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Topic: Rise of social, political, and economic revolutions 

World History

 Standard 23.  Understands patterns of crisis and recovery in Afro-Eurasia between 1300 and 1450
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 9.Understands the significance of Joan of Arc (e.g., her role in the Hundred Years War; her subsequent trial and execution; the Church's review of her trial 25 years later, and her revered image as a patron saint of France)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows Joan of Arc’s role in the Hundred Years War
     2.Understands Joan of Arc’s trial and execution subsequent to the Hundred Year’s War
     3.Understands the Church’s review of Joan of Arc’s trial 25 years later
     4.Understands Joan of Arc’s revered image as a patron saint of France
 Standard 27.  Understands how European society experienced political, economic, and cultural transformations in an age of global intercommunication between 1450 and 1750
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the English civil war and the Revolution of 1688 (e.g., how these events affected government, religion, economy, and society in England; how the English Revolution influenced political institutions and attitudes in the English colonies and the outbreak of the American Revolution; new freedoms granted to the English people after 1688)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the English civil war
     2.Understands the Revolution of 1688
     3.Understands how the English Civil War affected government, religion, economy, and society in England
     4.Understands how the Reformation affected government, religion, economy, and society in England
     5.Understands how the English Revolution influenced political institutions and attitudes in the English colonies and the outbreak of the American Revolution
     6.Knows new freedoms granted to the English people after 1688
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands changes in urban and rural Europe between the 15th and 18th centuries (e.g., social and economic consequences of population growth and urbanization in Europe between the 15th and 18th centuries; the growth pattern of European cities between the 17th and 18th centuries, and the major urban centers of this period; causes and effects of the "agrarian revolution" on Western and Eastern European society)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands changes in urban Europe between the 15th and 18th centuries
     2.Understands changes in rural Europe between the 15th and 18th centuries
     3.Knows social consequences of population growth and urbanization in Europe between the 15th and 18th centuries
     4.Knows economic consequences of population growth and urbanization in Europe between the 15th and 18th centuries
     5.Knows the growth pattern of European cities between the 17th and 18th centuries
     6.Knows the major urban centers between the 17th and 18th centuries
     7.Understands causes and effects of the "agrarian revolution" on Western and Eastern European society
   Benchmark 4.Understands origins of the Reformation and Catholic Reformation (e.g., why many Europeans were unhappy with the late medieval Catholic Church, and how the beliefs and ideas of leading Protestant reformers reflected this discontent; what the Catholic Reformation sought to achieve, and the effect of religious reforms and divisions on Europeans; the patterns of religious affiliation in Europe in the early 17th century and factors that led some populations to embrace the Protestant Reformation while others rejected it)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands origins of the Reformation
     2.Understands origins of the Catholic Reformation
     3.Knows why many Europeans were unhappy with the late medieval Catholic Church
     4.Understands how the beliefs and ideas of leading Protestant reformers reflected discontent among Europeans with the late medieval Catholic Church
     5.Knows what the Catholic Reformation sought to achieve
     6.Understands the effect of religious reforms and divisions on Europeans
     7.Understands the patterns of religious affiliation in Europe in the early 17th century
     8.Knows factors that led some populations to embrace the Protestant Reformation while others rejected it
   Benchmark 10.Understands the long and short-term causes of the "Glorious" revolution of 1688 and how it earned this title
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the long term causes of the "Glorious" revolution of 1688
     3.Understands the short term causes of the "Glorious" revolution of 1688
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands influences on the spread of scientific ideas and Enlightenment thought (e.g., the importance of royal societies and other international networks in disseminating scientific ideas and methods; how academies, salons, and popular publishing spread Enlightenment thought; how the salons of aristocratic and bourgeois Parisian women influenced French political affairs, and why men eventually created their own salons; how Chinese humanist philosophy influenced the ideas of major Enlightenment writers and thinkers)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the importance of royal societies and other international networks in disseminating scientific ideas and methods
     2.Understands how academies spread Enlightenment thought
     4.Understands how salons spread Enlightenment thought
     5.Understands how popular publishing spread Enlightenment thought
     7.Knows how the salons of aristocratic and bourgeois Parisian women influenced French political affairs
     8.Understands why men eventually created their own salons
     9.Understands how Chinese humanist philosophy influenced the ideas of major Enlightenment writers and thinkers
   Benchmark 5.Understands features of the conflict between religious beliefs and scientific thought during the Scientific Revolution (e.g., the coexistence of the new scientific rationalism in 17th-and 18th-century Europe with traditional learning and rituals; Galileo's ideas about the solar system, and why he hesitated to apply scriptural passages to science-related problems; the fundamental ideas of Descartes' Discourse on Method, and the methods he used to ascertain the "truth")
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the coexistence of the new scientific rationalism in 17th and 18th century Europe with traditional learning and rituals
     2.Understands Galileo’s ideas about the solar system
     3.Understands why Galileo hesitated to apply scriptural passages to science related problems
     4.Understands the fundamental ideas of Descartes’ Discourse on Method, and the methods he used to ascertain the "truth"
   Benchmark 9.Understands the complaints, goals, and issues of the Cavaliers and Roundheads in the English Civil War
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the complaints of the Cavaliers in the English Civil War
     2.Understands the complaints of the Roundheads in the English Civil War
     3.Understands the goals of the Cavaliers in the English Civil War
     4.Understands the goals of the Roundheads in the English Civil War
     5.Understands the issues of the Cavaliers in the English Civil War
     6.Understands the issues of the Roundheads in the English Civil War
 Standard 29.  Understands the economic, political, and cultural interrelations among peoples of Africa, Europe, and the Americas between 1500 and 1750
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 9.Understands how the African slave trade influenced the lives of slaves in the Western Hemisphere (e.g., the institutions, beliefs, and practices of slaves working on plantations in the Western Hemisphere; the history of open slave rebellion and resistance in the Western Hemisphere; how the English and Spanish subdued slave rebellion in their colonies)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the institutions, beliefs, and practices of slaves working on plantations in the Western Hemisphere
     2.Knows the history of open slave rebellion and resistance in the Western Hemisphere
     3.Knows how the English subdued slave rebellion in their colonies
     4.Knows how the Spanish subdued slave rebellion in their colonies
 Standard 30.  Understands transformations in Asian societies in the era of European expansion
