of the war
     6.Understands the material costs of the war
     7.Understands the degree to which the Civil War united the nation
     8.Understands how the Civil War changed the lives of women
     9.Understands how the Civil War changed the lives of men
     10.Understands how the Civil War changed the lives of children
 Standard 16.  Understands how the rise of corporations, heavy industry, and mechanized farming transformed American society
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands influences on the development of the American West (e.g., cross-cultural encounters and conflicts among different racial and ethnic groups; the daily life of women on the western frontier; disputes between farmers, ranchers, and miners over water rights and open ranges)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands cross-cultural encounters among different racial groups in the American West
     2.Understands cross-cultural encounters among different ethnic groups in the American West
     3.Understands cross-cultural conflicts among different racial groups in the American West
     4.Understands cross-cultural conflicts among different ethnic groups in the American West
     5.Understands the daily life of women on the western frontier
     6.Understands the disputes between farmers, ranchers, and miners over water rights in the American West
     7.Understands the disputes between farmers, ranchers, and miners over open ranges in the American West
 Standard 18.  Understands the rise of the American labor movement and how political issues reflected social and economic changes
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands influences on the workforce during the late 19th century (e.g., gender, race, ethnicity, and skill; how big business and the impersonal nature of factory work affected workers; inroads made by women in male-dominated jobs; legal status of women; the type of work children performed; occupations in which children were employed; dangers they faced during the workday)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the influence of gender on the workforce during the late 19th century
     2.Understands the influence of race on the workforce during the late 19th century
     3.Understands the influence of ethnicity on the workforce during the late 19th century
     4.Understands the influence of skill on the workforce during the late 19th century
     5.Understands how big business affected workers in the late 19th century
     6.Understands how the impersonal nature of factory work affected workers in the late 19th century
     7.Understands the inroads made by women in male-dominated jobs during the late 19th century
     8.Understands how the legal status of women influenced the workforce during the late 19th century
     9.Understands the type of work children performed during the late 19th century
     10.Knows the occupations in which children were employed during the late 19th century
     11.Understands the dangers faced during the workday in the late 19th century
 Standard 20.  Understands how Progressives and others addressed problems of industrial capitalism, urbanization, and political corruption
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands issues and perspectives of different groups during the Progressive era (e.g., African Americans and their alternative programs; women, Native Americans, organized workers)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands issues of different groups during the Progressive era
     2.Understands the perspectives of different groups during the Progressive era
     3.Understands African Americans and their alternative programs during the Progressive era
     4.Understands women’s groups during the Progressive era
     5.Understands Native American groups during the Progressive era
     6.Understands organized worker’s groups during the Progressive era
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands how the Progressive movement influenced different groups in American society (e.g., counter-Progressive programs of labor organizations compared to social democratic programs in industrial Europe, the response of mainstream Progressives to women’s issues, the changing perception of Native American assimilation under Progressivism, the founding of the NAACP, how African American women contributed to the movement, how the International Ladies Garment Workers Union provided alternatives, the success of the Progressive movement to groups outside the mainstream)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how counter-Progressive programs of labor organizations compared to social democratic programs in industrial Europe
     2.Understands the response of mainstream Progressives to women’s issues
     3.Understands the changing perception of Native American assimilation under Progressivism
     4.Knows about the founding of the NAACP
     5.Understands how African American women contributed to the Progressive Movement
     6.Understands how the International Ladies Garment Workers Union provided alternatives
     7.Understands the success of the Progressive movement to groups outside the mainstream
 Standard 22.  Understands how the United States changed between the post-World War I years and the eve of the Great Depression
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 6.Understands how women's lives changed after World War I (e.g., their contributions in schools, hospitals, settlement houses, and social agencies; how the spread of electrification and household appliances improved the life of homemakers)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands women’s contributions in schools after World War I
     2.Understands women’s contributions in hospitals after World War I
     3.Understands women’s contributions in settlement houses after World War I
     4.Understands women’s contributions in social agencies after World War I
     5.Understands how the spread of electrification improved the life of homemakers
     6.Understands how the spread of household appliances improved the life of homemakers
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands changing attitudes toward women in the post-World War I era (e.g., changing values and new ideas regarding employment opportunities, appearance standards, leisure activities, and political participation)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands changing values regarding employment opportunities in the post-World War I era