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Knows the events that led to the demise of centralized control by the imperial Mughals and the ascent of Maratha and Sikh power in India
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the events that led to the demise of centralized control by the imperial Mughals
     2.Knows the events that led to the ascent of Maratha and Sikh power in India
 Standard 31.  Understands major global trends from 1450 to 1770
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the catalysts behind the shift of economic power from the Mediterranean basin to Northern Europe during the 16th century
 Standard 32.  Understands the causes and consequences of political revolutions in the late 18th and early 19th centuries
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the ideas and events that shaped the Revolution in France (e.g., the causes, character, and consequences of the American and French revolutions; the meaning of the revolutionary slogan in France, "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity," and the social ideals it embodied; the legacy of leading ideas of the revolution; how the wars of the revolutionary and Napoleonic periods changed Europe and Napoleon's effects on the aims and outcomes of the revolution; connections between political events in the Americas and France between 1770 and 1815)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the ideas that shaped the Revolution in France
     2.Understands the events that shaped the Revolution in France
     3.Knows the causes of the American Revolution
     4.Knows the causes of the French Revolution
     5.Understands the character of the American Revolution
     6.Understands the character of the French Revolution
     7.Understands the consequences of the American Revolution
     8.Understands the consequences of the French Revolution
     9.Understands the meaning of the revolutionary slogan in France, "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity," and the social ideals it embodied
     10.Knows the legacy of leading ideas of the revolution
     11.Understands how the wars of the revolutionary and Napoleonic periods changed Europe and Napoleon’s effects on the aims and outcomes of the revolution
     12.Understands connections between political events in the Americas and France between 1770 and 1815
   Benchmark 2.Understands the origins and development of Latin American independence movements (e.g., how the American, French, and Haitian revolutions and South American rebellions influenced the development of independence movements in Latin America; the political and ideological objectives, and the success of the independence movements between 1808 and 1830; how the colonial powers and independent countries of Latin America changed between 1790 and 1828; the role of geography in the outcome of the Latin American independence movements)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the origins of Latin American independence movements
     2.Understands the development of Latin American independence movements
     3.Understands how the American Revolution influenced the development of independence movements in Latin America
     4.Understands how the French Revolution influenced the development of independence movements in Latin America
     5.Understands how the Haitian Revolution influenced the development of independence movements in Latin America
     6.Understands how the South American rebellions influenced the development of independence movements in Latin America
     7.Understands the political objectives of the Latin American independence movements between 1808 and 1830
     8.Understands the ideological objectives of the Latin American independence movements between 1808 and 1830
     9.Knows the successes of the independence movements between 1808 and 1830
     10.Understands how the colonial powers and independent countries of Latin America changed between 1790 and 1828
     11.Understands the role of geography in the outcome of the Latin American independence movements
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the diverse factors (e.g., the Seven Years War, Enlightenment-era thought, the American Revolution, escalating internal economic crisis) that affected social and political conditions in Old Regime France
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the diverse factors that affected social conditions in Old Regime France
     2.Understands the diverse factors that affected political conditions in Old Regime France
     3.Understands how the Seven Years War affected social and political conditions in Old Regime France
     4.Understands how Enlightenment era thought affected social and political conditions in Old Regime France
     5.Understands how the American Revolution affected social and political conditions in Old Regime France
     6.Understands how escalating internal economic crisis affected social and political conditions in Old Regime France
   Benchmark 2.Understands events and ideas that influenced the course of the French Revolution (e.g., how the revolution developed from constitutional monarchy to democratic despotism to the Napoleonic empire; the organization of the Estates-General and its merits and limitations; central ideas and origins of the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands events that influenced the course of the French Revolution
     2.Understands ideas that influenced the course of the French Revolution
     3.Understands how the revolution developed from constitutional monarchy to democratic despotism to the Napoleonic empire
     4.Knows the organization of the Estates General and its merits and limitations
     5.Knows the central ideas and origins of the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen
   Benchmark 3.Understands how the French Revolution changed social conditions in France (e.g., how the revolution changed political and religious institutions, social relations, education, family life, and the legal and political position of women; how territorial changes were made in Europe between 1789 and 1815 and their consequences for diverse social groups such as clergy, nobility, peasantry, bourgeoisie, and sans-culottes)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the French Revolution changed political institutions
     2.Understands how the French Revolution changed religious institutions
     3.Understands how the French Revolution changed social relations
     4.Understands how the French Revolution changed education
     5.Understands how the French Revolution changed family life
     6.Understands how the French Revolution changed the legal and political position of women
     7.Understands how territorial changes were made in Europe between 1789 and 1815
     8.Understands the consequences of territorial changes in Europe between 1789 and 1815 for diverse social groups such as clergy, nobility, peasantry, bourgeoisie, and sans culottes
   Benchmark 4.Knows the consequences of Napoleon's invasions (e.g., the impact of Napoleon's invasion of Iberia and growing British power in the Atlantic basin on the independence movements in Latin America, the events surrounding Napoleon's invasion of Portugal, the flight of the Portuguese court to Brazil)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the impact of Napoleon’s invasion of Iberia and growing British power in the Atlantic basin on the independence movements in Latin America
     2.Knows the events surrounding Napoleon’s invasion of Portugal and the flight of the Portuguese court to Brazil
   Benchmark 5.Understands the political and ideological objectives of Latin American independence movements (e.g., knows who supported Father Miguel Hidalgo, his role in the Mexican Revolution of 1810; knows the role of Agust­n de Iturbide in the Creole-dominated revolt of 1821)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the political objectives of the Latin American independence movements between 1808 and 1830
     2.Understands the ideological objectives of the Latin American independence movements between 1808 and 1830
     3.Knows who supported Father Miguel Hidalgo
     4.Understands Father Miguel Hidalgo’s role in the Mexican Revolution of 1810
     5.Knows the role of Agustin de Iturbide in the Creole dominated revolt of 1821
   Benchmark 6.Knows the leading figures and issues of the Congress of Vienna
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the leading figures of the Congress of Vienna
     2.Knows the leading figures issues of the Congress of Vienna
   Benchmark 7.Understands elements of the Haitian revolution (e.g., the role of Touissant L'Overture, Haiti's social and economic conditions under French rule)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the role of Touissant L’Overture in the Haitian Revolution
     2.Understands Haiti’s social conditions under French rule
     3.Understands Haiti’s economic conditions under French rule
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the impact of the Haitian Revolution (e.g., connections between the French and Haitian Revolutions, the impact of this event on race relations and slavery in the Americas and the French Empire)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands connections between the French and Haitian Revolutions
     2.Understands the impact of the Haitian Revolution on race relations and slavery in the Americas
     3.Understands the impact of the Haitian Revolution on race relations and slavery in the French Empire
   Benchmark 2.Understands comparisons between the Latin American revolutions and those in America, France, and Haiti (e.g., pre-independence social and political conditions, opposed regimes/policies, justifications of the revolutionaries, class representation, extent of revolution)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands comparisons between the Latin American revolutions and the American Revolution
     2.Understands comparisons between the Latin American revolutions and the French Revolution
     3.Understands comparisons between the Latin American revolutions and the Haitian Revolution
     4.Knows pre-independence social and political conditions in Latin American countries compared to America
     5.Knows pre-independence social and political conditions in Latin American countries compared to France
     6.Knows pre-independence social and political conditions in Latin American countries compared to Haiti
     7.Understands comparisons between opposed regimes/policies of the Latin American revolutions and the American Revolution
     8.Understands comparisons between opposed regimes/policies of the Latin American revolutions and the French Revolution
     9.Understands comparisons between opposed regimes/policies of the Latin American revolutions and the Haitian
     10.Understands comparisons between the justifications of the revolutionaries of the Latin American revolutions and the American Revolution
     11.Understands comparisons between the justifications of the revolutionaries of the Latin American revolutions and the French Revolution
     12.Understands comparisons between the justifications of the revolutionaries of the Latin American revolutions and the Haitian Revolution
     13.Understands comparisons between class representation in the Latin American revolutions and the American Revolution
     14.Understands comparisons between class representation in the Latin American revolutions and the French Revolution
     15.Understands comparisons between class representation in the Latin American revolutions and the Haitian Revolution
     16.Understands comparisons between the extent of the Latin American revolutions and the American Revolution
     17.Understands comparisons between the extent of the Latin American revolutions and the French Revolution
     18.Understands comparisons between the extent of the Latin American revolutions and the Haitian Revolution
   Benchmark 3.Understands the status of women and other social classes during and following the Latin American independence movements (e.g., the political roles of Creole elites, the Catholic Church, and mestizo, mulatto, and Indian populations; social and racial divisions in most of Latin America; how independence changed the status of women in Latin America and affected mestizo, mulatto, and Indian populations; roles played by prominent women before the wars of independence in Latin America)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the status of women during and following the Latin American independence movements
     2.Understands the status of various social classes during and following the Latin American independence movements
     3.Knows the political roles of Creole elites, the Catholic Church, and mestizo, mulatto, and Indian populations
     4.Understands social and racial divisions in most of Latin America
     5.Understands how independence changed the status of women in Latin America
     6.Understands how independence affected mestizo, mulatto, and Indian populations
     7.Knows roles played by prominent women before the wars of independence in Latin America
   Benchmark 4.Understands the political beliefs and writings that emerged during the French Revolution (e.g., characteristics and actions of radical, liberal, moderate, conservative, and reactionary thinking; the ideas in the "Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen" and Olympe de Gouge's "Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Female Citizen"; the implications of the "Code Napoleon" for Protestant and Catholic Clergy, property owners, workers, and women)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the political beliefs that emerged during the French Revolution
     2.Knows the political writings that emerged during the French Revolution
     3.Knows characteristics and actions of radical thinkers during the French Revolution
     4.Knows characteristics and actions of liberal thinkers during the French Revolution
     5.Knows characteristics and actions of moderate thinkers during the French Revolution
     6.Knows characteristics and actions of conservative thinkers during the French Revolution
     7.Knows the ideas in the "Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen"
     8.Knows the ideas in Olympe de Gouge’s "Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Female Citizen"
     9.Understands the implications of the "Code Napoleon" for Protestant and Catholic Clergy, property owners, workers, and women
   Benchmark 5.Understands the ideas and issues during and after the Latin American independence movement (e.g., how the Brazilian independence movement differed from the rest, issues that concerned New Granada after independence, the provisions of the Monroe Doctrine and Latin American response to it)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the Brazilian independence movement differed from the rest of the Latin American independence movements
     2.Knows issues that concerned New Granada after independence
     3.Understands the provisions of the Monroe Doctrine and Latin American response to it
 Standard 33.  Understands the causes and consequences of the agricultural and industrial revolutions from 1700 to 1850
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the effect of the industrial revolution on social and political conditions in various regions (e.g., connections between industrialization, labor unions, and movements for political and social reform in England, Western Europe, and the United States; the pace and extent of industrialization in Great Britain and the United States in the latter half of the 19th century; Robert Owen's New Lanark System and its role in dealing with societal problems caused by the industrial revolution; changes affected by the "Great Reform" bill of 1832, and how it addressed problems of the industrial revolution)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the effect of the industrial revolution on social conditions in various regions
     2.Understands the effect of the industrial revolution on political conditions in various regions
     3.Understands connections between industrialization, labor unions, and movements for political and social reform in England
     4.Understands connections between industrialization, labor unions, and movements for political and social reform in Western Europe
     5.Understands connections between industrialization, labor unions, and movements for political and social reform in the United States
     6.Knows the pace and extent of industrialization in Great Britain in the latter half of the 19th century
     7.Knows the pace and extent of industrialization in the United States in the latter half of the 19th century