     2.Understands new ideas regarding employment opportunities in the post-World War I era
     3.Understands changing values regarding appearance standards of women in the post-World War I era
     4.Understands new ideas regarding appearance standards of women in the post-World War I era
     5.Understands changing values regarding the leisure activities of women in the post-World War I era
     6.Understands new ideas regarding the leisure activities of women in the post-World War I era
     7.Understands changing values regarding the political participation of women in the post-World War I era
     8.Understands new ideas regarding the political participation of women in the post-World War I era
 Standard 24.  Understands how the New Deal addressed the Great Depression, transformed American federalism, and initiated the welfare state
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the influences on and impact of the New Deal (e.g., how legislation and policies affected American workers and the labor movement, the condition of working men and women in the United States in the 1930s, how the New Deal affected the lives of local families, how women contributed to New Deal programs)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the influences of the New Deal
     2.Understands the impact of the New Deal
     3.Understands how legislation affected American workers during the 1930s
     4.Understands how policies affected American workers during the 1930s
     5.Understands how legislation affected the labor movement during the 1930s
     6.Understands how policies affected the labor movement during the 1930s
     7.Understands the condition of working men in the United States in the 1930s
     8.Understands the condition of working women in the United States in the 1930s
     9.Understands how the New Deal affected the lives of local families
     10.Understands how women contributed to New Deal programs
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 7.Understands the contributions of Eleanor Roosevelt to the New Deal (e.g., specific efforts the First Lady made in response to the crisis)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands specific efforts Eleanor Roosevelt made in response to the depression
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands how the New Deal influenced the civil and political rights of diverse groups (e.g., the involvement of women and minorities in the New Deal and its impact upon them, FDR's commitment to advancing the civil and political rights of African Americans, how African Americans planted the seeds of a civil rights revolution during the 1930s, how the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 affected Native Americans, the role of John Collier in securing a "new deal" for Native Americans)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the New Deal influenced the civil rights of diverse groups
     2.Understands how the New Deal influenced the political rights of diverse groups
     3.Understands the involvement of women in the New Deal
     4.Understands the involvement of minorities in the New Deal
     5.Understands the impact of the New Deal on women
     6.Understands the impact of the New Deal on minorities
     7.Understands FDR’s commitment to advancing the civil rights of African Americans
     8.Understands FDR’s commitment to advancing the political rights of African Americans
     9.Understands how African Americans planted the seeds of a civil rights revolution during the 1930s
     10.Understands how the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 affected Native Americans
     11.Understands the role of John Collier in securing a "new deal" for Native Americans
 Standard 26.  Understands the economic boom and social transformation of post-World War II United States
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands how American society changed after World War II (e.g., reasons for the "return to domesticity" and the effect on family life and women’s careers)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands reasons for the "return to domesticity"
     2.Understands the effect of societal changes on family life after World War II
     3.Understands the effect of societal changes on women’s careers after World War II
 Standard 29.  Understands the struggle for racial and gender equality and for the extension of civil liberties
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the development of the post-World War II women’s movement (e.g., the major issues affecting women and the conflicts these issues engendered, the emergence of the National Organization for Women, post-World War II attitudes toward women)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the major issues affecting women after World War II
     2.Knows the conflicts engendered by the issues affecting women after World War II
     3.Knows about the emergence of the National Organization for Women
     4.Knows post-World War II attitudes toward women
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands factors that shaped the women's rights movement after World War II (e.g., the factors that contributed to the development of modern feminism; the ideas, agendas, and strategies of feminist and counter-feminist organizations; conflicts originating from within and outside of the women's movement)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the factors that contributed to the development of modern feminism
     2.Knows the ideas, agendas, and strategies of feminist and counter-feminist organizations
     3.Knows conflicts originating from within and outside of the women’s movement
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands conflicting perspectives on different issues addressed by the women’s rights movement (e.g., the Equal Rights Amendment, Title VII, and Roe v. Wade)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows about conflicting perspectives on the Equal Rights Amendment
     2.Knows about conflicting perspectives on Title VII
     3.Knows about conflicting perspectives on Roe v. Wade
 Standard 31.  Understands economic, social, and cultural developments in the contemporary United States
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 5.Understands contemporary issues concerning gender and ethnicity (e.g., the range of women’s organizations, the changing goals of the women’s movement, and the issues currently dividing women; issues involving justice and common welfare; how interest groups attempted to achieve their goals of equality and justice; how African, Asian, Hispanic, and Native Americans have shaped American life and retained their cultural heritage)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows about current issues surrounding gender