     8.Understands Robert Owen’s New Lanark System and its role in dealing with societal problems caused by the industrial revolution
     9.Knows changes affected by the "Great Reform" bill of 1832, and how it addressed problems of the industrial revolution
   Benchmark 3.Understands the status of slavery and slaves throughout the 19th century (e.g., how contract labor migration and other forms of coerced labor compare with slavery as methods of organizing commercial agriculture in the Americas in the later 19th century; the degree to which emancipated slaves and their descendants achieved social equality and economic advancement in various countries of the Western Hemisphere; locations of legal slavery around the world in 1800, 1830, and 1880, and how changes in the legal status could be linked to revolution ideology and economics)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how contract labor migration and other forms of coerced labor compare with slavery as methods of organizing commercial agriculture in the Americas in the later 19th century
     2.Understands the degree to which emancipated slaves and their descendants achieved social equality and economic advancement in various countries of the Western Hemisphere
     3.Knows locations of legal slavery around the world in 1800, 1830, and 1880
     4.Understands how changes in the legal status of slaves could be linked to revolution ideology and economics
 Standard 34.  Understands how Eurasian societies were transformed in an era of global trade and the emergence of European power from 1750 to 1870
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands causes of political and social turmoil in China in the 18th and 19th centuries (e.g., causes of governmental breakdown, political conflict, and social disintegration in China in the late 18th and 19th centuries; the main events surrounding the Boxer Rebellion and the Opium War)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands causes of social turmoil in China in the 18th and 19th centuries
     2.Understands causes of political turmoil in China in the 18th and 19th centuries
     3.Knows causes of governmental breakdown in China in the late 18th and 19th centuries
     4.Knows causes of political conflict in China in the late 18th and 19th centuries
     5.Knows causes of social disintegration in China in the late 18th and 19th centuries
     6.Knows the main events surrounding the Boxer Rebellion and the Opium War
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands events that shaped the social structure of Russia in the 19th century (e.g., relations between the Russian peasantry and land-owning aristocracy, and the persistence of serfdom; the czarist reform movements of the 1820s and how they appealed to different social sectors; Czar Nicholas I's positions on the creation of a constitution, freedom of the press, the Decembrist uprising, the Polish rebellion, and the process of Russification)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands relations between the Russian peasantry and land owning aristocracy
     2.Understands the persistence of serfdom in Russia
     3.Understands the czarist reform movements of the 1820s and how they appealed to different social sectors
     4.Knows Czar Nicholas I’s positions on the creation of a constitution, freedom of the press, the Decembrist uprising, the Polish rebellion, and the process of Russification
   Benchmark 4.Understands causes and consequences of the Taiping Rebellion (e.g., how Christianity, rural class relations, and rural poverty contributed to the Taiping rebellion)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands causes of the Taiping Rebellion
     2.Understands consequences of the Taiping Rebellion
     3.Understands how Christianity contributed to the Taiping rebellion
     4.Understands how rural class relations contributed to the Taiping rebellion
     5.Understands how rural poverty contributed to the Taiping rebellion
 Standard 35.  Understands patterns of nationalism, state-building, and social reform in Europe and the Americas from 1830 to 1914
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the political and social changes in 19th-century Latin America (e.g., where democracy failed and succeeded in Latin American nations after independence was achieved, how geography possibly influenced nation-building in Latin America, the class system in Latin America and its racial core)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the political changes in 19th century Latin America
     2.Understands the social changes in 19th century Latin America
     3.Knows where democracy failed in Latin American nations after independence was achieved
     4.Knows where democracy succeeded in Latin American nations after independence was achieved
     5.Understands how geography possibly influenced nation building in Latin America
     6.Understands the class system in Latin America and its racial core
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the causes and results of the revolutions of 1848 (e.g., why these revolutions failed to achieve nationalist and democratic objectives; where revolutions occurred in 1848, how they were a chain reaction, and the goals and motivating spirit of each; the major accomplishments of prominent figures in the revolutionary era)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the causes of the revolutions of 1848
     2.Understands the results of the revolutions of 1848
     3.Knows why the revolutions of 1848 failed to achieve nationalist and democratic objectives
     4.Knows where the revolutions occurred in 1848
     5.Understands how the revolutions of 1848 were a chain reaction
     6.Knows the goals and motivating spirit of each of the revolutions of 1848
     7.Knows the major accomplishments of prominent figures in the revolutionary era
   Benchmark 2.Understands the role of nationalism in conflicts within different nations (e.g., how nationalism fostered tension and conflict in the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires, the importance of Greek nationalists' and Europeans' roles in the struggle for Greek independence from the Ottomans)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how nationalism fostered tension and conflict in the Austro Hungarian Empire
     2.Understands how nationalism fostered tension and conflict in the Ottoman Empire
     3.Understands the importance of Greek nationalists’ and Europeans’ roles in the struggle for Greek independence from the Ottomans
 Standard 36.  Understands patterns of global change in the era of Western military and economic dominance from 1800 to 1914
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 8.Knows the causes, course, and consequences of the Boxer Rebellion
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the causes of the Boxer Rebellion
     2.Knows the course of the Boxer Rebellion
     3.Knows the consequences of the Boxer Rebellion
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the extent of British rule in India, and British reaction to Indian nationalism (e.g., the economic and political impact of British rule on India in the 19th century; the social, economic, and intellectual sources of Indian nationalism; the British reaction to Indian nationalism; the causes of the Uprising of 1857)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the extent of British rule in India
     2.Understands the British reaction to Indian nationalism
     3.Understands the political impact of British rule on India in the 19th century
     4.Understands the economic impact of British rule on India in the 19th century
     5.Knows the social, economic, and intellectual sources of Indian nationalism
     6.Knows the causes of the Uprising of 1857
   Benchmark 6.Understands political and social elements of Chinese society in the late 19th and early 20th centuries (e.g., Chinese efforts to reform government and society after 1895, as well as related causes for revolution in 1911; how the Chinese reacted to the presence and activities of foreigners in their country in the late 1890s)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands political elements of Chinese society in the late 19th and early 20th centuries
     2.Understands social elements of Chinese society in the late 19th and early 20th centuries
     3.Understands Chinese efforts to reform government and society after 1895, as well as related causes for revolution in 1911
     4.Understands how the Chinese reacted to the presence and activities of foreigners in their country in the late 1890s
   Benchmark 10.Understands the accomplishments and goals of specific African resistance movements (e.g., Abd al-Qadir in Algeria, Samori Ture in West Africa, the Mahdist state in the Sudan, Memelik II in Ethiopia, the Zulus in South Africa)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the accomplishments of specific African resistance movements
     2.Understands the goals of specific African resistance movements
     3.Understands the goals and accomplishments of Abd al Qadir in Algeria
     4.Understands the goals and accomplishments of Samori Ture in West Africa
     5.Understands the goals and accomplishments of the Mahdist state in the Sudan
     6.Understands the goals and accomplishments of Memelik II in Ethiopia
     7.Understands the goals and accomplishments of the Zulus in South Africa
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 7.Understands African resistance movements against the British during the period of European imperial expansion (e.g., the successes and failures of prominent African resistance movements in West Africa, Sudan, Ethiopia, and South Africa; the nature of the Sudanese resistance to the British, as well as the general success of Mahdi Muhammad Ahmed and the Mahdi uprising against British imperialism)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the successes and failures of prominent African resistance movements in West Africa
     2.Knows the successes and failures of prominent African resistance movements in Sudan
     3.Knows the successes and failures of prominent African resistance movements in Ethiopia
     4.Knows the successes and failures of prominent African resistance movements in South Africa
     5.Understands the nature of the Sudanese resistance to the British, as well as the general success of Mahdi Muhammad Ahmed and the Mahdi uprising against British imperialism
   Benchmark 12.Knows the causes and impact of the Indian Uprising of 1857 (e.g., British imposed religious policies, the participants in the uprising, the varied reactions to the revolt on the part of Sikhs, Hindus, Muslims, and Indian royalty who had made alliances with the East India Company)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the causes of the Indian Uprising of 1857
     2.Knows the impact of the Indian Uprising of 1857
     3.Understands how British imposed religious policies led to the Indian Uprising of 1857
     4.Knows the participants in the Indian Uprising of 1857
     5.Knows the varied reactions to the Indian Uprising of 1857 on the part of Sikhs, Hindus, Muslims, and Indian royalty who had made alliances with the East India Company
   Benchmark 13.Understands significant political events in 20th-century China (e.g., reasons for initial Chinese imperial support for the Boxer Rebellion, the major achievements of Sun Yatsen, the role overseas Chinese played in the 1911 revolution)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows reasons for initial Chinese imperial support for the Boxer Rebellion
     2.Knows the major achievements of Sun Yatsen
     3.Knows the role overseas Chinese played in the 1911 revolution
 Standard 38.  Understands reform, revolution, and social change in the world economy of the early 20th century
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the consequences of the significant revolutions of the early 20th century (e.g., the prominent figures in the Mexican Revolution and its significance as the first 20th century movement in which peasants played a prominent role)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the prominent figures in the Mexican Revolution
     2.Understands the significance of the Mexican Revolution as the first 20th century movement in which peasants played a prominent role
   Benchmark 3.Understands why Dr. Sun Yatsen is considered an important figure in the history of modern China
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the major works of Dr. Sun Yatsen
     2.Knows why Dr. Sun Yatsen’s work has had a significant impact on modern China
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands events that led to revolutions in the early 20th century (e.g., causes, events, and consequences of the Russian "Bloody Sunday" in 1905, and the ensuing revolution; the promises of China's 1911 republican revolution and the New Culture movement and why they failed to address China's political, economic, and social problems; what the peasantry and middle class fought for and against in the Mexican Revolution)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands causes of the Russian "Bloody Sunday" in 1905
     2.Knows events of the Russian "Bloody Sunday" in 1905, and the ensuing revolution
     3.Understands the consequences of the Russian "Bloody Sunday" in 1905, and the ensuing revolution
     4.Knows the promises of China’s 1911 republican revolution and the New Culture movement
     5.Understands why the promises of China’s 1911 republican revolution and the New Culture movement failed to address China’s political, economic, and social problems
     6.Knows what the peasantry and middle class fought for and against in the Mexican Revolution
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the diverse events that led to and resulted from the Russian Revolution of 1905 (e.g., the Russo-Japanese War, "Bloody Sunday," the October Manifesto, groups agitating for political reform and those supporting radical changes)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the diverse events that led to the Russian Revolution of 1905
     2.Understands the diverse events that resulted from the Russian Revolution of 1905
     3.Knows events of the Russo-Japanese War and its relation to the Russian Revolution of 1905
     4.Understands "Bloody Sunday" and its relation to the Russian Revolution of 1905
     5.Understands the October Manifesto and its relation to the Russian Revolution of 1905
     6.Knows groups agitating for political reform and those supporting radical changes and their role in the Russian Revolution of 1905
   Benchmark 6.Understands the role of the peasantry in the Mexican Revolution (e.g., the aspects of nationalism expressed in the works of the Mexican Revolution by muralists Jos, Clemente Orozco, David Siquieros, and Diego Riviera, and how these murals fostered support for the Revolution among the peasantry; the impact of the Mexican Revolution on the peasantry)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the aspects of nationalism expressed in the works of the Mexican Revolution by muralists Jos, Clemente Orozco, David Siquieros, and Diego Riviera
     2.Understands how nationalistic murals by Jos, Clemente Orozco, David Siquieros, and Diego Riviera fostered support for the Revolution among the peasantry
     3.Understands the impact of the Mexican Revolution on the peasantry
   Benchmark 7.Understands events and ideas that led to China's revolutionary movements in the early 20th century (e.g., social and cultural conditions in China that led to the New Culture, or May Fourth movement; the four points of Sun Yatsen's Manifesto for the Revolutionary Alliance [Tong Meng Hui] and to whom these revolutionary goals appealed)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands events that led to China’s revolutionary movements in the early 20th century
     2.Understands ideas that led to China’s revolutionary movements in the early 20th century
     3.Knows social and cultural conditions in China that led to the New Culture, or May Fourth movement
     4.Knows the four points of Sun Yatsen’s Manifesto for the Revolutionary Alliance (Tong Meng Hui) and to whom these revolutionary goals appealed
 Standard 39.  Understands the causes and global consequences of World War I
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the roles of significant individuals, and the events that led to the Russian Revolution of 1917 (e.g., causes of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and how the revolutionary government progressed from moderate to radical; the historical importance of Russian leaders such as Tsar Nicholas II, Rasputin, and Lenin)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the roles of significant individuals who led the Russian Revolution of 1917