     2.Knows about current issues surrounding ethnicity
     3.Knows about women’s organizations
     4.Knows the changing goals of the women’s movement
     5.Knows the issues currently dividing women
     6.Knows about issues of justice and common welfare
     7.Knows how interest groups strive for equality and justice
     8.Knows how African Americans have shaped American life and retained their cultural heritage
     9.Knows how Asian Americans have shaped American life and retained their cultural heritage
     10.Knows how Native Americans have shaped American life and retained their cultural heritage
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands changes in the workplace and the economy in contemporary America (e.g., the effects of a sharp increase in labor force participation of women and new immigrants; the shift of the labor force from manufacturing to service industries)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows changes in the workplace in contemporary America
     2.Knows changes in the economy in contemporary America
     3.Knows the effects of a sharp increase in labor force participation by women in contemporary America
     4.Knows the effects of a sharp increase in labor force participation by new immigrants in contemporary America
     5.Knows about the shift of the labor force from manufacturing to service industries
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Understands major contemporary social issues and the groups involved (e.g., the current debate over affirmative action and to what degree affirmative action policies have reached their goals; the evolution of government support for the rights of the disabled; the emergence of the Gay Liberation Movement and civil rights of gay Americans; continuing debates over multiculturalism, bilingual education, and group identity and rights vs. individual rights and identity; successes and failures of the modern feminist movement)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows about major contemporary social issues
     2.Knows the groups involved in major contemporary social issues
     3.Knows about the current debate over affirmative action
     4.Knows to what extent affirmative action policies have reached their goals
     5.Knows about the evolution of government support for the rights of the disabled
     6.Knows about the Gay Liberation Movement and the progress of civil rights of gay Americans
     7.Knows sides of the debates over multiculturalism
     8.Knows sides of the debates over bilingual education
     9.Knows about the tension between group rights and identity and individual rights and identity

World History

 Standard 6.  Understands major trends in Eurasia and Africa from 4000 to 1000 BCE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the concept of a patriarchal society and the ways in which the legal and customary positions of aristocratic, urban, or peasant women may have changed in early civilizations
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the concept of a patriarchal society
     2.Understands the ways in which the legal and customary positions of aristocratic women may have changed in early civilizations
     3.Understands the ways in which the legal and customary positions of urban women may have changed in early civilizations
     4.Understands the ways in which the legal and customary positions of peasant women may have changed in early civilizations
 Standard 8.  Understands how Aegean civilization emerged and how interrelations developed among peoples of the Eastern Mediterranean and Southwest Asia from 600 to 200 BCE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the political framework of Athenian society (e.g., the influence of Athenian political ideals on public life; major changes made to the Athenian political organization between the initial monarchy and the governments of Solon and Cleisthenes; the role of women in Athenian society, their rights under the law, and possible reasons why Athenian democracy was limited solely to males)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Knows the role of women in Athenian society
     4.Knows the rights of women under the law in Athenian society
     5.Understands possible reasons why Athenian democracy was limited solely to males
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the legacy of Greek thought and government (e.g., the importance of participatory government in Greek city-states for the development of Western political thought and institutions; essential ideas in Plato's Republic and the influence of this work on modern political thought; Athenian ideas and practices related to political freedom, national security, and justice; how the maturing democratic institutions in Greece resulted in greater restrictions on the rights and freedoms of women)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     7.Understands how the maturing democratic institutions in Greece resulted in greater restrictions on the rights and freedoms of women
   Benchmark 6.Understands the characteristics of religion, gender, and philosophy in the Hellenistic era (e.g., the significance of the interaction of Greek and Jewish traditions for the emergence of Rabbinic Judaism and early Christianity; the changes in the status of women during the Hellenistic era, their new opportunities, and greater restrictions; what different Greek philosophers considered to be a "good life")
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the characteristics of gender in the Hellenistic era
     5.Understands the changes in the status of women during the Hellenistic era, their new opportunities, and greater restrictions
   Benchmark 7.Understands how Sumerian, Egyptian, and Greek societies saw themselves in relation to their gods and how attitudes towards women are indicated in representations of their goddesses
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands how attitudes towards women are indicated in Sumerian representations of their goddesses
     5.Understands how Egyptian attitudes towards women are indicated in representations of their goddesses
     6.Understands how attitudes towards women are indicated in Greek representations of their goddesses