     2.Understands the events that led to the Russian Revolution of 1917
     3.Understands the causes of the Russian Revolution of 1917
     4.Understands how the revolutionary government progressed from moderate to radical
     5.Understands the historical importance of Russian leaders such as Tsar Nicholas II
     6.Understands the historical importance of Russian leaders such as Rasputin
     7.Understands the historical importance of Russian leaders such as Lenin
   Benchmark 4.Understands the rise of Joseph Stalin, and his impact on the Soviet Union (e.g., how Joseph Stalin came to and maintained power in the Soviet Union, and how his projects [collectivization, the first Five Year Plan] disrupted and transformed Soviet society in the 1920s and 1930s; what life was like for common people under Stalin's rule)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows about the rise of Joseph Stalin
     2.Understands the impact of Joseph Stalin on the Soviet Union
     3.Knows how Joseph Stalin came to power
     4.Understands how Joseph Stalin maintained power in the Soviet Union
     5.Understands how Joseph Stalin his project of collectivization disrupted Soviet society in the 1920s and 1930s
     6.Understands how Joseph Stalin his first Five Year Plan disrupted Soviet society in the 1920s and 1930s
     7.Understands what life was like for common people under Stalin’s rule
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the impact of the Russian Revolution on other countries (e.g., the challenge that revolutionary Russia posed to Western governments; the impact of the Bolshevik victory on world labor movements; how the Red Russians, White Russians, British, French, and Japanese viewed the Russian Revolution)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the challenge that revolutionary Russia posed to Western governments
     2.Understands the impact of the Bolshevik victory on world labor movements
     3.Understands how the Red Russians viewed the Russian Revolution
     4.Understands how the White Russians viewed the Russian Revolution
     5.Understands how the British viewed the Russian Revolution
     6.Understands how the French viewed the Russian Revolution
     7.Understands how the Japanese viewed the Russian Revolution
 Standard 40.  Understands the search for peace and stability throughout the world in the 1920s and 1930s
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands how the settlements of World War I influenced the Middle East, Africa, Asia, and Latin America (e.g., the mandate system created by the League of Nations and how it changed European rule in the Middle East and Africa, how World War I settlements contributed to the rise of both Pan-Arabism and nationalist struggles for the independence in the Middle East, how the readjustment of national borders in Africa after World War I affected people in East and West Africa)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the settlements of World War I influenced the Middle East
     2.Understands how the settlements of World War I influenced Africa
     3.Understands how the settlements of World War I influenced Asia
     4.Understands how the settlements of World War I influenced Latin America
     5.Understands the mandate system created by the League of Nations
     6.Understands how the mandate system changed European rule in the Middle East
     7.Understands how the mandate system changed European rule in Africa
     8.Understands how World War I settlements contributed to the rise of Pan-Arabism
     9.Understands how World War I settlements contributed to the rise of nationalist struggles for the independence in the Middle East
     10.Understands how the readjustment of national borders in Africa after World War I affected people in East Africa
     11.Understands how the readjustment of national borders in Africa after World War I affected people in West Africa
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands internal shifts in the political conditions of China and Japan in the 1920s and 1930s (e.g., the factors that influenced the struggle for dominance in China between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party, how militarism and fascism derailed parliamentary democracy in Japan)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands internal shifts in the political conditions of China in the 1920s and 1930s
     2.Understands internal shifts in the political conditions of Japan in the 1920s and 1930s
     3.Understands the factors that influenced the struggle for dominance in China between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party
     4.Understands how militarism derailed parliamentary democracy in Japan
     5.Understands how fascism derailed parliamentary democracy in Japan
   Benchmark 3.Understands the goals and policies of European colonial rule in India, Africa, and Southeast Asia, and how these policies affected indigenous societies and economies (e.g., the response to the Moroccan resistance movement against the Spanish led by Abd al Quadir)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the goals of European colonial rule in India
     2.Understands the goals of European colonial rule in Africa
     3.Understands the goals of European colonial rule in Southeast Asia
     4.Understands the policies of European colonial rule in India
     5.Understands the policies of European colonial rule in Africa
     6.Understands the policies of European colonial rule in Southeast Asia
     7.Understands how European policies of colonial rule affected indigenous societies
     8.Understands how European policies of colonial rule affected indigenous economies
     9.Understands the response to the Moroccan resistance movement against the Spanish led by Abd al Quadir
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands reasons for the shifts in the political conditions in nations around the world after World War I (e.g., how social and economic conditions of colonial rule, and ideals of liberal democracy and national autonomy contributed to the rise of nationalist movements in India, Africa, and Southeast Asia; the successes and failures of democratic government in Latin America in the context of class divisions, economic dependency, and U.S. intervention; how Japan's domestic democracy may have fallen victim to its imperialist foreign policy)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how social conditions of colonial rule contributed to the rise of nationalist movements in India
     2.Understands how economic conditions of colonial rule contributed to the rise of nationalist movements in India
     3.Understands how social conditions of colonial rule contributed to the rise of nationalist movements in Africa
     4.Understands how economic conditions of colonial rule contributed to the rise of nationalist movements in Africa
     5.Understands how social conditions of colonial rule contributed to the rise of nationalist movements in Southeast Asia
     6.Understands how economic conditions of colonial rule contributed to the rise of nationalist movements in Southeast Asia
     7.Understands how ideals of liberal democracy contributed to the rise of nationalist movements in India
     8.Understands how ideals of liberal democracy contributed to the rise of nationalist movements in Africa
     9.Understands how ideals of liberal democracy contributed to the rise of nationalist movements in Southeast Asia
     10.Understands how national autonomy contributed to the rise of nationalist movements in India
     11.Understands how national autonomy contributed to the rise of nationalist movements in Africa
     12.Understands how national autonomy contributed to the rise of nationalist movements in Southeast Asia
     13.Understands the successes of democratic governments in Latin America
     14.Understands the failures of democratic governments in Latin America
     15.Understands the effects of class divisions on democratic governments in Latin America
     16.Understands the effects of economic dependency on democratic governments in Latin America
     17.Understands the effects of U.S. intervention on democratic governments in Latin America
     18.Understands how Japan’s domestic democracy may have fallen victim to its imperialist foreign policy
   Benchmark 9.Understands elements of social and political change in China in the early 20th century (e.g., which populations supported the Kuomintang and the Chinese Communist Party, and how the Japanese invasion of China in the 1930s changed viewpoints regarding these two parties; how Mao Zedong adapted Marxism to Chinese needs and how he viewed the peasantry as a revolutionary force; the goals and outcomes of the three major revolutions in China in the first half of the century)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands elements of social change in China in the early 20th century
     2.Understands elements of political change in China in the early 20th century
     3.Understands which populations supported the Kuomintang
     4.Understands which populations supported the Chinese Communist Party
     5.Understands how the Japanese invasion of China in the 1930s changed viewpoints regarding the two parties
     6.Understands how Mao Zedong adapted Marxism to Chinese needs
     7.Understands how Mao Zedong viewed the peasantry as a revolutionary force
     8.Understands the goals of the three major revolutions in China in the first half of the century
     9.Knows the outcomes of the three major revolutions in China in the first half of the century
 Standard 42.  Understands major global trends from 1900 to the end of World War II
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands influences on the emergence of movements for national self-rule or sovereignty in Africa and Asia (e.g., world war, depression, nationalist ideology, labor organizations, communism, liberal democratic ideals)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands influences on the emergence of movements for national self rule or sovereignty in Africa
     2.Understands influences on the emergence of movements for national self rule or sovereignty in Asia
     3.Understands influence of world war on the emergence of movements for national self rule or sovereignty in Africa
     4.Understands influence of world war on the emergence of movements for national self rule or sovereignty in Asia
     5.Understands influence of economic depression on the emergence of movements for national self rule or sovereignty in Africa
     6.Understands influence of economic depression on the emergence of movements for national self rule or sovereignty in Asia
     7.Understands influence of nationalist ideologies on the emergence of movements for national self rule or sovereignty in Africa
     8.Understands influence of nationalist ideologies on the emergence of movements for national self rule or sovereignty in Asia
     9.Understands influence of labor organizations on the emergence of movements for national self rule or sovereignty in Africa
     10.Understands influence of labor organizations on the emergence of movements for national self rule or sovereignty in Asia
     11.Understands influence of communism on the emergence of movements for national self rule or sovereignty in Africa
     12.Understands influence of communism on the emergence of movements for national self rule or sovereignty in Asia
     13.Understands influence of liberal democratic ideas on the emergence of movements for national self rule or sovereignty in Africa
     14.Understands influence of liberal democratic ideas on the emergence of movements for national self rule or sovereignty in Asia
   Benchmark 4.Understands ways in which secular ideologies (e.g., nationalism, fascism, communism, materialism) challenged or were challenged by established religions and ethical systems
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands ways in which the secular ideology of nationalism challenged or was challenged by established religions and ethical systems
     2.Understands ways in which the secular ideology of fascism challenged or was challenged by established religions and ethical systems
     3.Understands ways in which the secular ideology of communism challenged or was challenged by established religions and ethical systems
     4.Understands ways in which the secular ideology of materialism challenged or was challenged by established religions and ethical systems
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how revolutionary movements in such countries as Mexico, Russia, and China either drew upon or rejected liberal, republican, and constitutional ideals of 18th and 19th century revolutions
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how revolutionary movements in Mexico either drew upon or rejected liberal, republican, and constitutional ideals of 18th and 19th century revolutions
     2.Understands how revolutionary movements in Russia either drew upon or rejected liberal, republican, and constitutional ideals of 18th and 19th century revolutions
     3.Understands how revolutionary movements in China either drew upon or rejected liberal, republican, and constitutional ideals of 18th and 19th century revolutions
 Standard 43.  Understands how post-World War II reconstruction occurred, new international power relations took shape, and colonial empires broke up
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the rise of the Communist Party in China between 1936 and 1949, the factors leading to Mao's programs (e.g., the Great Leap Forward, the Cultural Revolution) and their results (e.g., effects on economic development, human suffering)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the rise of the Communist Party in China between 1936 and 1949
     2.Knows the factors leading to Mao’s programs
     3.Knows factors leading to the Great Leap Forward
     4.Knows factors leading to the Cultural Revolution
     5.Understands the effects of Mao’s programs on economic development
     6.Understands the effects of Mao’s programs on human suffering
   Benchmark 4.Understands nationalist movements and other attempts by colonial countries to achieve independence after World War II (e.g., the impact of Indian nationalism on other movements in Africa and Asia, and reasons for the division of the subcontinent; how World War II and postwar global politics affected the mass nationalist movements in colonial Africa and Southeast Asia; factors that enabled some African and Asian countries to achieve independence through constitutional devolution of power, while others used armed revolution; the methods used by Indians to achieve independence from British rule and the effects of Mohandas Gandhi's call for nonviolent action)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the impact of Indian nationalism on other movements in Africa and Asia, and reasons for the division of the subcontinent
     2.Understands how World War II and postwar global politics affected the mass nationalist movements in colonial Africa
     3.Understands how World War II and postwar global politics affected the mass nationalist movements in colonial Southeast Asia
     4.Knows factors that enabled some African and Asian countries to achieve independence through constitutional devolution of power, while others used armed revolution
     5.Knows the methods used by Indians to achieve independence from British rule
     6.Knows the effects of Mohandas Gandhi’s call for nonviolent action
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the impact of independence movements in various countries and whether they were successful (e.g., the connections between the rise of independence movements in Africa and Southeast Asia and social transformations such as accelerated population growth, urbanization, and new Western-educated elites; the chronology of the Algerian struggle for independence, the role of domestic and international public opinion in the actions of the government, and how the French presence influenced the outcome; how diverse independence movements in Asia and Africa succeeded)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the impact of independence movements in various countries
     2.Understands whether independence movements in various countries were successful
     3.Understands the connections between the rise of independence movements in Africa and Southeast Asia and social transformations such as accelerated population growth, urbanization, and new Western educated elites
     4.Knows the chronology of the Algerian struggle for independence, the role of domestic and international public opinion in the actions of the government, and how the French presence influenced the outcome