 Standard 9.  Understand how major religious and large-scale empires arose in the Mediterranean Basin, China, and India from 500 BCE to 300 CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the status and role of women in Roman society
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the status of women in Roman society
     2.Understands the role of women in Roman society
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 8.Understands the role and status of women in the Confucian tradition
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the role of women in the Confucian tradition
     2.Understands the status of women in the Confucian tradition
   Benchmark 9.Understands how art and literature reflect different aspects of Indian society (e.g., how literature such as the Ramayana can reflect the status and role of women in ancient cultures, how Indian art reflects a Persian or Greek influence)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands how literature such as the Ramayana can reflect the status and role of women in ancient cultures
 Standard 12.  Understands the Imperial crises and their aftermath in various regions from 300 to 700 CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the basis of social relationships in India during the Gupta era (e.g., the social and legal position of women and men, restrictions upon women and their place within the caste system, different social perspectives on the advantages and disadvantages of the caste system)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the social and legal position of women and men in India during the Gupta Empire
     2.Knows restrictions upon women and their place within the caste system in India during the Gupta Empire
   Benchmark 6.Understands the changing status of women in early Christian and Buddhist societies
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the changing status of women in early Christian societies
     2.Understands the changing status of women in early Buddhist societies
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands political and social elements during the decline of the Roman and Han Empires and the rise of the Byzantine Empire (e.g., the strengths and weaknesses of the Eastern and Western Roman Empires and the factors that enabled the Byzantine Empire to continue as Rome fell; how Constantine selectively supported aspects of Western rule with Eastern institutions to create a new, independent, Byzantine state in the 4th century CE; the links between military, social, and economic causes for the decline in the Han and Roman Empires; the impact of barbarian movements on the regions of Europe, China, and India by the end of the 7th century CE; the life of Germanic peoples and society including the status and role of women)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     8.Understands the life of Germanic peoples and society including the status and role of women
   Benchmark 5.Understands shifts in the status of women from pagan Roman society to Christian society (e.g., the shifting importance of social class, marital status)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the status women in pagan Roman society
     2.Understands the status of women in Christian society
     3.Understands shifts in the importance of social class of women from pagan Roman to Christian society
     4.Understands shifts in the importance of the marital status of women from pagan Roman to Christian society
 Standard 13.  Understands the causes and consequences of the development of Islamic civilization between the 7th and 10th centuries
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands significant aspects of Islamic civilization (e.g., the emergence of Islamic civilization in Iberia and its economic and cultural achievements, how family life and gender relations were prescribed in Islamic society)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands how family life and gender relations were prescribed in Islamic society
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the social structure of the Abbasid Empire (e.g., the treatment and legal status of non-Muslims and their cultural and social contributions to society; the lives of prominent women and factors that facilitated and mitigated their rise to prominence; the role and status of royal bureaucrats, landowning nobles, peasants, urban artisans, and slaves; what Islamic conversion and adherence meant for social status)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands features of the lives of prominent women and factors that facilitated and mitigated their rise to prominence in the Abbasid Empire
   Benchmark 7.Understands significant social and cultural changes in Islamic civilization between the 7th and 10th centuries (e.g., the changing position of women in the new Islam, how Muslim mosque architecture physically reflects the relationship between people, spiritual leaders, and God in Islam; the process through which Arabic became a common language in the early Islamic centuries; what branches of. scholarship developed out of the efforts of Muslim leaders and scholars to record the Qur'an and Hadith)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the changing position of women in the new Islam
 Standard 14.  Understands major developments in East Asia and Southeast Asia in the era of the Tang Dynasty from 600 to 900 CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands characteristics of Japanese society through the imperial period (e.g., aspects of the indigenous development of Japanese society until the 7th century CE; the establishment of the imperial state in Japan and the role of the emperor in government; the political, social, and cultural role of women and their contributions to the court of Heian; how the geography of Japan affected its development and its relations with China and Korea)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands the political role of women in the court of Heian
     4.Understands the social role of women in the court of Heian
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands social and political characteristics of the reunification of China (e.g., the process of political centralization and economic reforms that marked China's reunification under the Sui and Tang dynasties, the roles of women and family)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands the role of women under the reunification of China