     5.Understands how diverse independence movements in Asia succeeded
     6.Understands how diverse independence movements in Africa succeeded
   Benchmark 5.Understands reasons for the shift in government in Africa and how Africans responded (e.g., reasons for the replacement of parliamentary-style governments with military regimes and one-party states in much of Africa, how Africans survived and resisted apartheid)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands reasons for the shift in government in Africa
     2.Understands how Africans responded to the shift of government
     3.Knows reasons for the replacement of parliamentary style governments with military regimes and one party states in much of Africa
     4.Understands how Africans survived and resisted apartheid
 Standard 44.  Understands the search for community, stability, and peace in an interdependent world
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the definition of "fundamentalism," and the political objectives of militant religious movements in various countries of the world, as well as the social and economic factors that contribute to the growth of these movements
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the definition of "fundamentalism"
     2.Understands the political objectives of militant religious movements in various countries of the world
     3.Understands the social and economic factors that contribute to the growth of militant religious movements
   Benchmark 9.Understands the motivations, moral imperatives, and goals of specific separatist movements around the globe and the potential impact on the affected populations
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the motivations of specific separatist movements around the globe
     2.Understands the moral imperatives of specific separatist movements around the globe
     3.Understands the goals of specific separatist movements around the globe
     4.Understands the potential impact of various separatist movements on the affected populations
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the role of political ideology, religion, and ethnicity in shaping modern governments (e.g., the strengths of democratic institutions and civic culture in different countries and challenges to civil society in democratic states; how successful democratic reform movements have been in challenging authoritarian governments in Africa, Asia, and Latin America; the implications of ethnic, religious, and border conflicts on state-building in the newly independent republics of Africa; significant differences among nationalist movements in Eastern Europe that have developed in the 20th century, how resulting conflicts have been resolved, and the outcomes of these conflicts)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the role of political ideology in shaping modern governments
     2.Understands the role of religion in shaping modern governments
     3.Understands the role of ethnicity in shaping modern governments
     4.Understands the strengths of democratic institutions and civic culture in different countries and challenges to civil society in democratic states
     5.Understands how successful democratic reform movements have been in challenging authoritarian governments in Africa,
     6.Understands how successful democratic reform movements have been in challenging authoritarian governments in Asia
     7.Understands how successful democratic reform movements have been in challenging authoritarian governments in Latin America
     8.Understands the implications of ethnic, religious, and border conflicts on state building in the newly independent republics of Africa
     9.Knows significant differences among nationalist movements in Eastern Europe that have developed in the 20th century, how resulting conflicts have been resolved, and the outcomes of these conflicts
   Benchmark 6.Understands the role of ethnicity, cultural identity, and religious beliefs in shaping economic and political conflicts across the globe (e.g., why terrorist movements have proliferated and the extent of their impact on politics and society in various countries; the tensions and contradictions between globalizing trends of the world economy and assertions of traditional cultural identity and distinctiveness, including the challenges to the role of religion in contemporary society; the meaning of jihad and other Islamic beliefs that are relevant to military activity, how these compare to the Geneva Accords, and how such laws and principles apply to terrorist acts)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the role of ethnicity in shaping economic and political conflicts across the globe
     2.Understands the role of cultural identity in shaping economic and political conflicts across the globe
     3.Understands the role of religious beliefs in shaping economic and political conflicts across the globe
     4.Knows why terrorist movements have proliferated and the extent of their impact on politics and society in various countries
     5.Understands the tensions and contradictions between globalizing trends of the world economy and assertions of traditional cultural identity and distinctiveness
     6.Knows the challenges to the role of religion in contemporary society
     7.Understands the meaning of jihad and other Islamic beliefs that are relevant to military activity, how these compare to the Geneva Accords, and how such laws and principles apply to terrorist acts
   Benchmark 11.Understands common arguments of opposition groups in various countries around the world, common solutions they offer, and the position of these ideas with regard to Western economic and strategic interests
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands common arguments of opposition groups in various countries around the world
     2.Knows common solutions offered by opposition groups in various countries around the world
     3.Understands the position of the ideas of oppositions groups around the world with regard to Western economic and strategic interests
   Benchmark 15.Understands "liberation theology" and the ideological conflicts that have surrounded this philosophy
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands "liberation theology"
     2.Understands the ideological conflicts that have surrounded the philosophy of liberation theology
 Standard 46.  Understands long-term changes and recurring patterns in world history
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands political revolutionary movements of the past three centuries and their ideologies, organization, and successes or failures
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the events of various political revolutionary movements of the past three centuries
     2.Understands the ideologies of various political revolutionary movements of the past three centuries
     3.Understands the organization of political revolutionary movements of the past three centuries
     4.Knows the successes of various political revolutionary movements of the past three centuries

United States History

 Standard 21.  Understands the changing role of the United States in world affairs through World War I
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the significance of the Russian Revolution, its impact on the war and on the foreign policies of the U.S. and Allied powers
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the significance of the Russian Revolution
     2.Understands the impact of the Russian Revolution on the war
     3.Understands the impact of the Russian Revolution on the foreign policies of the U.S.
     4.Understands the impact of the Russian Revolution on the foreign policies of the Allied powers
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands U.S. foreign policy and involvement in foreign countries in the early 20th century (e.g., Wilson’s moral diplomacy and the Mexican Revolution, the commercial basis of foreign policy in East Asia, the Roosevelt Corollary and its connection to the Monroe Doctrine, the U.S. role in the Panama Revolution of 1903)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands the Mexican Revolution
     7.Understands the connection between the Roosevelt Corollary and the Monroe Doctrine
     8.Understands the U.S. role in the Panama Revolution of 1903