   Benchmark 4.Understands the importance of women as authors at the Japanese court of the Heian period (e.g., the courtly roles and values reflected in works by female authors, such as the Diary of Muraski Shikibu and The Pillow Book by Sei Shonagon)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the courtly roles reflected in works by female authors, such as the Diary of Muraski Shikibu and The Pillow Book by Sei Shonagon
     2.Understands the values reflected in works by female authors, such as the Diary of Muraski Shikibu and The Pillow Book by Sei Shonagon
 Standard 15.  Understands the political, social, and cultural redefinitions in Europe from 500 to 1000 CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands social class and gender roles in Medieval Europe (e.g., changes in the legal, social, and economic status of peasants in the 9th and 10th centuries; how the political fragmentation of Europe after Charlemagne affected their lives; the responsibilities of women with different social status)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     5.Knows the responsibilities of women with different social status in Medieval Europe
 Standard 17.  Understands the rise of centers of civilization in Mesoamerica and Andean South America in the 1st millennium CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the significant features of Mayan civilization (e.g., locations of Mayan city-states, road systems, and sea routes in Mesoamerica and the influence of the environment on these developments; the role and status of elite women and men in Mayan society as indicated by their portrayal in Mayan monumental architecture; the importance of religion in Mayan society; the structure and purpose of Mayan pyramids; ceremonial games among the Mayans)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands the role and status of elite women and men in Mayan society as indicated by their portrayal in Mayan monumental architecture
 Standard 19.  Understands the maturation of an interregional system of communication, trade, and cultural exchange during a period of Chinese economic power and Islamic expansion
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands different elements of Japanese feudal society (e.g., Japanese government during the Kamakura and Ashikaga periods, and whether it was feudalism; the rise of the warrior class in feudal Japan and the values it prescribed; how the economic and social status of women and peasants changed in feudal Japanese society; how art and aesthetic values were cherished in the warrior culture in Japan and what this art reveals about Japanese values; how the Japanese successfully defended themselves against Mongol invasions in the 13th century)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands how the economic and social status of women changed in feudal Japanese society
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands religious, social, and political aspects of the Song Dynasty (e.g., the importance of women of gentry families in preserving and transmitting Chinese cultural values; Chinese advancements in alchemy, astronomy, and medicine; the values of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism as reflected in Song art; changes in the social and moral status of women as reflected in the practice of foot binding; the attitudes of typical Chinese gentlemen toward women, family, servants, tenants, and social inferiors; the debate during the Song Dynasty about how the government should respond to rapid social and economic change)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands the importance of women of gentry families in preserving and transmitting Chinese cultural values
     11.Understands changes in the social and moral status of women as reflected in the practice of foot binding
     12.Knows the attitudes of typical Chinese gentlemen toward women, family, servants, tenants, and social inferiors
   Benchmark 7.Understands different social classes and gender roles in Japanese society (e.g., the influence of Buddhist sects on the samurai class; the role of social class, area, time, and age in determining women's experiences)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands different gender roles in Japanese society
     4.Understands the role of social class, area, time, and age in determining women’s experiences in Japanese society
 Standard 20.  Understands the redefinition of European society and culture from 1000 to 1300 CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the lives of different groups of people in Medieval Europe (e.g., life in Jewish communities and what Jews added to the cultural and economic development of Europe; the influence of ideals of chivalry and courtly love on feudal society; how the status of women changed in medieval European life)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands how the status of women changed in medieval European life
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 8.Understands how women influenced medieval politics (e.g., the roles and duties of women in 14th century political and home life; the opportunities available to upper class women and the obstacles they faced)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the roles and duties of women in 14th century political life
     2.Understands the roles and duties of women in 14th century home life
     3.Knows the opportunities available to upper class women in Medieval Europe and the obstacles they faced
   Benchmark 11.Understands how women's experiences in Europe were determined by social class, area, time, and stage of life and how these experiences are reflected in different types of literature (e.g., Treasure of City of Ladies by Catherine of Pisan and Art of Courtly Love)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how women’s experiences in Europe were determined by social class
     2.Understands how women’s experiences in Europe were determined by region
     3.Understands how women’s experiences in Europe were determined by time and stage of life
     4.Understands how women’s experiences in Medieval Europe are reflected in different types of literature (e.g., Treasure of City of Ladies by Christine of Pisan and Art of Courtly Love)
 Standard 22.  Understands the growth of states, towns, and trade in Sub-Saharan Africa between the 11th and 15th centuries
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands social and religious features of West Africa (e.g., what art reveals about the societies and rulers of Benin and Ile-Ife, the story of Solomon and Sheba and the role of Sheba in African history)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Knows the story of Solomon and Sheba and the role of Sheba in African history
 Standard 23.  Understands patterns of crisis and recovery in Afro-Eurasia between 1300 and 1450
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 9.Understands the significance of Joan of Arc (e.g., her role in the Hundred Years War; her subsequent trial and execution; the Church's review of her trial 25 years later, and her revered image as a patron saint of France)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows Joan of Arc’s role in the Hundred Years War
     2.Understands Joan of Arc’s trial and execution subsequent to the Hundred Year’s War
     3.Understands the Church’s review of Joan of Arc’s trial 25 years later
     4.Understands Joan of Arc’s revered image as a patron saint of France
 Standard 24.  Understands the expansion of states and civilizations in the Americas between 1000 and 1500
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands social and cultural features of Aztec society (e.g., the characteristics of Tenochtitl n that made it a unique city, gender roles in Aztec society and what these indicate about Aztec culture)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands gender roles in Aztec society and what these indicate about Aztec culture
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands political, social, and economic features of Aztec society (e.g., the locations and geographic limits of different phases of the Aztec Empire, the role and status of women in Aztec society and how this compares to the Incan and Mayan societies, the complex structure and features of the Aztec city of Tenochtitl n)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     5.Understands the role and status of women in Aztec society and how this compares to the Incan and Mayan societies
   Benchmark 3.Understands gender roles in Caribbean, Mesoamerican, and Andean societies and how these are reflected in images, myths, and individual qualities of their gods
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands gender roles in Caribbean, Mesoamerican, and Andean societies
     2.Understands how gender roles of the Caribbean, Mesoamerican, and Andean societies are reflected in images, myths, and individual qualities of their gods
 Standard 27.  Understands how European society experienced political, economic, and cultural transformations in an age of global intercommunication between 1450 and 1750
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the social characteristics of European society from 1450 to 1750 (e.g., how lifestyles were different among varied social classes in early modern Europe, changes in institutions of serfdom, changes in the social status of women)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Knows changes in the social status of women in early modern Europe
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands significant social and cultural changes that took place during the Renaissance (e.g., advances in printing press technology, the connections between the Italian Renaissance and the development of Humanist ideals in Europe north of the Alps, positive and negative changes in the status of women during the Renaissance and Reformation, the legacy of Renaissance architecture, changes in European art and architecture between the Middle Ages and the High Renaissance)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     5.Knows positive and negative changes in the status of women during the Renaissance and Reformation
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands influences on the spread of scientific ideas and Enlightenment thought (e.g., the importance of royal societies and other international networks in disseminating scientific ideas and methods; how academies, salons, and popular publishing spread Enlightenment thought; how the salons of aristocratic and bourgeois Parisian women influenced French political affairs, and why men eventually created their own salons; how Chinese humanist philosophy influenced the ideas of major Enlightenment writers and thinkers)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands how salons spread Enlightenment thought
     7.Knows how the salons of aristocratic and bourgeois Parisian women influenced French political affairs
   Benchmark 7.Understands significant individuals and ideologies that emerged during the Renaissance and Reformation (e.g., the basic arguments in The Prince by Machiavelli; works of Renaissance writers and elements of Humanism in these works; individuals and factors that contributed to the revival of Greco-Roman art, architecture, and scholarship; differing ideas on women's roles in the Protestant household; social oppression and conflict in Europe during the Renaissance, as contrasted with humanist principles of the time)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     8.Knows differing ideas on women’s roles in the Protestant household
 Standard 28.  Understands how large territorial empires dominated much of Eurasia between the 16th and 18th centuries
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the social, economic, and cultural features of the Ottoman Empire (e.g., how Muslim, Orthodox, Catholic, and Jewish peoples interacted in southeastern Europe under Ottoman rule, the role and legal status of women within the Ottoman Empire, sources of revenue and patterns in state spending in the Ottoman Empire)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     5.Understands the role and legal status of women within the Ottoman Empire
 Standard 29.  Understands the economic, political, and cultural interrelations among peoples of Africa, Europe, and the Americas between 1500 and 1750
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Knows reasons for the emergence of social hierarchies based on race and gender in both the Iberian Empire and the British colonies in the Americas
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Knows reasons for the emergence of social hierarchies based on gender in the Iberian Empire
     4.Knows reasons for the emergence of social hierarchies based on gender in the British colonies in the Americas
 Standard 30.  Understands transformations in Asian societies in the era of European expansion
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands political, economic, and social aspects of Chinese society during the era of European expansion (e.g., how the Manchus overthrew the Ming Dynasty and the consequences of this event; demands and consequences of increasing population growth, agricultural output, commerce, and European trading networks in the Manchu Empire; treatment and opportunities open to women in 17th-and 18th-century China)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     6.Knows the treatment of and opportunities open to women in 17th and 18th century China
   Benchmark 4.Understands features in the development of Korean and Japanese culture (e.g., why Korea was called the "Hermit Kingdom" before 1800, the role and status of women in Tokugawa Japan, the roots and development of 17th-century Japanese art forms)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands the role and status of women in Tokugawa Japan
   Benchmark 5.Understands the spread of Confucianism in various Asian cultures (e.g., how the rising popularity of Confucianism among the elites in Korea and Japan contributed to changes in the roles of women; how Confucianism was influenced by government and society in China, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the rising popularity of Confucianism among the elites in Korea and Japan contributed to changes in the roles of women
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 6.Understands how art, literature, and architecture reflect features of different cultures and religions (e.g., the influence of new currents in both Confucianism and Chinese art, architecture, and literature on cultural life in Korea, Vietnam, and Japan in the 17th and 18th centuries; the role of women in the Bhati movement of the 16th century, as reflected in the poetry of Mirabai; the Islamic and Hindu influences in the poetry of Kabir)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the role of women in the Bhati movement of the 16th century, as reflected in the poetry of Mirabai
 Standard 32.  Understands the causes and consequences of political revolutions in the late 18th and early 19th centuries
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands how the French Revolution changed social conditions in France (e.g., how the revolution changed political and religious institutions, social relations, education, family life, and the legal and political position of women; how territorial changes were made in Europe between 1789 and 1815 and their consequences for diverse social groups such as clergy, nobility, peasantry, bourgeoisie, and sans-culottes)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     6.Understands how the French Revolution changed the legal and political position of women
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the status of women and other social classes during and following the Latin American independence movements (e.g., the political roles of Creole elites, the Catholic Church, and mestizo, mulatto, and Indian populations; social and racial divisions in most of Latin America; how independence changed the status of women in Latin America and affected mestizo, mulatto, and Indian populations; roles played by prominent women before the wars of independence in Latin America)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the status of women during and following the Latin American independence movements
     5.Understands how independence changed the status of women in Latin America
     7.Knows roles played by prominent women before the wars of independence in Latin America
   Benchmark 4.Understands the political beliefs and writings that emerged during the French Revolution (e.g., characteristics and actions of radical, liberal, moderate, conservative, and reactionary thinking; the ideas in the "Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen" and Olympe de Gouge's "Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Female Citizen"; the implications of the "Code Napoleon" for Protestant and Catholic Clergy, property owners, workers, and women)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     8.Knows the ideas in Olympe de Gouge’s "Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Female Citizen"
     9.Understands the implications of the "Code Napoleon" for Protestant and Catholic Clergy, property owners, workers, and women
 Standard 33.  Understands the causes and consequences of the agricultural and industrial revolutions from 1700 to 1850
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the impact of the industrial revolution in Europe and the Atlantic Basin (e.g., connections between population growth, industrialization, and urbanization; the quality of life in early 19-century cities; the effects of urbanization on the development of class distinctions, family life, and the daily working lives of men, women, and children; advances made in communication and transportation; effects upon the political and economic status of women)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     7.Understands the effects of the industrial revolution upon the political and economic status of women
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 8.Understands significant individuals in the abolition movement (e.g., prominent women from the abolitionist movement in America and their major accomplishments, including Harriet Tubman, Sojourner Truth, the Grimké sisters, Lucretia Mott; the story of Olaudah Equiana [Gustavus Vasa], his experience during the "middle passage," and his efforts to bring an end to the slave trade)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows prominent women from the abolitionist movement in America and their major accomplishments, including Harriet Tubman, Sojourner Truth, the Grimké sisters, Lucretia Mott
 Standard 34.  Understands how Eurasian societies were transformed in an era of global trade and the emergence of European power from 1750 to 1870
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands changes in social and political elements of the Ottoman Empire during the 18th and 19th centuries (e.g., reasons for the empire's retreat from the Balkans and Black Sea region; the lives of different members of Ottoman society such as the janissary, attendees of the Palace School, the role of women)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands the lives of different members of Ottoman society such as the janissary, attendees of the Palace School, the role of women
 Standard 35.  Understands patterns of nationalism, state-building, and social reform in Europe and the Americas from 1830 to 1914
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the status of different groups in 19th-century Europe (e.g., the changing roles and status of European Jews and the rise of new forms of anti-Semitism; the goals of the women's movement in the 19th century, and the essential ideas outlined by Mary Wollstonecraft in Vindication of the Rights of Women; support for and opposition to women's suffrage in the late 19th century)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Knows the goals of the women’s movement in the 19th century
     4.Knows the essential ideas outlined by Mary Wollstonecraft in Vindication of the Rights of Women
     5.Understands support for and opposition to women’s suffrage in the late 19th century
   Benchmark 7.Understands how political and economic change influenced Latin American society in the 19th century (e.g., Latin America's growing dependence on the global market economy, as well as the effects of international trade and investment on the power of landowners and the urban middle class; the consequences of economic development, elite domination, and the abolition of slavery for peasants, indigenous populations, and immigrant laborers in Latin America; the impact of the expansion of secular education upon women's legal and political rights; the roles and perspectives of the caudillo, military official, landowner, urban bourgeoisie, or church official in post-independence Latin America; attitudes toward nationalism and cultural identity in 19th-century Latin America)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     5.Understands the impact of the expansion of secular education upon women’s legal and political rights
 Standard 37.  Understand major global trends from 1750 to 1914
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands industrialization and its social impact in Great Britain, France, Germany, the United States, Russia, Japan, and other countries (e.g., conditions for rural families, the roles of women and children, the daily lives of working class men and women)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     8.Understands the impact of industrialization on the roles of women and children in different countries
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the process of educational reform in various Muslim regions during the 19th century (e.g., the new institutions that were established, the effect of this reform on women, those areas that wholly embraced Western values, and those that rejected them)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the effect of educational reforms on women in Muslim regions in the 19th century
 Standard 39.  Understands the causes and global consequences of World War I
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands Lenin's ideology and policies and their impact on Russia after the Revolution of 1917 (e.g., Lenin's political ideology and how the Bolsheviks adapted Marxist ideas to conditions particular to Russia; why Lenin declined to follow Marxist economic philosophy; the platforms and promises of Kerenksy and Lenin in 1917, the impact of war upon Kerensky's program, and the importance of Lenin's promise, "land, bread, peace"; how statistics on women in the labor force and education contradict Lenin's statements concerning women's equality)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     10.Understands how statistics on women in the labor force contradicted Lenin’s statements concerning women’s equality
     11.Understands how statistics on women in education contradicted Lenin’s statements concerning women’s equality
   Benchmark 8.Understands the human cost and social impact of World War I (e.g., what sources, such as letters and books, illustrate about the mental and physical costs of the war to soldiers around the world; how the casualty figures for World War I compare to other wars, and reasons for the high casualty rate; the changes in women's roles during the Great War)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     8.Understands the changes in women’s roles during the Great War
 Standard 41.  Understands the causes and global consequences of World War II
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the impact of World War II on civilian populations and soldiers (e.g., the roles of women and children during the war and how they differed in Allied and Axis countries, the hardships of the war on soldiers from both sides)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Knows the roles of women and children during the war in Allied countries
     4.Knows the roles of women and children during the war in Axis countries
 Standard 43.  Understands how post-World War II reconstruction occurred, new international power relations took shape, and colonial empires broke up
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the position of women in developing countries (e.g., as compared to their position in industrialized countries, how change has occurred in different societies)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the position of women in developing countries as compared to their position in industrialized countries
     2.Understands how change has occurred in the position of women in different societies
 Standard 44.  Understands the search for community, stability, and peace in an interdependent world
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 4.Understands how feminist movements and social conditions have affected the lives of women around the world, and the extent of women's progress toward social equality, economic opportunity, and political rights in various countries
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how feminist movements and social conditions have affected the lives of women around the world
     2.Understands the extent of women’s progress toward social equality in various countries
     3.Understands the extent of women’s progress toward economic opportunity in various countries
     4.Understands the extent of women’s progress toward political rights in various countries
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 12.Understands gender roles across the globe (e.g., conflicts in the perception of gender roles in various religions, especially the role of women; how the legal status of women varies around the world in Muslim societies, and how the status of women from different classes has changed in the past century)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows conflicts in the perception of gender roles in various religions, especially the role of women
     2.Understands how the legal status of women varies around the world in Muslim societies
     3.Understands how the status of women from different classes has changed in the past century